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1.

Describe the distinguishing characteristics of carbohydrates


Serve as fuel and carbon sources
2. Describe the important biological functions of polysaccharides. The
polymers of sugars, have storage and structural roles.
Polymers of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides, function is
energy storage
3. Explain what distinguishes lipids from other classes of biological
macromolecules.
They do not have polymers
4. Describe the unique properties, building blocks and biological roles of
fats, phospholipids and steroids.
Fats made of glycerol and 3 fatty acids. Can form saturated and
unsaturated fatty acids. Pholopholids have two fatty acids attached to
glycerol and a phosphate group at third position. Steroids are lipids with a
carbon skeleton consisting of four fused carbon rings
5. Distinguish proteins from the other classes of macromolecules
Polymers of amino acids include a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group, an
amino group and a side chain
6. List the biological functions which proteins perform
Transport proteins, contractile, defence, structural
7. Explain what determines protein conformation and why it is important
By protein ability and bond with another molecule. Function of protein helps
in the specific confirmation of protein
8. Define denaturation and explain how proteins may be denatured
Process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure,
tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native
state, by application of some external stress or compound. It involves the
disruption and possible destruction on tertiary structures on proteins.
9. Describe the characteristics that distinguish nucleic acids from the other
classes of macromolecules
Contain genetic information, each monomer is nucleotide
10. Summarize the functions of nucleic acids. What is more important DNA
or Protein? Make up genetic information in living things, making DNA more
important.
11. Briefly describe the three-dimensional structure of DNA
Sugar is deoxyribose and its shape is a double helix
12.Evaluate the importance of energy to living things
Energy helps with growth, balance reproduction and ect. Living things must
obtain energy
13.Relate energy and chemical reactions
Are involved with each other due to breaking and formation bonds.
14.Describe the role of enzymes in chemical reactions
Increases the rate virtually all the chemical reactions within cells
15.Identify the effect of enzymes on food molecules
Building muscle, destroying toxins, and breaking down food particles during
digestion