Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

8/1/2018----Indian National Movement Factories Acts, Industrial Disputes, Famine and Co Operative Society- Translation in Hindi, Kannada,

Malayalam, Marathi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Sindhi, Tamil, Telgu - Examrace----Downloaded from examrace.com

Visit examrace.com for free study material, doorsteptutor.com for questions with detailed explanations, and "Examrace" YouTube channel for free
videos lectures
Examrace Login &
▶ Examrace 289K Manage

Indian National Movement-Factories Acts, Industrial Disputes,


Famine and Co-operative Society
Factories Acts
The Factory Act -1881 (1st Act)
Children between age of 7-12, were to work for 9 hours/ day. Employment of

Children below 7 years was prohibited

Mid-day meal interval, 4 holidays/ month and fencing of machinery in the factory also
provided.

This act applicable only to factories using mechanical powers, employing not less than 100
works and working for not more than 4 months in a year limitations:

In 1890, Indian factory commission appointed and on its report the next factory act of 1891,
was passed.

Factory Act-1891 (2nd Act)


Minimum age raised from 7 to 9 and between 9 and 14 die work limit was only for

8 hours with no work at night.

To women employment at night prohibited and work for 11 hours and 11/2 hrs. of rest
allowed.

For all workers including male a mid day stoppage and one days rest/ week was prescribed

The act applied to all factories employing not less than 50 persons

In 1906, textile factory and labour committee was appointed and on its report the factory act
of 1911 was enacted.

Factory Act-1911 (3rd Act)


Certification of children's age was required and for the first time hours of work for adult male
workers was fixed at 12 hours/day.

Factory Act 1922 (4th Act)


It abolished the distinction between textile and non-textile factories

1 of 4
8/1/2018----Indian National Movement Factories Acts, Industrial Disputes, Famine and Co Operative Society- Translation in Hindi, Kannada,
Malayalam, Marathi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Sindhi, Tamil, Telgu - Examrace----Downloaded from examrace.com

Visit examrace.com for free study material, doorsteptutor.com for questions with detailed explanations, and "Examrace" YouTube channel for free
videos lectures
All workshops employing more than 20 workers with power were brought under the scope of
this act.

The minimum age for children was raised to 12 and the working hours of children between
ages 12-15 had to work for elders 12 hours/day and 60 hrs/work.

In 1929, Royal commission on Indian labour was appointed and submitted in report in 1931
and on the basis of its recommendations factory act of 1934.

Factory Act of 1934


Distinction drawn between Perennial and seasonal factories,

Factory workers divided into 4 categories Adult Males, Adult females, Adolescence (15-17)
and children (12-15)

In the case of seasonal factories the maximum limit of 11 hours/day and 60 hours/ week was
laid down. In the case of perennial factory maximum hours 9/day and 54 hours/week.

Maximum hours of the principle of spread over (limitations of the period of consecutive
hours in a working day) introduced by the act for the first time.

The spread hour limited to 13 hours for adults and 71/2 hours for children and adolescence

In 1946, the hours of work in Perennial factories reduced from 54 to 48 and in season
factories 60 to 54.

The factory act of 1915, further reduced to 48 hours/ week and eliminated the distinction
between seasonal and perennial factories.

Industrial Disputes
Trade Union Act -1926
It laid down certain conditions regarding registration of trade unions.

The main condition was that at least 50% of office bearers had to be workers.

The funds of the trade union to be collected only by the recognized unions.

Madras High Court declared trade unions as legal.

Activities not be related to politics and funds not to be

diverted political activities.

Every trade union was required to submit to the register every years to list of office bearers,
copy of the rules and an audited statements of receipts and expenditure.

Trade Dispute Act 1929


The Act was passed after 1929's Bengal Jute Mills strike.

2 of 4
8/1/2018----Indian National Movement Factories Acts, Industrial Disputes, Famine and Co Operative Society- Translation in Hindi, Kannada,
Malayalam, Marathi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Sindhi, Tamil, Telgu - Examrace----Downloaded from examrace.com

Visit examrace.com for free study material, doorsteptutor.com for questions with detailed explanations, and "Examrace" YouTube channel for free
videos lectures
It prescribed penalties for public utility servant launching a strike without giving a notice of
14 days.

The act declared 2 types of strikes illegal:

1. sympathetic strikes;

2. coercive strikes - those that cause severe hard ships to the public for compelling
government to accept the demands of the strikers.

The act was involved only 5 times during those years more than 1200 industrial disputes
occurred.

Bombay Trade Disputes Conciliation Act - 1934


It Mainly applied to cotton textile mills in Bombay city and suburbs.

The Act provided not for enquiry or abstention or adjudication but for conciliation only

V These acts practically removed industrial strikes and disputes from the city of Bombay.

Bombay Industrial Disputes Act -1938


In also was related to cotton textile mills.

It made elaborate provisions for re-presentation of workers at there proceedings (both


conciliation and arbitration).

Those strikes and lockouts were illegal which were declared without notice or was taken
before the end of conciliation period or two months period

Bombay Industrial Relations Act -1947 :


It aimed at the settlement of the industrial disputes more efficiently and quickly and
encourage the workers to organise them self.

Under this act. The approved trade unions have been given substantial advantages in return
for certain obligations.

For the first time provision was made to establish Labour Courts.

Famine
In 1857, the provincial Government took the initiatives to formulate a famine policy. The
Government of India appointed Co. Beard Smith to enquire into the causes of the famines
and make recommendations relief.

In 1866-67, the Government of India constituted another committee under the chairman of
George Campbell.

3 of 4
8/1/2018----Indian National Movement Factories Acts, Industrial Disputes, Famine and Co Operative Society- Translation in Hindi, Kannada,
Malayalam, Marathi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Sindhi, Tamil, Telgu - Examrace----Downloaded from examrace.com

Visit examrace.com for free study material, doorsteptutor.com for questions with detailed explanations, and "Examrace" YouTube channel for free
videos lectures
In 1877-78 North Indian had to face famine conditions and in 1878, the C. Government of
India set up a 1st famine commission under the chairmanship of Sir Strachey the report was
published in 1880 and it suggested preventive and protective measure for famine relief with
the following recommendations: i) Taquavi loans to be given to the affected land owners for
cultivation; ii) Private trade in food grains was to be free; iii) Suspension and remission of
land revenue were to be given on fairly liberal terms in keeping with the intensity of the
famine officiating the area.

In 1896, the 2nd Famine Commission constituted under Sir J. B. Lyell’s Chairman Ship. It
submitted its report in 1898 with recommending the following:

1. freer grant of gratuitous relief in Village;

2. More liberal remission of land revenue;

3. Special attention to the weaker section like weavers and tribals.

4. In 1901, 3rd famine Commission was appointed under Sir Anthony Mac Donald.

it gave the recommendation regarding introduction of cooperative societies and tried to


encourage the principle of self help and extension of state irrigation and the policy of prudent
boldness constant vigilance preparation of sufficiently large plans for relief and enlistment of
nonofficial support.

In 1944, Wood-head commission was appointed to enquire the causes of Bengal famine of
1943.

It pointed out that the local shortage of food grains because of export was responsible for this
famine the commission recommended monopoly procurement of food grains by the state and
distribution of food grains through fair-price shops.

In 1919, famine became a provincial subject.

Co-Operative Society
F. Nicholson appointed by Madras Government to conduct a special enquiry for the
establishment of co-operative credit societies.

In U.P., Dupernex was appointed to enquire the problems of rural credit.

In 1904, Lord Curzon appointed a committee under Edward Law on whose recommendations
Co-operative Credit Societies Act was passed and the co-operative movement in India
began.

Under the Act of 1904, at least 10 members could start for a group of villages or village or for
a caste a co-operative credit society.

4 of 4

Похожие интересы