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Genetics Ch.

4 Klug
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1. Bombay H substance incompletely formed, 16. penetrance percentage of individuals who show at least
phenotype leading to type O blood type even some degree of expression of a mutant
though genetically a person can be type genotype.
A or B blood.
17. plieotropy expression of one gene has multiple
2. Co-dominance joint expression of both alleles in a phenotypic effects
and influence on heterozygote, still has a 1:2:1 ratio
18. Recessive 9:3:4
mendelian ratio
epistasis
3. Complementary 9:7
19. Recessive 2:1 ratio, if offspring doesn't survive
gene interaction
lethal allele (homozygous)
4. complementation if all offspring develop normal wings Heterozygous-may survive, altered
using the testcross in complementation phenotype (huntingtons disease)
analysis. This means two recessive
20. sex same autosomal genes are resonsible for
mutations are in seperate genes and are
influenced contrasting traits in males and females but
not alleles of eachother.
inheritance expression of these genes is dependent on
5. Complementation determines whether independently the hormonal constitution of the individual.
analysis isolated mutations producing similar
21. sex limited heterozygous genotype may exhibit one
phenotypes are alleles of one another or
inheritance phenotype in males and a contrasting one in
whether they represent separate genes.
females
6. Complementation all mutations determined to be present in
22. When a ratio that two genes pairs are interacting during
group any single gene are said to fall into the
is expressed the expression of the phenotype under
same complementation group.
in 16 parts, it consideration
7. Dihybrid cross different modes of inheritance: genetic can be
altered ratios can linkage and gene interaction, epistasis assumed
be altered by
8. Dominant 12:3:1
epistasis ratio
9. expressivity reflects the range of expression of the
mutant genotype
10. hemizygous males cannot be homozygous or
heterozygous for X linked genes
11. Incomplete neither allele is dominante so the
Dominance phenotype of the offspring will be an
intermediate of the two contrasting
parental traits
12. maternal effect offsprinsg phenotype for a particular
trait is under the influence of nuclear
gene products in the egg.
13. Mendel's 1:2:1
Monohybrid
Cross ratio of
heterozygotes
14. non all offspring express mutation
complementation phenotype: this means that the two
mutations affect the same gene and are
alleles of one another.
15. Novel phenotypic 9:6:1
ratio