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Proceedings of the ASME 2016 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference

July 17-21, 2016, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada



 
Fluor Enterprises, Inc. Fluor Enterprises, Inc.
Houston, Texas Houston, Texas

 
Fluor Enterprises, Inc. Fluor Enterprises, Inc.
Houston, Texas Farnborough, United Kingdom

ABSTRACT The purpose of baseline NDE in critical vessels is to identify

and map existing flaws at the end of fabrication phase so the
ASME B&PV Code, Section VIII “Rules for Construction flaws can be monitored for their growth and subsequently be
of Pressure Vessels” do not have requirements for baseline further considered and evaluated with respect to the initial
examination by vessel manufacturers. However many Owners baseline inspection.
require baseline data to establish as-built conditions of pressure
vessels. Capturing baseline data at the manufacturing stage in a It is worthwhile to understand the distinction between a
manner suitable for the Owner’s operations can preclude the defect and a flaw. A defect is a flaw not meeting specified
need for post installation or preservice examination. Baseline acceptance criteria, and is always repaired before carrying out
NDE data can be easily referenced and compared to inservice hydrotest and subsequently placing the vessel into service. A
inspection results to determine if any specific damage flaw is an unintentional defect that meets the established
mechanisms manifest during operation and subsequently acceptance criteria, and may or may not be repaired depending
develop into damages to the vessel. Baseline NDE data can also on the requirement of the Owner.
provide guidance on inspection scheduling and damage
monitoring. Therefore baseline examination in manufacturing The ASME B&PV Code, Section III, Div1 has prescribed
phase is important to post-construction inspection and Preservice Inspection for many years. NB-5282 “Examination
evaluation activities. Requirements” of Subsection NB of the Code [1] requires that
“Components shall be examined as specified in Section XI,
This paper discusses baseline NDE considerations based Table IWB-2500 [2]. The method of examination of
on pressure vessel service conditions and damage mechanisms. components and parts of the pressure retaining boundaries shall
It presents a systematic approach to acquire baseline NDE data comply with those tabulated in Table IWB-2500. Only the
in Manufacturers’ shops, including Owner’s role, volumetric and surface examinations are required to be
Manufacturer’s responsibilities and design considerations to performed”. Additionally, NB-5332 “Preservice Examination of
allow NDE access to all welds. Topics include examination the Code [1] states “Components whose volumetric
location reference systems and baseline NDE methods, examination reveals flaws that meet the acceptance standards of
techniques, and tools that facilitate comparison to inservice Section XI, Article IWB-3000 [2] shall be acceptable. The
examination. This paper also provides an example on flaws will be dimensioned and recorded in accordance with
implementing baseline NDE of a typical pressure vessel. Section V, Article 4 and this Subsection”; “Components whose
volumetric examination reveals flaws that exceed the standards
INTRODUCTION of Section XI, Article IWB-3000 are not acceptable for service
and shall be repaired”.
Baseline NDE, sometimes referred to as Preservice
Inspection (PSI), is non destructive examination of a pressure This paper proposes consideration for carrying out similar
vessel that is performed before the vessel is placed in service.

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baseline NDE for critical pressure vessels designed in mechanisms are anticipated, an examination to ASTM A578-S1
accordance with ASME B&PV Code, Section VIII, Divisions 1 would be appropriate.
and 2, and as nominated by the Owner or the Owner’s engineer.
The concept of baseline NDE for critical vessels is
considered by the authors to be useful and applicable for A variety of NDE methods are available to the pressure
vessels that experience inservice degradation during operation. vessel equipment owner. Each method will have advantages
It is important to investigate degradation mechanisms that exist and limitations that the owner should consider when
during operation so that appropriate NDE methods can be establishing baseline NDE provisions in the equipment order.
utilized to identify new flaws and also monitor existing flaw The methods discussed in the following sections include
growth during operation. Ultrasonic, Radiography, Liquid Penetrant, and Magnetic
Particle examination.


OVERVIEW Ultrasonic examination is based on transmission and

receiving of ultra-high frequency sound waves through
The requirements for an Owner’s inservice pressure vessel materials. For most baseline NDE applications, contact
inspection programs are guided by the provisions of API 510 methods would be chosen which include straight beam or
[3]. The owner’s inspection plans must be directed at the longitudinal wave propagation modes, angle beam which
damage mechanisms to which the equipment is subjected. includes shear and refracted L-wave, and diffracted wave
techniques which include Time-of Flight Diffraction (TOFD).
The method of NDE chosen must be based on the
following considerations: Straight beam techniques involve a transducer placed in
contact with the surface at a 0 degree angle to the surface. This
i) Type of damage anticipated technique relies on receiving a reflected wave from the opposite
ii) Characteristics of the anticipated damage mechanism surface or a perpendicularly oriented lamellar-type
such as: discontinuity within the section thickness. The time for the
(1) General corrosion or erosion wave to travel from the reflective surface and back to the
(2) Internal or external wall surface cracking transducer (time-of-flight) is directly proportional to the
(3) Subsurface cracking orientation –lamellar or thickness of the material or depth of the discontinuity. Straight
through wall propagation beam methods require access to only one side of the material
(4) Access to surfaces when the equipment is in and are a common method for monitoring general material loss
operational configuration or planar flaws such as HIC oriented parallel to the surface. A
iii) Probability of the NDE method to detect and identify baseline exam for either purpose is recommended when such
the damages damage mechanisms are anticipated.
iv) Ability of the method to accurately quantify the
damage Lamellar flaws may be sized by measuring the probe
v) Reproducibility of the examination displacement with respect to the loss or initiation of signal at
the flaw extremities. When the exam is conducted with
When establishing the requirements for baseline NDE automated equipment, reproducible, accurate data can be
methods, the Owner should also consider reconciling the acquired that is easily compared with in-service results. Many
methods with the examination requirements of the construction of the latest models of UT equipment are available with data
Code so that the mutual needs can be satisfied. Supplementary logging, and can produce archival quality records for statistical
NDE requirements included into the construction specifications analysis and future reference. Straight beam examinations may
can be used to benefit baseline and inservice examination by also be employed using encoded phased array probes which
establishing requirements that result in the reduction of inherent offer excellent ways to map corrosion and present it in an easily
benign flaws that may interfere with inservice examination. For recognizable C-Scan format. Differences in time-of-flight are
example, vessel plate material specifications may include displayed according to a calibrated color palette. Encoded
supplementary ultrasonic examination in accordance with phased array units employed for straight beam examination are
ASTM A577 or A578. Inservice examinations directed at normally configured for raster sequencing the elements to cover
anticipated damage mechanisms that result in surface or a width of material comparable to the probe size and the entire
through wall cracking may be better served by including the probe is moved in raster fashion in both axes by the scanner
supplementary requirement for UT examination by A577 in the device.
material specification. Alternatively, if lamellar type damage
Angle beam UT examination may be applied to welds and

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base material immediately adjacent to welds in pressure vessels welds are involved in the scanning area they will usually have
during construction under certain conditions. This mode of to be ground flush in order to provide complete scanning access
wave propagation can be applied using single element search to refracted L-wave probes.
units (probes) or phased array probes. Scanning of base
materials is usually applied to detect surface or internal Time-of-Flight Diffraction systems consist of a pair of
cracking. The technique requires that the flaw be oriented in angle beam probes mounted in opposition on a scanner device.
such a manner that the reflected sound will be directed back at This technique is very sensitive to the diffracted sound waves
the transducer. To reduce the chances that a flaw may not be radiating from crack tips within the section thickness of the
optimally oriented, multiple angles are often used. System material. For this reason it is particularly suitable to locating
sensitivity is established on a known flaw standard, and flaw and height sizing crack-like flaws. The technique is relatively
data recorded is in relation to the signal amplitude acquired insensitive to flaw orientation. TOFD is generally not able to
from the known flaw. Single element probes may be mounted produce consistent, reliable detection in zones near the exam
in pairs or multiple probe configurations on scanner devices, surface in what is called the lateral wave zone and near the ID
and the data is encoded. The presentation is typically A-scan surface where a back wall reflection interferes with the
which is not as intuitive as other presentation forms for flaw interpretation. For this reason, TOFD is often paired with
sizing. Manually scanning with handheld probes, although encoded phased array probes on a scanner device. Diffracted
inexpensive and common, has several key deficiencies signals are comparatively weak and easily attenuated by grain
noise. This causes TOFD to be difficult to use on anything other
i. The data is recorded by hand and difficult to than fine grained carbon and low alloy steels.
accurately reproduce later
ii. Flaw sizing is difficult, subjective, and is often Encoded TOFD/PAUT techniques can provide consistent,
reproducible results that can permit comparison of flaw sizes or
the identification of new flaws during in-service examination
iii. Fully dependent on operator capability, requires a [4]. These techniques work better when the part configuration
proficient operator is uniform and there is adequate clearance to mount the scanner.
Nozzles can be examined but require specialized equipment
Phased array transducers are usually comprised of multiple and software. If nozzle areas are included in the inspection plan
piezoelectric transducer elements usually arranged in a 1-D the nozzle design should be one that is suitable for volumetric
linear array. The elements are fired in varying sequences to examination.
steer the beam across a range of angles typically from 35
degrees to 75 degrees in shear mode. This reduces one of the
issues with single element scanning in that it greatly improves RADIOGRAPHY
the likelihood of engaging a flaw at its optimum reflective
angle. PAUT probes are most commonly mounted to scanner Radiography consists of a radiation source such as gamma
devices in pairs or multiple probe configurations and encoded. radiation from radioactive isotopes Se75, Ir192 and Co60 or X-
Data is acquired through an acquisition and analysis software ray radiation and an imaging system including film, phosphor
tool usually provided with the equipment. Data is displayed in imaging plates and a scanner used in Computed Radiography
several perspectives but the sectorial or S-scan is most Systems or a Flat Panel Detector (i.e. TFT Array) used in Direct
applicable to linear type flaws such as cracks because it Radiography (aka Digital Radiography). Differences in the
provides information on flaw height or through wall dimension amount of radiation reaching the detector (i.e. film, image plate
which must be known for certain fitness-for-service or TFT Array) are represented in varying image density. Voids
calculations. This sectorial scan consists of a section view of large enough to register a density change can be identified
the material through each of the angles developed by the crystal within the image. This means that there must be a significant
activation sequence. difference in the amount of material the radiation must pass
through in order to develop an image. A thin planar flaw
Data from phased array angle beam units can also be oriented perpendicular to the beam of radiation such as lamellar
displayed in a plan view perspective called C-scan. In this case tearing would normally not be detected. A crack with an
flaw signal reflection strength (amplitude) rather than wall orientation parallel to the beam would be more easily detected.
thickness is displayed according to the calibrated color palette. The less a crack-like flaw becomes oriented along the beam
Encoded phased array systems offer excellent accuracy and path, the less it is evident in the image.
reproducibility for sizing flaws. Phased array systems can be
used for flaw sizing in many large grained materials such as All radiographic systems are limited by the fact that only
Duplex and Austenitic Stainless Steel and Inconel. Refracted 2-D data can be acquired. This means that the depth and height
longitudinal wave probes provide the penetrating power needed of flaws cannot be measured. However, information about
to achieve an adequate signal-to-noise ratio for these materials. material section thickness can be obtained by comparison of
Due to the limited ability to skip a refracted L-wave, when image density. Although the accuracy of this information

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cannot match ultrasonic examination systems, it can provide a indications developing from service conditions, the conclusion
fast and comparable means of detecting damage that manifests must be drawn that there are not any damage mechanisms that
as general or local material loss. Radiography has been used manifest themselves as small, rounded surface indications in
extensively in condition monitoring programs to detect the weld. Also since linear indications of any consequence have
corrosion. Although not as precise as UT it can provide a quick been removed during fabrication, any crack-like flaws
and inexpensive means to confirm or eliminate the possibility discovered during in service examination must have occurred
of material loss. Areas where this loss has been detected can during operation. It is highly unlikely and rare for vessel plate
then be examined more precisely with UT to determine fitness- or nozzle materials to have linear flaws open to the surface and
for-service. Digital radiography is commonly applied to piping when that does occur they are usually discovered and
and pipeline systems to detect corrosion under insulation. eliminated during assembly. Also, if they did manage to make it
Considerable sections of pipe can be examined in real time to through manufacturing and assembly checks they should be
locate potential corrosion areas for further study. Storage tanks relatively easy to differentiate from service induced flaws.
are also a candidate for this approach.
Furthermore, if flaws were uncovered during a baseline
Radiography is usually not sensitive enough for the examination they would be removed rather than documented
detection of fine cracks common to many damage mechanisms. for future reference. In consideration of these circumstances,
Differences in density are subjective and influenced by many specifying a surface detection method for baseline examination
variables. For this reason, it has limited application to in- would yield little useful information.
service examination of pressure vessels. The method has some
application to nozzles and downcomers which could be subject ALTERNATING CURRENT FIELD MEASUREMENT (ACFM)
to corrosion and erosion. For example, radiography is an
excellent method for the detection of microbiologically induced ACFM is a relatively new technology that has seen
corrosion. However, in any of these cases, it is unlikely that growing application in condition monitoring programs in recent
useful comparison data could be acquired by applying years [5]. The method is based on the principal of detecting and
radiographic methods in a baseline examination program. measuring disturbances in the electromagnetic field arising
from interruptions in the material through which an induced
SURFACE EXAMINATION current has been applied. The equipment consists of a sensor
probe and a data acquisition and analysis instrument. The
Surface examination methods are a staple of many method can be encoded by mounting the probe on to an
petrochemical condition monitoring programs. These methods articulating scanner. The method has the ability to detect and
provide very sensitive detection of cracks open to the surface. measure the depth of surface connected linear discontinuities.
Magnetic particle examination employs a magnetic field The method is fast, may be applied through coatings, and
induced into the material typically by an alternating current provides a reproducible record for future reference. If ACFM is
yoke. It requires that the material be ferromagnetic. Magnetic considered for use in the owner’s condition monitoring
powder or ink is applied that gathers forming indications at program, baseline examination is particularly important. ACFM
points of flux leakage caused by discontinuities in the material. is sensitive to surfaces features such as scratches and
Fluorescent particles and UV lights can enhance sensitivity. metallurgical variances that occur in and near welds. A baseline
Liquid penetrant methods consists of a low surface tension examination would provide a means to refer to these signals to
penetrating dye solution which is drawn into surface assist in correctly interpreting the in service results.
discontinuities through capillary action and a developer which
serves to draw the penetrant out of the discontinuity and display
it on a contrasting background. Fluorescent liquid penetrant ACOUSTIC EMISSION TESTING (AET)
materials are also available. Both methods require the removal
of coatings for accurate results. Acoustic Emission Testing is a method for detecting
surface and subsurface anomalies by analyzing acoustic
Surface examination methods are commonly applied in the emissions from flaws as they propagate under a transient event
construction of new vessels at weld areas. During fabrication [6]. Stress is applied to materials during pressurization or
relevant linear indications are eliminated. Most codes do not thermal cycling causing bursts of acoustical activity at flaw
permit linear indications greater than 1.5 mm in length. growth locations. Sensors placed at various locations pick up
Rounded indications of certain sizes are typically allowed to these bursts and through triangulation can provide the position
include clusters and general distribution. This is to allow for a of the source. Emission sources must then be validated by
certain amount of porosity that is not harmful to the function of another nondestructive means such as UT.
the material and common to many welding processes to remain
in the material without requiring repair. Because the primary AET is most commonly applied as a baseline examination
purpose of baseline NDE is to identify and measure inherent during hydrostatic testing of the newly constructed vessel.
construction and component manufacturing indications against

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Many factors make it difficult to interpret and compare • E2767 Practice for Digital Imaging and
AET baseline examination to in-situ operational tests. Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation
Primarily, differences between baseline and operating test (DICONDE) for X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)
conditions including the vessel support and anchoring, fluid Test Methods
properties, temperature, pressure and sources of noise. • E2934 Practice for Digital Imaging and
Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation
Limited zone monitoring may provide useful baseline (DICONDE) for Eddy Current (EC) Test Methods
information by limiting the amount of noise and other variances
caused by the differences in testing conditions. With limited In all cases it is important for the owner to consider
zone monitoring AET is focused on areas where high stresses or maintaining equipment and software consistency when
damage mechanisms are likely to occur. developing specification requirements for baseline
examination. Variations in probes, acquisition and signal
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE processing equipment and software can lead to an increase in
flaw sizing errors.
Whichever baseline NDE method is chosen, the Owner
should establish within the company’s condition monitoring Data security and integrity procedures need to be
system the performance criteria the examination system should developed and implemented at both the fabrication stage and
achieve. The term examination system is meant to include both the operation stage of the program. Data must be stored in its
the equipment and the operator. The criteria should include raw format. Annotations or data that have been modified
targets for the examination system’s performance including through signal processing must be kept as a supplementary file
probability of detection, false call rate, sizing accuracy and and identified as supplementary. Files should be password
tolerance bands. ASME Section V Art 14 provides useful protected and stored on a server that is redundantly secured and
guidance in conducting these system capability demonstrations. access restricted. A minimum configuration would consist of a
local RAID array. The owner should put in place a program for
RECORDS ensuring that subsequent editions of analysis software are
backward compatible, and if not a conversion software is
The records from baseline examinations need to be useable obtained and files are brought up to date promptly.
for the life of the equipment. Of primary importance is the
communication of the Owner’s location reference system. The Hard copy records should be scanned and also stored on
system should include rules for establishing zero reference (L0 servers or uploaded into the maintenance management database
DATUM) points and coordinate systems for various equipment. for future reference. RT film should be stored in accordance
The system should align with the Owner’s condition monitoring with ASTM E1254. Film that has been properly processed and
program and be related to fixed points in the facility (such as stored should be useable for the life of the equipment.
plant North or flow direction). Examination areas and data
acquired from these areas must include these referential points Digital records can be stored on a variety media:
precisely in order to facilitate the reproduction of examinations Conventional (organic dye based) DVD, Conventional Blu-Ray
throughout the life of the equipment. and Optical disk M-DISCTM. Test by the DOD have shown that
M-DISCTM far exceed the reliability of any disk under non-
Most baseline examinations will produce data in an ideal situations [7].
electronic format. These files must be readable by future
equipment. Standards to accomplish this have been developed OWNER’S AND MANUFACTURER’S
for the most commonly applied methods. Data acquisition and RESPONSIBILITIES
analysis software must be compliant with appropriate standard
as follows: Baseline data collected during vessel fabrication typically
include metal thickness measurements and volumetric NDE. As
• E2663 Practice for Digital Imaging and discussed in previous section, NDE methods for surface flaw
Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation detection, such as VT, MT or PT, are not very useful for
(DICONDE) for Ultrasonic Test Methods baseline NDE.
• E2699 Practice for Digital Imaging and
Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation Base metal thickness measurements, typically by straight
(DICONDE) for Digital Radiographic (DR) Test beam ultrasonic method, should be performed on major
Methods pressure boundary components to provide accurate basis for
• E2738 Practice for Digital Imaging and inservice corrosion rate monitoring. Unless inservice thickness
Communication Nondestructive Evaluation inspection is carried out at the same locations as the baseline
(DICONDE) for Computed Radiography (CR) Test examination, it would be difficult to determine the exact
Methods amount of thinning, and if thinning is from variation of mill

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tolerances or caused by corrosion/erosion. The Owner of welding engineers and NDE experts should all be involved in
equipment should select locations of baseline thickness the process. One of the important issues of baseline NDE
measurement so future inservice thickness inspection can be planning is accessibility, which should be taken into
performed at the same locations. Measurement points should consideration at design stage.
cover different quadrants in vessel heads, shell, boots, major
nozzles and any other locations that will subject to inservice All vessel components and locations / types of welds
corrosion/erosion monitoring. Measurement results should be should be designed to allow access for operators to perform
recorded by the Manufacturer on a vessel outline drawing with selected NDE during fabrication and in future operation. A
recorded thickness rounded to closest 0.001”. number of factors should be considered, including space
constraint for NDE equipment and personnel, working
The Owner, with possible help from the process licensor, environment safety, feasibility and reliability of NDE operation
should also determine which welds will require future and economical consideration, etc. NDE specialists should
volumetric NDE that will be compared against the baseline always be consulted for welds that may present accessibility
NDE based on service. The Owner should work with the problems. Critical welds that are inaccessible or very difficult
Manufacturer to determine if, how and when each weld should to perform inservice inspection should be revised to alternative
receive baseline NDE in the Manufacturer’s shop. designs to allow NDE access. If revising design is impractical,
then such welds should be subjected to an increased level of
The Owner should discuss with the Manufacturer about the NDE during fabrication.
following requirements during bid clarification phase:
Inaccessible welds present a special challenge for baseline
• Whenever possible, baseline volumetric NDE should NDE. However, by careful planning, baseline NDE can be
be performed after construction of the vessel is performed on some inaccessible welds. Reference [8] has given
completed. a successful example on performing baseline NDE of Y-ring to
bottom head weld on a pressure vessel. Y-ring is typically
• Baseline NDE of welds should be conducted using the used on heavy wall reactors, high pressure separator and coke
same or equivalent method and technique that is to be drums. The weld between Y-ring and bottom head (see weld
employed on the same welds during inservice joint No. 20 on example NDE map in the Annex) is very
inspection. difficult to access from inside of skirt for inspection due to
• Equipment and software used for Automated UT equipment geometry at the location. A special technique has to
should be consistent with the Owner’s equipment and be developed to perform volumetric NDE from outside surface
of vessel support skirt.
• Records should be submitted in the format that is Phased Array UT (PAUT) was selected as the baseline
acceptable to the Owner. NDE method for this weld for the following reasons:
• Digital records should be stored in media that is
suitable for long term storage for expected life • It allows single side access of weld joints
expectancy of the pressure vessel. • It allows examination of different areas of a weld joint
with various angles from a single position
Based on the Owner’s requirements and industry standards • It can produce A-scan, B-scan, C-scan and S-scan
applicable to the vessel, the Manufacturer should create a map images in better visualization and easy for defect
and a table identifying all welds on the vessel which will see sizing
volumetric NDE. The map should spell out the NDE physical • Data from PAUT is recordable with good repeatability,
location on the vessel. The table should also spell out when which is very suitable for baseline inspection.
during the stages of fabrication the NDE should occur and
when and by what method baseline NDE should be performed. A special PAUT would require reflect off of several
Such maps, tables and detailed NDE procedures should be surfaces to reach the Y-ring to head weld with probes placed on
submitted to the Owner for review and approval. outside surface of the skirt. The Manufacturer (Larsen &
Toubro in India) was able to develop such a special PAUT
An example of baseline NDE map and table for a typical technique by first modeling the geometry in a software
heave wall reactor is shown in the Annex of this paper. program. The program allowed them to model the vessel
geometry and the welds under consideration. By using a virtual
PAUT probe in the software they could change probe angles
and position to find the positions and angles that would allow
reflect off surfaces that would lead to the inaccessible welds.
Baseline NDE planning is a joint effort by both the Owner
This was then verified on a physical mock up PAUT performed
and the Manufacturer. Pressure vessel design engineers,
on blocks with identical cross section of the actual Y-ring to

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head joint. The Manufacturer had identified all induced defects
successfully from outside surface and passed blind test.


It is very important to have complete, accurate and usable

baseline NDE data and records collected in fabrication phase of
critical pressure vessels to be used for comparison with future
inservice examination results. We have discussed various NDE
methods used in pressure vessel inspection, and if each method
is suitable or not suitable for baseline NDE. The Owner and
Manufacturer should work together to develop detailed
execution plans to ensure proper baseline NDE method,
equipment and software are used on each weld. Performing
NDE on inaccessible welds may be challenging, but can be
done with careful planning. An example baseline NDE map and
table for a typical heavy wall reactor is also provided for


[1] ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III “Rules
For Construction of Nuclear Facility Components”,
Division 1 – Subsection NB - Class 1 Components, 2015

[2] ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI “Rules

For Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant
Components”, 2015 Edition.

[3] API 510 “Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-service

Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration” Tenth Edition,
May 2014.

[4] Jorge A. Penso, Robert Own and Masaaki Oka, “TOFD

Automatic Ultrasonic Testing for Condition Monitoring of
Coke Drums”, PVP2003-2174, July 2003.

[5] Martin Lugg and David Topp, “Recent Developments and

Applications of the ACFM Inspection Method and ACSM
Stress Measurement Method”, September, 2006.

[6] Claudio Allevato, “Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Coke

Drums”, Presentation at Coke Drum Reliability
Workshop, February 2016.

[7] Ivan Svrcek, “Accelerated Life Cycle Comparison of

Millenniata Archival DVD”, report by Naval Air Warfare
Center Division at China Lake, 10Nov 2009.

[8] Barry Millet. P. Raghavendra, Niyant Mehta and Manish

Mishra, “Improving In-Service Inspection of Inaccessible
Joint of a Pressure Vessel”, Presentation at API 2014
Spring Refining and Equipment Standards Meeting,
20May 2014.

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Seam Weld NDE Prior to NDE After Records
No. Category PWHT PWHT Retained
1 C RT None RT Film
2 C RT None RT Film
3 C RT None RT Film
4 D PAUT PAUT RT Digital
Special Special
20 A TOFD, PAUT Digital
24 B RT None RT Film
25 B RT None RT Film
26 B RT None RT Film
27 C RT None RT Film
29 C RT None RT Film
31 B RT None RT Film
32 B RT None RT Film
33 C RT None RT Film

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