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3/11/2013

Introduction to Building
Automation Systems (BAS)

Ryan R. Hoger, LEED AP


708.670.6383
ryan.hoger@tecmungo.com

Building Automation Systems

z Centralized controls
z Change scheduling for multiple
HVAC units at same time
z Monitor “health” of equipment
z Internet accessible
z Alarming via text msg or email
z Collect/trend data
z Integrate to lighting control or
security system

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z DDC - Direct Digital Control of an HVAC


system

z A method of monitoring and controlling


HVAC system performance by collecting,
processing, and sending information
using sensors, actuators, and
microprocessors.

What is DDC?

z DDC is the concept or theory of HVAC


system control that uses digital controls

z Physically, DDC encompasses all the


devices used to implement this control
method: a whole group of DDC
controllers/microprocessors, actuators,
sensors, and other devices.

What is DDC?

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DDC - the Control


Theory
input-process-output
cycle

z A point is ANY input or


output device used to control
the overall or specific
performance of equipment or
output devices related to the
equipment.

What Is a Point?

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AI z Analog input - a sensor that monitors physical


data, such as temperature, flow, or pressure.
DI z Discrete input - a sensor that monitors status.
Momentary and maintained switches, ON-OFF
equipment status, and digital pulses from flow
and electric power meters are discrete inputs.
AOz Analog output - a physical action of a proportional
device in the controlled equipment - e.g., actuator
opens air damper from 20% to 40%, other dampers,
valves, inlet guide vanes, etc.
DOz Discrete output - changes or maintains device
status. Performs momentary or maintained
switching for start/stop of pumps, fans,
two-position dampers, and on/off control.
Four Kinds of Points

Input sensors and status Output devices act based


devices react to changes in on sensor and status
conditions. Conditions device reactions.
include internal load, outside air
temperature, and output actions.

Open cooling coil valve (output action). Supply air temperature sensor
Ex. 1:
SAT detects (input reaction) decrease in temperature.

Filters on an air handler get dirty (conditions). Air switch reacts by


Ex. 2:
closing contact for “filter dirty” alarm.
DDC: Actions and Reactions

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Control Point
Identification Exercise

AI DI
z Temperature z Switch dry contact
– Thermistors (open or closed)
– Resistance Temp. Detectors – Airflow
(RTDs) – Water
– Transmitters – Differential pressure
z Pressure z High/low limit switch
z Humidity (alarm or normal)
z Flow (CFM, GPM) – Freeze alarm
– Smoke detectors
z Voltage
z Wattmeter pulses
z Current
(pulse initiator or
z CO2 counter)

Sensor and Status Devices


used as Input Points
(Reactions)

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AO z Damper actuators DO z Solenoid valves


z Modulating valves z Relays /
z VFD contactors
z Alarm signal

Devices used as Output Points


(Actions)

Closed Loop Control is accomplished by the control


signal being sent to the controlled device with
constant feedback from the sensor/status device
providing input to the controller. DDC: Closed Loop Control

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Closed loop control is determined by:


z Control algorithms
z Configuration values
z Time schedule data
z Setpoint schedule data

Closed Loop
Control

• Heating/cooling coil control


• Humidification/dehumidification
• Mixed air damper optimization
• VAV fan control
• VAV supply & return fan tracking
• Indoor air quality
• Generic PID control
• Control point reset

Typical Control
Algorithms

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• Time of day scheduling


• Discrete device controlled as analog
• Discrete interlock
• Discrete staging
• Proportional thermostat
• Primary/secondary pump control
• Night free cooling
• Adaptable start/stop
• Permissive interlock

Typical Control
Algorithms (cont’d)

P Proportional

PI Proportional-Integral

PID Proportional-Integral-Derivative

Algorithm Type Used by


Processor Determines
Control Strategy

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PID =
Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control

z What it is: This type of control algorithm is based on


value/amount (proportion), rate of change (integral),
and error allowances (derivative). PID control
calculates and sends commands for outputs based
on all three types of information.
z Advantages: More precise than P and PI controls,
PID wastes less energy based on more frequent
feedback and quicker responses.

What Is PID Control?

z What it is: Control algorithm based only on


value/amount (proportion).

z Disadvantages: Less precise than PID and PI control;


cannot respond to error margins or time. Uses the most
energy due to over- and under- outputs.

Proportional Control (P)

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z What it is: Control algorithm based on value/amount


(proportion), rate of change (integral). PID uses error
allowances (derivative) as well.
z Advantages: More precise control and less energy
used than proportional (P); minimum swings from
setpoints.
Proportional-Integral Control (PI) &
(PID)

Exercise 1:
Building Direct Digital Control on
a CV Air Handler

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Exercise 1: Base CV
Air Handler Unit -No
Controls

Exercise 1: AHU - DDC


Control of
Start / Stop
Scheduling

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Exercise 1: AHU - Add


DDC
Damper

Exercise 1: AHU - Add DDC


Cooling Coil

Control

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Exercise 1: AHU - Add DDC Outside Air reset


and Enthalpy Control

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Control Point Summary


for Base CV AHU

Exercise 2:
Building Direct Digital Control on
a VAV Air Handler

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History
z VAV systems came into favor for mid and large size
facilities in the 1960s and 1970s
– Save energy
– Improve comfort
– Take advantage of building diversity
– Cooling needed year round for true interior core zones
z Sequence
– Main AHU provides morning warm-up heat until RAT
setpoint is satisfied – all zones at 100% design airflow
– AHU switches to 55°F discharge air controlled cooling –
zones modulate CFM to controls space temp
– No AHU heat remainder of day – individual zone reheat or
baseboard as needed

Zoning Systems

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Single Zone Systems


Heating/Cooling Heating/Cooling Heating/Cooling Heating/Cooling
Unit Unit Unit Unit
ROOF

TMT TM TMZC TM

ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3 ZONE 4

Multiple Zone Systems

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To Build DDC on a VAV AHU,


Start with DDC on a CV AHU...

Exercise 2: Create a VAV


AHU with Inlet Guide

* If using VFD, use two Variable Frequency Drives instead, but


you will still need the same control points and HPS shown.

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• Filter Status (FLTS)


• FreezeStat (FRZ)
• Smoke Detector (SMK)

Typical DDC Items You Can Add


as Optional Items:

Exercise 2: VAV AHU with DDC Filter Status

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Exercise 2: VAV AHU with DDC


FreezeStat

Exercise 2: VAV AHU with DDC Smoke


Detector

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Control
Point
Summary
for Base
VAV AHU

DDC Controllers
Application
Programmable Specific
controllers controllers

Factory integrated
controllers

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Types of Direct Digital Control Networks

z Interface - devices and software that work as


a translator between a DDC system and the
humans who operate it.

z An interface is the operator’s window into a


building’s operating systems and conditions.

Interfaces to DDC

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User interfaces:
• Allow more efficient system operation monitoring.
You can look at what’s happening on all floors from
the tenth floor if DDC network is peer-to-peer.

• Allow immediate diagnosis of HVAC units and


controls, including changes, without physically being
in front of the unit.

• Can provide reports (e.g., historical, consumable,


run times, system activity) to be used as records of
building operations.

• Can provide graphical representations of the


controlled system.
User Interface Benefits

User Interface Types

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Interface
Examples

Hand-held Connected to a DDC Controller

PC Connected to a DDC Network


Interface
Examples

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Web Server Connected to DDC Network Interface


Examples

Web Interfaces

z Standard web
browser or WAP
access
z View system status
z Access schedules
and setpoints
z Trending, alarming,
reporting
z Real time interactive
graphics

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FLOOR PLAN GRAPHICS

EQUIPMENT GRAPHICS

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EQUIPMENT GRAPHICS

FLEXIBLE SCHEDULING

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TRENDING

Internet Thermostats

z Low cost alternative to


BAS
z Direct to Ethernet
z No PC software – uses
standard web browser
z No access fees
z Text/email alerts

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Internet Thermostats

Internet Thermostats

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Phone Apps for Thermostats

Integration

z Information Transfer
– Add new HVAC equipment to an existing Building
Management System
z Common User Interface
z Building Integration
– Lighting, HVAC, Security, Fire & Life Safety
– Enterprise Integration-Utilities, Financial

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Building Management Systems

Security
Lighting
HVAC Power
Metering

Common Protocols

PT
MODBUS®
PT

PT

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Integration

Interoperability is the ability of different devices from the


same or different manufacturers to function accurately
together.

Standard protocol - a set of guidelines for commands,


inputs, and output encoding to create a universal language
for all DDC devices. When the same standard protocol is
used in DDC devices, interoperability is possible.

Gateways - devices added to DDC networks to make


standard protocols available and interoperability possible.
Interoperability

BACnet

Standard protocol requirements for Building Automation


and Control networking, created by ASHRAE to ensure
interoperability. BACnet uses software and a LAN
interface to DDC to provide:

• Representation of all manufacturer devices’ internal


functioning in a common, network-visible way.
• A common command set for device services.
• Common encoding of commands, understandable by
all devices and interfaces adhering to the protocol.

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Enterprise

Energy Lighting CFO


Security Systems
XML SQL
MODBUS
HTTP HTML
Facility
ODBC SNMP Management
Open System
JDBC FTP
LEGACY Framework
Fire Systems

SMTP

WAP Maintenance
Maintenance

HVAC Systems
And More

Typical Questions

z Q: What part of the control system is done by the HVAC designer?


What is done by the installing contractor? Do most HVAC engineers
actually do control system work or is that done by specialty
contractors?
z A: Depends on the project
– A good designer lays out the control system as an integral part of the
mechanical system, including:
z Sequence of operation
z Front-end/user interface details
– The details of hardware, software, and cabling should be left to the
contractor since every manufacturer’s system is different
– Unfortunately, most designers rely on manufacturers to write project
specs, or worse, contractors to design in the field as they install

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Typical Questions

z Q: How does one select the type, number, and position of


sensors? (i.e. measure temp in a room or in the supply
duct? Where in the room or duct do the sensors go?
How many go in each room?)
z A: Depends on the project
– Best to measure what you want to control – usually space temp
z Mount between 4 and 5 ft high, out of direct sunlight, and in the
return air path
z One sensor per controllable piece of equipment is best – usually one
per room
– Many exceptions for specialty systems and/or install cost
compromises

Typical Questions

z Q: How does one go about determining the coefficients of


a P, PI, or PID controller and tune the system once it has
been installed?
z A: Practice and Patience
– Zero out the derivative term – HVAC equipment and building
systems react too slowly for it to matter
– Tune the proportional term first, then worry about integral term
– Make small changes and monitor
– Use a dynamic graph

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Typical Questions

z Q: Where can one go to get more information and


training?
z A:
– Iowa Energy Center / Iowa State University
z www.ddc-online.org
– ASHRAE Learning Institute
z http://www.ashrae.org/education/page/1809
– Continental Automated Buildings Association - www.caba.org
– www.automatedbuildings.com
– BACnet - www.bacnet.org

Case Study – Conrad Hotel

z 352 HVAC units


– 311 guestrooms
z Added DDC controls
z Occupancy sensors
– Entrance door & motion

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Energy Savings Estimation Tools

Utility Rebates for Controls

• Programmable Thermostat
• Nicor Gas or NIPSCO Gas – $50
• Peoples Gas or North Shore Gas – $80
• Wisconsin Focus on Energy – $100 per RTU
• Economizer Controls
• ComEd – $40 per ton
• Wisconsin Focus on Energy – $250 per RTU
• CO2-based DCV
• ComEd – $0.03 per ft2
• DCEO – $0.28 to 0.40 per ft2
• Peoples Gas or North Shore Gas – double custom
• NIPSCO Gas – $0.15 per ft2
• Wisconsin Focus on Energy – $0.05/CFM supply
• Wisconsin Focus on Energy – $350 per RTU

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Utility Rebates for Controls

• Boiler Reset Control


• Nicor Gas – $0.50 per MBH
• Peoples Gas or North Shore Gas – $500
• NIPSCO Gas – $0.35 per MBH
• Wisconsin Focus on Energy – $75/controller
• DDC Controls
• ComEd – $0.20 per ft2
• DCEO – $0.20 to 0.40 per ft2
• Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)
• ComEd – $60 per Hp
• DCEO – $92 per Hp
• NIPSCO Electric - $40 per Hp
• Wisconsin Focus on Energy – $50 per Hp

Utility Rebates for Controls

• Hotel Guest Room Energy Mgmt System


• ComEd – $25 to 65 per unit
• Kitchen Exhaust Demand Control Ventilation
• ComEd – $350 per Hp
• Custom Incentives (based on annual
savings)
• ComEd – $0.06 to 0.07 per kWh
• Nicor Gas – $0.75 to 1.00 per therm
• Peoples Gas or North Shore Gas – $1.00 per therm
• DCEO – $0.12/kWh and $3.00/therm
• NIPSCO – $0.09/kWh and $0.60/therm

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Thanks for Coming!


and Special Thanks to those who allowed me to use their graphics…

Ryan R. Hoger, LEED AP


708.670.6383
ryan.hoger@tecmungo.com

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