Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8
TETRAPOL Features and Functionality Multi-site open channel • Immediate channel access can be guaranteed to

TETRAPOL Features and Functionality

Multi-site open channel

Immediate channel access can be guaranteed to a group of users over a wide area, even when the system

is heavily loaded or congested, such as during natural

disasters or major accidents

Multi-site open channels (MOCH) can be used as

mutual-aid channels where different pre-defined

organisations can communicate with each other

For instance police officers and firemen can

coordinate their actions at the scene of a fire

MOCH can also be set-up for the exclusive use of one

organisation· They can be set up to respond in real time to operational requirements, planned or unexpected

A radio channel can be

temporarily dedicated to a

group of users for the duration of their mission (however long that may be)

Authorised users of a

given MOCH are one or more operational groups defined as one of the MOCH attributes

Exclusive use is defined

over one or several radio cells

Resources are returned

to the pool of channels as

soon as the MOCH is closed by an authorised user

Talk group

Messages exchanged within a group of users do not

A talk group is a group of

mix

with messages exchanged within another group,

terminals and a geographic

therefore eliminating any risk of confusion or distraction

area (ie radio cells) over

People cannot overhear communications that have

which it is valid

nothing to do with their business

A user can be member of

For instance, traffic police will not monitor criminal police communications

several talk groups

Scanning

Users can monitor the communications of several groups alternately

Supplementary service of the protocol

Talk group merging

Dynamic group number assignment

Individual call

20.2.2009

For instance the chief of a police department may want to monitor several different units

This powerful feature can be used upon request to allow immediate communication between teams who do

not communicate with each other under normal

circumstances.

For instance, police and fire fighters at the scene of an accident may need to coordinate their actions

This greatly facilitates multi-disciplinary communications

When people in the field are assigned to a new

mission, their TETRAPOL radio terminal can be dynamically updated over the air so that they can participate to the communications resulting from this new assignment

This delivers flexibility and responsiveness regarding

operational changes, since people are not constrained to

a limited number of talkgroups pre-programmed in their

radio terminal

For instance a fire engine reporting to district 1 may be

unexpectedly dispatched to a forest fire in district 2. Even if its radio terminal would not recognise district 2

under normal circumstances, it may be reassigned to district 2 over the air.

Two people anywhere within the coverage of a TETRAPOL system can have a private conversation

For instance, in a statewide TETRAPOL system, a

Supplementary service of the protocol

Supplementary service of the protocol

Priorities can be used to interrupt an on-going private call

Multi-party call

PABX/PSTN call (telephone interconnect)

Multi-party call PABX/PSTN call (telephone interconnect) TETRAPOL Features and Functionality superintendent in one county

TETRAPOL Features and Functionality

superintendent in one county can have a private conversation with a superintendent in another county. And an inspector going out of his jurisdiction for an investigation is still reachable from his normal jurisdiction

A private conversation can be extended to up to five parties (similar to a telephone conference call)

People in the field can receive or place telephone calls from their TETRAPOL terminal

This can eliminate the need to find a telephone booth

or to have an additional mobile phone when they have to reach people who are 'external' to the TETRAPOL

system (off-duty, outside the coverage area or ineligible

to use the system

Calls can be authorised by a dispatcher prior to their establishment for better control of this service

For instance the PABX of an hospital can be

connected to a TETRAPOL system so that rescuers at the scene of an accident or disaster can call physicians

or other emergency personnel on their telephone extension

)

The feature can be

enabled/disabled on a per-

user basis (defined in the user profile)

Location registers are

used to find the called parties anywhere within the system

PABX/PSTN gateway·

The feature can be enabled/disabled on a per-

user basis (defined in the user profile)

Calls can be

unconditionally routed to dispatcher first

Call forwarding

Calls can be automatically rerouted when people are not available

Supplementary service of the protocol

For instance a police officer leaving his car can

forward all his calls from his mobile radio to his portable

 
 

radio

Call transfer

This feature is similar to telephony and can be used to control the establishment of certain types of communications (for instance inbound/outbound telephone calls) by authorised individuals (typically dispatchers). They act as 'operators', connecting two parties upon request from one of them.

Supplementary service of the protocol

Priority levels

Priority levels make sure that important calls are

Supplementary service of

always treated first in case of system congestion.

the protocol

Pre-emptive emergency call

20.2.2009

These priorities may reflect a hierarchy (among people

or departments) but also an operational situation requiring special treatment of the call, whatever the hierarchy of the person. This second aspect is important in situations such as a superintendent making a routine call vs a traffic police officer making an urgent call to report an accident. Priority should be given to the traffic police officer although individually ranked in the system below the superintendent. TETRAPOL makes this kind of discrimination possible

In the most critical situations, when life is at risk, users can always call for help. Even if the TETRAPOL system is already fully used, the message gets through at once, cutting off ongoing communications if necessary

Colleagues or dispatchers can immediately be notified of the situation

Combination of priorities:

User priority

Talkgroup priority

Recent-user priority

Preemption priority

Retention priority

User-selectable call priority

Frame stealing is used

on a traffic channel to force

transmitter interruption and to re-allocate the resource to an emergency call

Various parameters are

available to adapt to different operational requirements for handling

Ambient listening

Direct mode (ie 'simplex' channels) emergency call

Direct mode with dual watch

Late entry

Talking party identification

End-to-end encryption

Secured over-the-air key distribution

20.2.2009

encryption Secured over-the-air key distribution 20.2.2009 TETRAPOL Features and Functionality • Transmission can be

TETRAPOL Features and Functionality

Transmission can be remotely and discreetly activated on a TETRAPOL radio terminal. This means for instance that a dispatcher who gets no answer or no news from a radio terminal can monitor what is going on (shots,

voices, etc

are unable to use their radio, such as when they are

under attack, held hostage or injured

Emergency calls can be placed even in areas where

coverage from the system is not planned for (for instance in remote areas)

A person in a critical situation can always get help

from colleagues within radio coverage, even from those who were not on the same direct mode channel (people no longer have to switch from channel to channel before

they can find somebody)

For instance, when several teams are working

separately at the same place, this powerful feature will

warn everybody if something goes wrong

Users who have switched to direct mode channels are not isolated from the radio network and from their dispatchers as long as they are within the coverage of the TETRAPOL system.

A user does not miss ongoing communications, even if he arrives late in the TETRAPOL system (when emerging from an underground car park or other area without coverage) or if he was already engaged on a different call

Radio ID can be sent on each Push-To-Talk activation so that a transmitting terminal can be immediately identified. This helps dispatchers avoid confusion and discourages misuse of the system

Communications are protected from commercial and more sophisticated scanners

Communications are encrypted within the whole

system: there is no weak section where communications are transported in clear mode (for instance between a switch and remote dispatcher consoles, or between repeater sites and switches). This provides the highest level of protection against eavesdropping

Repeater sites do not need extra protection since they do not need to include encryption modules

Key loaders are no longer used to change encryption

keys in the radio terminals

This eliminates many important issues associated with key loaders, such as errors when downloading new keys, missed terminals, loss of programming devices used in the field

Keys can be renewed and downloaded in the

terminals more often (typically daily) whatever the size of the terminal fleet

).

This is an important feature when people

an emergency call (people

receiving the call, single-

cell or multi-cell call,

Supplementary service of the protocol

)

The direct mode

emergency frame is transmitted on a pre- programmed channel monitored by all radio terminals

Dual watch still monitors the control channel to detect incoming calls

Supplementary service of the protocol

Supplementary service of the protocol

Encryption algorithms

may comply with TETRAPOL specifications or specific algorithms can be used

Key management center

New encryption keys are

automatically distributed periodically to the terminals.

Keys are distributed over- the-air in an encrypted format and following authentication procedures

User-friendly encryption mechanisms

Mutual authentication

Protection against lost or stolen terminals

Virtual private networking

Common platform for voice and data communications

20.2.2009

Common platform for voice and data communications 20.2.2009 TETRAPOL Features and Functionality • It is not

TETRAPOL Features and Functionality

It is not necessary to bring terminals back to reprogam the encryption keys, therefore saving time and eliminating downtime and disruption for users

Users do not have to remember key selections,

whether for voice or for data communications, because this is done automatically by the system. They can fully concentrate on the operational aspects of their missions and do not have to worry about the 'technical' ones

Encryption is maintained and automatic while the

terminal roams through a nationwide system.

For instance, with a nationwide TETRAPOL system,

narcotics officers can use end-to-end encrypted communications anywhere and at any time without having to do any manual action on their radio terminal

A TETRAPOL system is protected against sophisticated smart attacks, such as the intrusion of unauthorised terminals by 'masquerading' or the use of a 'decoy' infrastructure

Lost or stolen TETRAPOL terminals can be

neutralised over the air, either on a temporary basis (i.e. the terminal can return to normal operation after it

receives the right command from the system) or on a permanent basis (i.e. requiring subsequent maintenance of the terminal)

When terminals are lent to an organisation hosted on

a TETRAPOL system for the duration of a special event, they can be disabled as soon as the event is over, even before they are returned. This guarantees a strict control of their use

Different organisations can share capital expenditure and running costs while getting a better common system

Each organisation maintains full operational and

tactical independence and privacy

Communications between organisations are possible

when required and if authorised at the system level

Higher operational efficiency and responsiveness

during mutual-aid operations

A TETRAPOL system can reflect the administrative

structure of each organisation in terms of its hierarchy,

functions and jurisdiction

Each organisation can have a guaranteed quota of

resources, even when the system is heavily loaded, such

as following a major incident

The same infrastructure and radio terminals are used

for voice and data communications

This is a simple solution for users since they do not have to switch between voice and data channels or terminals.

Vehicles and radio sites are not overloaded with equipment

Costs can be saved on

spare parts

training of maintenance personnel

Encryption can be

activated in direct mode but it is a voluntary action from the users

Mutual authentication between system components

Challenge response mechanisms

If the radio terminal was

switched off, it is disabled as soon as it is switched on

(at the next registration transaction)

Technical, tactical and

operational management functions are addressed separately

Tactical and operational

functions are managed by each organisation, technical

management functions are the responsibility of the system 'operator'

Integrated voice and data solution

Mobile data

Connection to other networks telecommunication

Similar audio quality in clear and encrypted modes

High-performing vocoder in noisy environments

20.2.2009

High-performing vocoder in noisy environments 20.2.2009 TETRAPOL Features and Functionality • system supervision,

TETRAPOL Features and Functionality

system supervision, installation and maintenance

site equipment and radio terminals

Databases can be accessed and updated in real time from the field, eliminating discrepancies or interaction with a third-party.

People are relieved from paperwork in the field since

they can immedialtely update databases, send reports, etc

Voices messages are prone to misunderstandings,

especially in a noisy environment. Data messages are not, so people always get the right address or the right name

A data transmission can be much richer than a voice

communication, including maps, text, pictures, etc. People in the field can get more information about their assignments, which can increase safety and effectiveness

Voice traffic can be reduced, in turn reducing the

background noise for radio operators in cars and control

rooms, enabling them to concentrate on important radio traffic

Information is distributed more selectively. Only people who read the message know it, whereas a voice message can be overheard by more people, perhaps even those who should not hear it (eg a suspect may hear communications about his criminal record while in a police car)

Information can be stored if the addressee is not

available, whereas a voice message would have to be repeated later

A TETRAPOL system can extend an existing information system Past investments can be preserved

Field personnel can get access to information systems

they are already familiar with

People in the field get a real 'mobile office'

They do not have to return to their office to complete

their admin jobs (job tickets, database queries, e-mails,

reports,

Since encryption does not degrade the audio quality,

users can activate it whenever required to protecting themselves and/or their missions

Encrypted voice is always crisp and clear. It does not

impair efficiency since repetitions of messages are not

necessary

Excellent speaker recognition helps team members

engaged in a critical operation to communicate quickly with each other, without having necessarily to identify themselves each time they talk

Noisy backgrounds (shouting crowds, fire engines,

sirens,

This eliminates the audio 'discomfort' created by

interfering background noises

Messages are received crisp and clear all the time,

)

) are suppressed

Integrated data services· electronic mail

status· short messages

(SMS)

IP

Standard data interfaces

APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are available for the development of specific data applications

TETRAPOL

specifications include various gateways to other

networks (TETRAPOL

networks, other PMR networks, Packet Data Networks, PTSN/PABX

networks,

)

The voice is already

transmitted in a binary format in clear mode. Since the digital encryption is

applied to already-digital information, it is not noticeable to the user

RP-CELP vocoder

14 Mips

TETRAPOL Features and Functionality Flexibility / modularity Wider radio coverage than competing solutions Same radio

TETRAPOL Features and Functionality

Flexibility / modularity

Wider radio coverage than competing solutions

Same radio coverage for voice and data communications, whether clear or encrypted

Data transmissions do not require additional sites

Spectrum-efficient solution

20.2.2009

avoiding repetitions or misunderstandings

This means greater efficiency and less stress for radio operators

TETRAPOL systems can adapt to / grow with organisations, serving local to nationwide users

Star, daisy-chain, and meshed topologies are possible

Local systems can be connected later on into a seamless system

Fewer repeater sites are necessary to cover a given area

Large radio cells suit rural areas where dense cellular architectures are not an economically viable solution

Time can be saved on system engineering, installation

and maintenance activities: wide-area systems can be set-up more quickly

Costs can be saved on

system engineering, installation and maintenance

leased lines

site rentals

civil work

site equipment

Finding repeater sites is not an issue when going from

analog to digital. System operators can reuse their existing analog sites without having to add new ones and can even reduce the number of sites in some cases

Users do not have to worry about getting a good signal

from a repeater before transmitting data or encrypted voice. They get an efficient and reliable communication

tool whenever required

Radio engineering is identical for voice and data

communications, whether clear or encrypted Engineering is easier, quicker and cheaper

The later introduction of data services or encryption in a voice system does not require re-engineering of the system (from a coverage point of view). Systems can be upgraded smoothly

Users get more traffic capacity within the same radio spectrum. This may eliminate channel congestion problems

For example, a TETRAPOL solution can more than

triple the traffic capacity that would be available with a 25

kHz analog wide-area system

TETRAPOL

specifications leave open the size and the topology of the systems developped by the manufacturers

Oustanding sensitivity (- 121 dBm) thanks to

narrow channels (12.5 kHz)

robust modulation

(GMSK)

sophisticated channel

coding (FEC) including block coding, cyclic coding

and interleaving· coherent demodulation

non-transparent base

stations

non-transparent packet

data transmissions

Sensitivity can be even

further enhanced with antenna diversity techniques

RF power amplifiers with

high efficiency (Class C)

Different codings for

voice and data, with a much stronger protection for data

Non-transparent packet

data transmissions

Residual error rate (ie

quality) is the prime concern in a TETRAPOL system, not raw data rate

Different codings for

voice and data, with a much stronger protection for data

Non-transparent packet

data transmissions

Residual error rate (ie

quality) is the prime concern in a TETRAPOL system, not raw data rate

12-cell reuse pattern

thanks to an Carrier-to- Interference ratio (C/I) of 15 dB

Simulcast capabilities· Trunking techniques

12.5 kHz minimum

Trunking (automatic and dynamic allocation of system resources)

Simulcast capabilities

Cellular radio coverage

Seamless roaming

12.5 kHz solution

20.2.2009

radio coverage Seamless roaming 12.5 kHz solution 20.2.2009 TETRAPOL Features and Functionality • People do not

TETRAPOL Features and Functionality

People do not have to think in terms of radio channels

anymore. Operational entities are the only things they have to be familiar with for their communications (like 'traffic police', 'criminal police', 'fire department', 'chief' etc)

They get a more user-friendly tool

They do not have to select radio channels anymore,

whether for voice or for data transmissions, clear or encrypted

They do not run the risk of selecting or staying on the

wrong channel

They do not notice the failure of a radio channel, since another one would be automatically allocated by the system

Systems can be rolled out even when few channels are available, as in most big cities

With a simulcast configuration, moving from one radio

cell to another is totally imperceptible for all the people involved in the communication

For instance, with a simulcast TETRAPOL system

installed along a highway, highway patrols involved in a

common operation over tens of kilometres will enjoy uninterrupted communications, although they may be quickly crossing radio cells

A radio cell can be extended to difficult areas (for

instance, behind a group of buildings) where there is no

radio coverage otherwise

Local and individual communications can be better distributed among / confined within radio cells

The overall system capacity is increased

Traffic within one jurisdiction does not disturb traffic within an adjacent one

Cell sizes can be adapted to the type of coverage (mobile or portable)

Better grade of service

Users do not have to worry about channel selection or repeater coverage while roaming within the system

A dispatcher is always able to reach people in the right cells, even when they leave their jurisdiction

TETRAPOL systems can easily fit in current PMR

requirement in all configurations (direct mode, repeated direct mode, trunk mode)

Trunking of resources is

part of the system protocol

(message trunking, quasi- transmission trunking)

The limited impact of

inter-symbol interference in

a TETRAPOL system

eases the engineering

issues of simulcast

configurations

TETRAPOL is based on

a cellular architecture

concept

12-cell reuse pattern with C/I = 15 dB

Mixing pure cellular

coverage and simulcast is

possible

Late-entry service

Controls channels

broadcast information about

neighbouring cells

Cellular concept with mobility management

Home Location

Registers, Visitor Location

Registers

Registration mechanisms with attach/detach

Cell Selection /

Reselection mechanisms

Late-entry service

GMSK modulation with

GMSK modulation

FDMA on narrow channels

Peaceful coexistence with other PMR systems

20.2.2009

Peaceful coexistence with other PMR systems 20.2.2009 TETRAPOL Features and Functionality frequency plans and

TETRAPOL Features and Functionality

frequency plans and rasters without prior spectrum refarming, which is a complex and lengthy process

Analog channels can be easily converted into digital

channels. System conversion can be planned on a per-

channel basis and an analog repeater can be simply swapped for a digital one

Simple system configurations (Direct Mode, Repeated Direct Mode) do not require more than 12.5 kHz

Even clear communications cannot be monitored with commercial scanners (digital radio transmission)

Easy implementation of high-output RF power

amplifiers increases possible radio coverage

Large cells are available for rural areas, reducing the number of repeater sites needed to cover a given area

Simulcast configurations are possible

Saving radio channels when required

Allowing fully-transparent hand-overs

Good intrinsic protection again the loss of a radio

channel (shutdown, jamming, failure,

site

It only slightly reduces the overall system capacity

(loss of one communication resource only) compared to a TDMA system where several communication resources are lost when a radio channel is inoperative (eg four with TETRA)

Direct mode (ie 'walky-talky' mode) is higly-reliable

The same radio terminals can be used in any environment (urban areas, hilly terrains, simulcast

systems,

Radio spectrum can be used at best (no need to leave radio channels unused between existing ETS 300-113

systems and new TETRAPOL systems)

wasted traffic capacity

During a transition period, a user can run its analog

system and its new TETRAPOL system in parallel on the same repeater sites

) at a repeater

)

This means no

BT = 0,25

GMSK with BT=0,25· Constant envelop

Class-C RF power

amplifier

Power in adjacent 12.5

kHz channel: - 60 dBc (-70 dBc in an adjacent 25 kHz

channel)

Limited impact of inter-

symbol interferences

No equalisation required in the TETRAPOL radio receivers

Receiver noise limited

due to the use of narrow

channels

No tricky multi-slot

synchronisation constraints

GMSK modulation with

BT = 0,25· Constant envelop

Power in adjacent 12.5

kHz channel: - 60 dBc (-70

dBc in an adjacent 25 kHz channel)

Compliance with

European ETSI standard

ETS 300 113