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PracticeTest4

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ESSAY

Time -

25 minutes

Turn to Section 1 of your answer sheet to write your ESSAY.

The essay gives you an opportunity to show how effectively you can develop and express ideas. You should, therefore, take care to develop your. point of view, present your ideas logically and clearly, and use language precisely.

Youressay must be written on the lines provided on your answer sheet-you

Youwill have enough space if you write on every line, avoid wide margins, and keep your handwriting to a reasqnable size. Rememberthat people who are not familiar with your handwriting will read what you write. Try to write or print so that what youare writing is legible to those readers.

will receive no other paper on which to write.

Youhave twenty-five minutes to write an essay on the topic assigned below. DO NOT WRITE ON ANOTHER TOPIC. ANOFF-TOPIC ESSAY WILL RECEIVE A SCORE OF ZERO.

Think carefully

about the issue presented

in the following

excerpt and the assignment

below.

Educator William Morris once said to parents of high school students, "The true test of a person's character lies in what he or she chooses to do when no one is looking." Others believe that character is constantly being formed and refined by the series of choices a person makes during his or her lifetime. Yet it is often very challenging to decide between two options that seem equally valuable.

!Assignment:

In your opinion, what two options are the most difficult to choose between? Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoni~g and examples taken from your reading, studies, experience, or observations.

DONOTWRITE YOUR ESSAY IN YOUR TEST BOOK. You will receive credit only for what you write on your answer sheet.

BEGIN WRITING YOUR ESSAY IN SECTION 1 OF THE ANSWER SHEET.

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section in the test.

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SECTION

2

Time -

25 minutes

24 Questions

Turn to Section 2 of your answer sheet to answer the questions

in this section.

Directions:

ing circle on the answer sheet.

For each question in this section, select the best answer from among the choices given and fill in the correspond-

Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank

indicating

the sentence

through E. Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

that something

has been omitted.

Beneath

are five words or sets of words labeled A

Example:

Hoping to h the dispute, negotiators proposed a compromise that they felt would be to both labor and management.

(A)

useful

(B)

divisive

(C)

unattractive

(D)

satisfactory

(E)

acceptable

1. It would be ridiculous for any layman to attempt to

difficult that even

m a stunt so overwhelmingly

the most accomplished

(A) shun

redoubtable

stuntmen

consider

it n

(B)

enumerate

secondary

(C)

execute

formidable

(D)

watch

sobering

(E)

disregard

laughable

2.

The evidence

found by the private investigator

was

instrumental

in

the defendant,

who had been

wrongfully

charged

with fraud based on the false

statement

of the accountant.

 

(A) alienating

(D)

acquitting

(B)

mollifying

(E)

enlightening

(C)

compelling

3. After living in a cramped and ment for several years, Roberta

thatwascommodiousand

h

m_ studio apart-

moved to a house

(A)

expensive

cluttered

(B)

inhospitable

comfortable

(C)

congested

remote

(D)

expansive

roomy

(E)

undecorated

historical

The scientist's

researchers

contradicted

(A) tabulated

hypothesis

was finally

m

showed that the new census data

his original findings.

(B)

ratified

(C)

applied

(D) debunked

(E)

emphasized

when

5. Though

the giraffe seems rather heavy and

awkward in a zoo, that same creature

nn_

surprising speed and agility when fluidly galloping

across African grasslands, the most m_h_ of animals.

leading

some to call it

(A)

manifests

nimble

(B)

demonstrates

special

(C)

empowers

dangerous

(D)

engenders

versatile

(E)

lacks

graceful

6.

The medieval monk lived

with few others, in spartan conditions.

(A) an inspired

a gregarious

nm

life, living alone or

(B)

an anachronistic

(D)

(C) an eclectic

(E)

an ascetic

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7. In contrast to his prior treatise, in which brief moments of were among large sections of utter nonsense, the professor's second book is more consistently presented.

(A)

clarity

calculated

(B)

creativity

interpreted

(C)

lucidity

interspersed

(D)

fervor

perforated

(E)

sternness

scattered

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2

It

Soldiers often

fortitude to disguise

their mm

(A)

feign

timidity

(B)

pretend

valor

(C)

acknowledge

hostility

(D)

proclaim

confidence

(E)

repudiate

apprehension

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The passages

be based on the relationship

passages

below are followed by questions

between

based on their content;

Answer

questions

the questions

the paired passages.

and in any introductory

material

that may be provided.

.--

a pair of related passages

on the basis qf what is stated or implied in the

following

may also

Questions 9-12 are based on the following passages.

Passage 1 The intellectual construct known as containment

arose from the ashes of World War II as a means by which the West could prevent war with the Soviet Union.

A 1947 issue of the obscure but influential journal

5

Foreign Affairs outlined a policy of international relations

based upon a particularistic world view. According to such a world view, nations are inherently self-serving and any force issued by one country against another must be met with equal counterforce. Originally, containment

10

aimed to utilize American power to oppose the Soviet Union anywhere the latter nation attempted to establish a communist regime.

Passage 2

America's involvement in Vietnam during the 1960's offers support for opponents of the policy of containment.

15

Prevalent among American politicians at the time was the assumption that all nations must be aligned with either the United States or the Soviet Union, and that there could be no communist nation that was not also a pawn of the Soviets. By viewing the world in such black-and-white

20

terms, America fatally misunderstood the real cause

of Vietnam's instability. While America perceived the

war as another example of aggressive Soviet expansion, Vietnamese communists saw their role as eliminating the

imperialistic influences of all foreign nations.

9. Which of the following best illustrates a "particular- istic world view" as described in Passage 1, line 6?

(A)

A country that seeks to institute a national welfare system to provide health and education to all its citizens

(B)

A group of nations that tries to stop aggression around the world

(C)

A nation that seeks to seize territory in

a

neighboring nation to obtain natural

resources it currently lacks

(D)

A state that intends to promote democracy around the world by showing the successes

it

has achieved through such a government

(E)

A dictator who seeks to quell political opposition within his own government

10. Which of the following best describes the relation- ship between Passage 1 and Passage 2?

(A)

Passage 2 offers a criticism of the political theory outlined in Passage I.

(B)

Passage I expands upon an argument madein Passage 2.

(C)

Passage I refutes the conclusion drawn in Passage 2.

(D)

Passage 2 offers a balanced counterpoint to the biased opinions expressed in Passage 1.

(E)

Passage1offersevidenceto supportthe main

idea of Passage 2.

11. The opponents mentioned in Passage 2 (line 14)

would be most likely to respond to the last sentence

of Passage 1 ("Originally

.regime.") by

(A)

agreeing that communism posed a threat to the stability of Vietnam's government

(B)

pointing out the costliness of interfering in the affairs of foreign countries

(C)

implying that using force against another nation is never justified

(D)

demonstrating the influence the Soviet Union had in unstable countries in Southeast Asia

(E)

contending that one country may adopt another's style of government without becoming its ally

12. In the last sentence of Passage 2 ("While nations."), the author implies that

(A)

the Soviet Union coerced the Vietnamese to set up a communist government

(B)

the Vietnamese asked for America's help to defend itself against the Soviet Union

(C)

the Vietnamese may have viewed America's involvement as an aggressive act

(D)

America surreptitiously sought to establish colonies in Vietnam

(E)

Americans could not understand how their actions were being viewed by the Vietnamese

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PRACTICETESTSFORTHENEWSAT& PSAT

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Questions13-24 are based on the following passages.

Thefollowing passages consider two viewpoints of Oliver Cromwell. Born in 1599, Cromwell was a leading figure in the English Civil Wars of the seventeenth century, even- tually authorizing the execution of King Charles J and becoming Lord Protector of all England.

Passage 1

In the wake of the Protestant Reformation and

Catholic Counter-Reformation, all of Europe was in

turmoil. Rulers often altered

to suit personal preferences, outlawing first one religious practice then another. Such uncertainty inevitably gave rise to conflict as people fought to retain the right to practice their own beliefs in safety. Further exacerbating the situation in England was the matter of the neighboring lands of Ireland and Scotland. After generations of strife, the English monarchy had married into the Scottish monarchy and had annexed Ireland, resulting in one monarch ruling all three countries, though in reality each country had its own legal system and local rulers. This balance of power was tenuous at best and there was frequent talk of insurrection in each country, especially as taxes to support foreign wars mounted ever higher. In the midst of this conflict, civil war erupted. The common people were torn between warring factions and weighed down by heavy taxes until finally, frustrated with the situation, they rose up.

the laws of their countries

This was the setting

in which Oliver Cromwell

first rose to prominence. Born into the English middle

class, somewhere above a yeoman* yet below an aristocrat. Cromwell was reasonably well educated and

entered politics as a local representative

of Commons. He served in the British Parliament for

several terms, but at heart he was more a man of action than a man of words; it was only when the King's royal standard was flapping in the wind that Cromwell's

in the House

Iascension to power began in earnest.

his respectable birth and descent to portray himself as a gentleman, Cromwell had a reputation for being a violent man, and history relates many stories of his sudden temper and rough, even vulgar, language. In almost any i other atmosphere, it is likely that a man of such uncertain temperament would have toiled in obscurity, but in those bloody years he was able to put his less savory tendencies, along with his own iron will, to good use and take

Although

he used

advantage of any opportunities that arose.

~ T_heBritish Civil Wars were long and ugly. They ended only after the establishment first, of the English Commonwealth, under the leadership of the Parliament;

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then, of the Protectorate, under the rule of Cromwell;apd finally, the restoration of the monarchy. Although it is

45

claimed by some historians that Cromwell was popularly acclaimed and that the people of England went so far as to otler him the crown, contemporary accounts paint a different picture. There are descriptions of Cromwell's soldiers storming the Parliament and forcibly installing

50

Cromwell as head of Parliament,

which he promptly

disbanded. With Parliament dissolved, Cromwell's path to power was clear, and once he had been named Protector, it was nearly impossible to oust him. One of the primary reasons for this was the devoted army that attended him,

55

something that King Charles I had sorely lacked. As

for his refusal of the crown, the reality was that he was king in all but name, and one can only speculate that it was some kind of superstition that prevented him from officially assuming the title.

60

The most convincing

proof that Cromwell's

reign was

not as popular as some historians would make it out to be is the rapidity with which the English people welcomed

back the royal family

Cromwell's

after his death. Within

II was installed

death. Charles

two years of

on the throne

65

that had been held by his father, and the remnants of the Cromwell family were forced into hiding to escape persecution. So it was that the English Civil Wars ended once and for al1, and the memory of a passionate and ambitious man faded into ignominy for many long years.

"YeOlnalJ is an archaic

vyord

for a landowning

farmer.

Passage 2

70

Oliver Cromwell,

a man as often vilified as extol1ed,

played a central role in British politics of the seventeenth century before, during, and after the British Civil Wars. Born a gentleman, Cromwell became involved in politics at an early age. He served in various capacities in his

75

local government before going on to serve several terms in Parliament. His writings from that period show that although he wa~ not yet certain_that war was the answer, he did agitate for a variety of government reforms

and increased

rights for the common

citizen.

Once it

80

became

clear that war was inevitable,

however, Cromwell

willingly put aside the pen and took up the sword in defense of what he believed.

During

the long and bloody years of fighting,

Cromwell distinguished himself as a valiant soldier

85 and staunch

supporter

of the people's

rights. One of the

main issues at stake during the wars was the right to

religious freedom. Although Cromwell did not support

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full religious tolerance, he did support the idea that there was more than one way to be deyout. It was his approval

90 of the Puritan

and Presbyterian

faiths that garnered him

the support of many soldiers who were, in turn, largely

responsible for his investiture as Lord Protector, a post created solely for him.

Of the many actions for which Cromwell

is

95 remembered, his execution of King Charles I is surely the

foremost.

For the first time in recorded

history, the people

of England

openly rebelled

against

a King, tried him in

a court of citizens,

is certainly possible that, without a man as forceful as

and duly executed

him for treason.

It

100 Cromwell

to lead the way, the people of England

would

have hesitated

at the final step. This one act, carried

out

by Cromwell,

forever changed

the ways in which the

people viewed the monarchy

and vice versa.

Up until the moment

that the axe fell, many did

105 not really believe that anyone would or could execute

a king. There were strong feelings

rights of kings and if the execution

destroy those ideas, it certainly gave people pause. Every monarch since the Restoration has known that, if pushed

about the divine

of Charles

I did not

110 far enough,

the people will go to war against their ruler

and, if deemed necessary, forcibly remove that ruler from

power. This, in turn, has guaranteed a greater degree of respect for the wishes of the people on the part of the monarchy, and if history gives an accurate picture of

115 Cromwell's

personality,

it seems likely that he would

approve of this turn of affairs.

13. Passage I portrays Cromwell's character as that of

(A)

a highly ambitious man

(B)

a sensitive leader

(C)

a beloved father figure

(D)

a scholarly gentleman

(E)

an aloof aristocrat

14. The function of the first paragraph of Passage I is to

(A)

applaud the monarchy's foreign policies

(B)

criticize the British monarchy

(C)

give an overview of British history

(D)

describe the setting for Cromwell's rise to power

(E)

detail Cromwell's role in the civil war

288. 11 PRACTICETESTSFORTHENEWSAT& PSAT

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15. The word "standard" in line 29 most nearly means

(A)

normalcy

(B)

banner

(C)

rule

(D)

requirement

(E)

leadership

16. The first passage asserts that all of the following were causes of the English Civil Wars EXCEPT

(A)

dissatisfaction with the government

(B)

fluctuating policies about religion

(C)

trouble with neighboring countries

(D)

extensive taxes due to foreign wars

(E)

royal expansionist intentions

17. Which of the following best describes the style of Passage 1?

(A)

A description of one person's life in historical context

(B)

A detailed biography of a hated despot

(C)

A derisive commentary on political events

(D)

An anecdotal narration by a contemporary

(E)

An objective investigation of the seventeenth century

18. The author of Passage 2 suggests that Cromwell's actions were primarily motivated by

(A)

aspirations to the English crown

(B)

a desperate lust for power

(C)

a desire for increased civil rights

(D)

hatred of the monarchy

(E)

the belief that all men were equal

19. The author of Passage 2 feels that the most lasting result of Cromwell's actions was

(A)

an alteration in the way that the monarchy was viewed

(B)

the foundation of the English Commonwealth

(C)

the restoration of the British monarchy

(D)

a change in British foreign policy

(E)

increased participation in the government in outlying districts

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20.

The phrase "agitate for" (line 78) in context most

23.

Both passages

attribute

which of the following

nearly means

characteristics

to Cromwell?

(A)

campaign for

(A)

Military

valor

(B)

frustrate

(B)

Zealous

cruelty

(C)

worry about

(C)

Vulgarity

of speech

(D)

excite

(D)

Religious

mania

(E)

despair over

(E)

A forceful

personality

21. Passage 1 differs from Passage 2 in that the author of Passage 1

(A)

does not believe that Cromwell was an

important

figure

(B)

has a more negative opinion of Cromwell

(C)

adamantly supports the British monarchy

(D)

despises

Cromwell

and feels that his actions

were immoral

(E)

admires Cromwell for his many social reforms

22. Which of the following

questions

is NOT explicitly

answered

by either passage?

(A)

How long did the English Civil Wars last?

(B)

What post did Cromwell eventually fill?

(C)

Which king did Cromwell have executed?

(D)

How long was it before the monarchy

was

restored

after Cromwell's

death?

(E)

What were some of the reasons Civil Wars?

for the English

STOP

24. Both passages suggest which of the following about the English Civil Wars?

(A)

They were an unpleasant time in British history.

(B)

They forever altered the face of the monarchy.

(C)

They were partially due to high taxes and religious unrest.

(D)

They were a necessary check on royal prerogative.

(E)

They undermined the power of the Parliament.

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section in the test.

3

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3

SECTION

3

Time -

25 minutes

3

20 Questions

3

Turn to Section 3 of your answer sheet to answer the questions

3

3

in this section.

Directions: For this section, solve each problem and decide which is the best of the choices given. Fill in the corresponding circle on the answer sheet. You may use any available space for scratchwork.

1. The use of a calculator

2. All numbers

is permitted.

used are real numbers.

Vi

3. Figures

that accompany

problems

in this test are intended

to provide information

useful in solving the problems.

<l.)

o

z

They are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that the figure is not

drawn to scale. All figures lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated.

4. Unless otherwise

specified,

f(x)

is a real number.

the domain of any functionfis

assumed

to be the set of all real numbers x for which

G ~w

2.

A = 1tr

.j

'8 5

~

F=?1h

~h

b~

,145""J2

s

~~LJwL-J~~~o

A =

l

w

b

l

~x

X Y 3

a.r:::

<l.)

C=21tr

A=lbh

V=lwh

V=1trh

c2=a2+b

,

g

2

SpecIal RIght Tnangles

~

2

2

~ <l.)

The number of degrees

of arc in a circle

is 360.

~ The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180.

1. If a rectangle has corners at (-2, 2),

(-2,6),

and

(4, 6), what is the location of the fourth corner?

290 .

(A)

(0, 0)

(B)

(2,4)

(C)

(-2, -2)

(D)

(4,2)

(E)

(-4,2)

11 PRACTICETESTSFORTHENEWSAT& PSAT

Checking Account Activity for Sally

 

$500

$400

$300

$200

$100

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

 

Month

2.

According

to the chart above, what was the differ-

ence in Sally's

account from the beginning

of the

5-month

period to the end of the 5-month

period?

(A)

-$200

(B)

-$100

(C)

$200

(D)

$300

(E)

$400

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3

3.

What is the result when 0.2438 is rounded to the nearest hundredth?

6. When 28 is added to 3 times a number y and the sum is divided by 2, the result is 2 times the num-

(A)

0.24

ber y. What is the value of y ?

(B)

0.244

(A)

25

(C)

0.25

(B)

28

(D)

0.254

(C)

30

(E)

0.255

(D)

33

 

(E)

34

7. If the sum of 230 and 1 must be an integer, which

t

of the following CANNOT be the value of t ?

(A)

2

(B)

4

(C)

5

(D)

10

(E)

23

4.

ABCD is a rectangle. AC and BD intersect at point E. If the length of AC is 16, the length of BE is

 

(A)

4

8. What is the slope of the line expressed by the equa-

(B)

6

tion

2y =3x + 2 ?

(C)

8

(D)

12

(A)

3

-

2

 

(E)

16

 

(B)

1

 

1

 

(C)

-

2

(D)

0

 

1

5.

If ffl r =a x band

ffl r is an odd integer, which of

(E)

-- 2

the following could be the values of a and b ?

(A)

1 and 2

(B)

4 and 8

(C)

7 and 3

(D)

2 and 9

(E)

0 and

1

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PRACTICETEST4 + 291

9.

10.

11.

3

3

3

3

If 32= 11a,then 112ais equal to

(A)

3

(B)

4

(C)

9

(D)

11

(E)

81

If 48 ounces of baking soda have a volume of 32 cubic centimeters, what is the volume, in cubic centimeters, of 6 pounds of baking soda? (1 pound = 16 ounces)

(A)

192

(B)

96

(C)

80

(D)

68

(E)

64

In ajar of cookies,

""

rarsm,

-

1

4

are peanut

!.of

8

b

utter,

the cookies are oatmeal

-

1

2

h

are coco

1

ate c

h

"

IP,

and the remaining

12 cookies

in the jar

are mint.

How many peanut butter cookies are in the jar?

(A)

24

(B)

28

(C)

32

(D)

48

(E)

50

3

12

.

3

 

3

If

6

-

h

= -

g

and -

3

= -

g

j

j

l'

(A)

!.

2

(B)

2

(C)

3

(D)

6

(E)

10

14 -.

 

X

 

12j

10

X

X

X

 

Xx

 

X

 

X

 

:1

X

2X

4L

 

X

o

2

:

6

3

then h =

X

X

X

X

8

X

10

12

3

14

13. If m is the slope of the line, beginning at the origin, that best fits the data above, then which of the

following

must be true of m ?

(A)

m < -

1

(B)

-1

< m < 0

(C)

m = 0

(D)

0 < m < 1

(E)

m >

1

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3

3

3

3 feet

_

3

14. How many glass panels of the size and shape shown above would be needed to make a glass window measuring 20 feet by 36 feet?

(A)

75

(B)

80

(C)

100

(D)

105

(E)

120

3

3

3

3

3

16. A certain recipe uses b tablespoons of butter andf cups of flour to make a batch of cookies. If Mario wants to make a larger batch using b + 2 table- spoons of butter, how many cups of flour must he use to maintain the proportion in the original recipe?

(A)

f(b

+ 2)

 

f

(B)

b

 

b+2

-

(C) f

(D) f(b

b + 2)

(E)

}?l

b+2

15. If t is 120 percent of p and pis 50 percent of r, what is r in terms of t ?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

1

-t

3

5

17. In the figure above, one vertex of the square is

-t

3

touching the center of the circle and a second ver-

3t

tex touches a point on the circle. If one side of the square is 2, what is the area of the shaded region?

5t

(A)

8n -

4

(B)

8n '--2

(C)

8n

(D)

9n

(E)

9n -

4

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3

3

j(x)

-

1

I

S:4 I

x

S

m

3

3

3

3

-7,

3

-5,

-3,

-1,

3

0, 1,3,5,7

3

20. How many distinct products can be obtained by multiplying any two numbers in the list of numbers above?

 

(A)

9

(B)

17

(C)

19

(D)

21

18. According to the table above, ifj(x)

=

3x -1

, what

(E)

31

is the value m ?

2

(A) 1.

(B) 3

(C)

(D) 5

(E) 7

4.

19. Joe fills his 100 mL mug with b mL of coffee and then adds a mL of cream so that the mug is totally full. In terms of a, what percent of the mug is filled with coffee?

(A) 100-a%

(B) 100+a%

(C) 100-a%

100

(D)

(E)

%

100

a%

STOP

Ifyou finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only.

Do not turn to any other section

in the test.

9

9

9

9

9

9

 

SECTION

4

Time- 25 minutes

24 Questions

Turn to Section 4 of your answer sheet to answer the questions

in this section.

Directions:

ing circle on the answer sheet.

For each question in this section, select the best answer from among the choices given and fill in the correspond-

Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five words or sets of words labeled A through E. Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

3. Teresa, who is a competitive swimmer and mara- thon runner, constantly urges her friend Donna to

lead

a less

m_

and sluggish

life.

(A)

tempestuous

(B)

languid

(C)

mendacious

(E)

capricious

(D)

adept

Example:

4.

Hoping

to

the dispute,

negotiators

proposed

a compromise that they felt would be m labor and management.

to both

Roger was impressed by the

English instructor who taught in a refreshingly

animated way.

(A) insipid

(C) effervescent

style of his

(B) farcical

(D) didactic

(E) saccharine

(A)

useful

(B)

divisive

(C) overcome

unattractive

(D) satisfactory

(E)

resolve.

. acceptable

1. Ever since the town changed its zoning laws, local homeowners have united against the idea of a large

office building

m

community.

m_the

.

dynamic of their mostly

(A)

converting

commercial

(B)

polluting

friendly

(C)

juxtaposing

industrial

(D)

disrupting

residential

(E)

disengaging

rural

5. As the Spanish Civil War progressed, it became increasingly marked by foreign interventions and

shifting alliances, making for a _mm

situation that

belied the war's

m

beginnings.

(A)

convoluted

straightforward

(B)

intricate

auspicious

(C)

beleaguered

serendipitous

(D)

canonical

abrogated

(E)

retrenched

somber

2. Researchers have

the General Social Survey

regularly since 1972; therefore, it is considered to

be m

survey.

(A)

administered

a cyclical

(B)

assembled

a trifling

(C)

combined

a demographic

(D)

detached

an irregular

(E)

disclosed

an anonymous

GOONTOTHE NEXTPAGE

Each passage

below is followed by questions

based on its content. Answer

the questions

on the basis of what is stated or

impliedin each passage and in any introductory material that may be provided.

Questions6.7 are based on the following passage.

Theodore

Roosevelt'

was fond of saying "speak

softly

and carry a big stick." Interestingly, the same president

whobecame

famous for his "big stick" approach

to

~ foreigndiplomacy also won a Nobel Peace Prize. The i prizewas awarded to Roosevelt in 1906 for his diplomatic effortsto help bring an end to the Russo-Japanese war. Rooseveltalso made a large impact on domestic issues; he wasa great pioneer in breaking the monopolies of large companiesand is responsible for creating a majority of the Jnationalparks that exist today.

-:President

of the

United

States

from

1901

to

1909.

6. The author presents the quote at the beginning of the passage in order to

_

(A)

offer practical advice to the reader

(B)

emphasize

the violent nature of Roosevelt

(C)

juxtapose

it with Roosevelt's

seemingly

incongruous

award for peace

(D)

compare Roosevelt's

foreign policy to that of

the Japanese

 

(E)

explain how Roosevelt

solved the Russo-

Japanese

war

7. The main goal of the passage is to

(A)

explain Roosevelt's ties to the environmentalist movement

(B)

make the case that Roosevelt was the best U.S. President

(C)

demonstrate Roosevelt's excellent diplomatic skills

(D)

give examples of the multifaceted nature of Roosevelt's presidency

(E)

show how the presidency made Roosevelt famous

Questions 8.9 are based on the following passage.

Jane Austen famously compared her writing to "a bit of ivory, two inches wide, on which I work." This may be taken too seriously by readers who forget that Line Austen was also a master ofirony; a critical appraisal of 5 the final chapters of Pride and Prejudice suggests that while her scope might be wider than her claim suggests, her characters desperately seek to make their world ever more narrow. Consider the character of Mr. Collins. At one point he ridiculously enjoins Mr. Bennet to "throw off 10 your unworthy child from your affection forever."

8. The author employs the metaphor in the first sentence in order to

(A)

suggest that novels ought to be viewed not just as literary texts, but material objects

(B)

suggest that Austen's claims about her writing and the actions of her characters should be viewed as entirely separate

(C)

draw on it throughout the passage as the primary description for understanding Austen's methodology

(D)

introduce a discussion of Austen's use of irony in her writing

(E)

contrast it to other metaphors Austen later used to describe her writing that were more

lroUlC

9. It can be inferred from the passage that Mr. Collins was portrayed as

(A)

jocular

and amiable

(B)

reasonable

but narrow-minded

(C)

affectionate; and open-hearted

(D)

subtle and sneaky

(E)

excessive

and foolish

GOONTO THE NEXTPAGE

Questions 10-15 are based on the following passage.

Thefollowing passar;e discusses the common garden slug and its role in a garden's ecology.

Many people believe that the common garden slug is nothing more than a pest that should be exterminated. In

attempts to beautify their yards, amateur horticulturalists

Line utilize

an impressive

arsenal

of poisons,

strategically

5 chosen plants,

and gardening

techniques.

Success

is

attained only when no trace of slugs can be found, although the wary gardener watches and waits for their return, as completely ridding a garden of slugs can prove well nigh impossible.

10

Experts on gastropods and other mollusks, however, have discovered that the slug's nefarious reputation as an enemy of home gardeners may, in fact, be unwarranted to some degree. Although it is true that a slug can devour garden plants from the roots up in amazing quantities,

75

it also produces nutrients for the soil, which help other plants grow. The diet of a slug consists of plant waste and mold, as well as living plants, making this diminutive creature into a sort of natural recycling center. The unique structure of a slug's digestive system enables it to

20

take these discarded products, transform them into the nutrients that plants need to thrive, and then release those nutrients harmlessly by means of viscous, slime-like excretions. Moreover, these excretions are a way for seeds and pores to be dispersed, promoting new growth.

25

To some, it may seem that this situation is irresolvable. No gardener wants to sacrifice his or her plants just to gain a few nutrients that could easily be provided by means of fertilizers, and the slug seems able to survive all manner of attacks only to return to munching on the

30

marigolds the next night. In order to achieve a balance, both slug and gardener may have to compromise some things, but that balance can be achieved. There are several things that a gardener can do when he or she finds slugs in the garden, without resorting to chemical warfare. One

35

relatively easy step is to segregate plants with high slug appeal from those with low appeal. That way, the sections of the garden dedicated to plants with high slug appeal can contain plants that the gardener is willing to sacrifice so as to protect those plants that have a lower slug appeal.

40

This will help keep some plants safe while not wasting time and energy on a futile attempt to drive out the slugs. Another possibility is to leave some ground-covering plants in a less tidy state, since slugs particularly enjoy semi-decayed plant matter, molds, and fungi. The slugs

45

will then be drawn toward this decaying matter instead of toward the living plants. Copper edging can also help keep selected garden plots slug-free, as the metal gives

inquisitive slugs a slight electric shock, just strong e~ough to keep them out. These suggestions can all be combined

50

to help promote the natural health of a garden while allowing slugs to live and provide their valuable services. These measures may seem cumbersome, but they are still preferable to commercial slug repellents for several reasons. The topsoil of a garden is often highly lacking

55

in nutrients, due to chemical damage caused by just such products, along with a lack of crop rotation. The fertilizer industry is extremely robust, selling millions of pounds of dirt mixed with the nutrients necessary for the development of a healthy garden every year. These are the

60

very same minerals that a healthy slug population would provide at no cost. Moreover, since slugs find deceased slugs highly appetizing, the slug population is unlikely to diminish significantly as a result of these drastic measures. Even where the slugs are driven away, these

65

measures tend only to be effective for a short while. It seems that in attempting to attain the pristine appearance so cherished by most people, amateur gardeners unwittingly contribute to the ruination of their soil, thereby creating a vicious cycle: contamination, followed

70

by artificial regeneration and a slow depletion of natural resources, which in turn causes more contamination. Holistically speaking, frustrating though it may be to see a beautifully manicured garden criss-crossed with slug trails and pock-marked with holes caused by the

75

slugs' dinner, the knowledgeable gardener might overlook these annoyances in favor of a naturally balanced garden, one that can be maintained without the use of costly and potentially harmful substitutes. Perhaps one day the slug will be seen as the gardener's friend! Until then, at least

80

think twice before grabbing the slug bait the next time you see one of these fascinating fellows.

10. The author would most likely agree with which of the following?

(A)

Leaving

slugs partially

unharmed

could

provide

a more cost-efficient

way to fertilize

a garden.

(B)

Slugs, although

potentially

beneficial,

that they deserve to be

 

are so damaging exterminated.

(C)

Gardeners

should never use toxic chemicals

of

any sort in their gardens.

(D)

Commercially

sold slug repellents

are highly

effective.

(E)

Essential

plant nutrients

can only be found in

slug trails.

GOONTOTHE NEXTPAGE

9

11. The author suggests

that the slug be considered

"a

sort of natural recycling center" (line 18) due to

14. Slugs are described following EXCEPT

as willing to eat all of the

(A)

the fact that it is a cheaper

way to get rid of

 

plant waste than is hiring people

(B)

its tendency

to collect debris from the garden

ftoor

(C)

the cyclical renewal

of its outer skin

 

(D)

the ease with which it returns to an

undeveloped

ecology

15.

(E)

its ability to transform

plant waste into

valuable

minerals

12. The author implies that topsoil is lacking in nutrients for which of the following reasons?

I. The repeated planting of the same crops every year

(A)

decaying

plants

(B)

topsoil

(C)

mold

(D)

other slugs

(E)

living plants

Line 43 proposes that gardeners leave parts of their gardens "in a less tidy state" so as to

(A)

revitalize the soil in that area

(B)

discourage slugs from eating those plants

(C)

make the gardens look more natural

(D)

draw slugs away from other live plants

(E)

confuse the slugs who use their own trails to find their way

II. The high acid content of slug trails

III. The lingering after-effects of certain pesticides

(A)

I only

(B)

II only

(C)

I and III only

(D)

I, II, and III

(E)

None of the above

13. The author's

one of

attitude toward the slug seems to be

(A)

righteous

indignation

(B)

malevolent

revulsion

(C)

academic

interest

(D)

patronizing

condescension

(E)

baffled confusion

9

Questions

9

9

16-24 are based on the following

9

passage.

The following passage was taken from a history of the

telephone written in 1910. This excerpt speculates on the

future

of telephone

The telephone

technology.

system of the future

will be national,

so that any two people in the same country will be able to talk to one another.

Line

"The problems

never were as large or as complex

5

as they are right now," says 1. 1. Carty, the chief of

the telephone

between

see what might be and the men who only see what IS

The distance

engineers.

The eternal

struggle

remains the men who

the large and little ideas-between

over which conversations

can be held has

10 been increased

from twenty

miles to twenty-five

hundred.

But this is not far enough. In the earliest days of the telephone,

of prophesying that "the time will come when we will talk across the Atlantic Ocean"; but this was regarded

BelJl was fond

15

as a poetical fancy until Pupin2 invented his method of automatically propelling the electric current. Since then the most conservative engineer will discuss the problem of transatlantic telephony. And as for the poets, they are now dreaming of the time when a man may speak and

20

hear his own voice come back to him around the world.

The immediate

long-distance

problem

is, of course,

 

to talk from New York to the Pacific. The two oceans

are

now only three and a half days apart by rail. Seattle is clamoring for a wire to the East. San Diego wants one in

25

time for her Panama Canal Exposition in 19]5. The wires are already strung to San Francisco, but cannot be used in the present stage of the art.

"I can see a universal

system of telephony

for the

United States in the very near future," says Carty. "There

30

is a statue of Seward3 standing in one of the streets of Seattle. The inscription upon it is, 'To a United Country.' But as an Easterner stands there, he feels the isolation of

that Far Western

State, and he will always feel it, until he

can talk from one side of the United States to the other.

35

For my part," continues Carty, "I believe we will talk across continents and across oceans. Why not? Are there

not more cells in one human in the whole earth?"

body than there are people

As yet, no nation, not even our own, has seen the

 

40

full value of the long-distance telephone. Few have the imagination to see what has been made possible, and to realize that an actual face-to-face conversation may take place, even though there be a thousand miles between. Ultimately, there can be no doubt that long-distance

45

telephony will be regarded as a national asset of the

 

highest

value, for the reason

that it can prevent so much of

the enormous

economic

waste of travel.

300 . IIPRACTICETESTSFOR THE NEW SAT & PSAT

9

9

There are many reasons

9

to believe that for the

practical idealists of the future, the supreme study will

50

be the force that makes such miracles possible. The

Electrical Age has not yet arrived, but it is at hand; no one can tell how brilliant the result may be, when the creative minds of a nation are focused upon the subdua] of this mysterious force, which has more power and more

55

delicacy

than any other force that man has been able to

harness.

'

As a tame and tractable

energy, Electricity

is new.

It has no past and no pedigree.

It is younger than many

people who are now alive. Among

the wise men of

60

Greece

and Rome, few knew its existence,

and none put

it to any practical use. The wisest knew that a piece of

amber, when rubbed,

will attract feathery

substances.

But they regarded this as poetry rather than science. Not for two tho~sand years did anyone dream that within

65

its golden heart lay hidden the secret of a new electrical civilization.

Thus it happened

telephone,

that when Bell invented the the world with a new idea. He

he surprised

had to make the thought

as well as the thing. No Ju]es

70

Verne or H. G. Wells4 had foreseen

it. In these more

privileged days, the telephone has come to be regarded as a commonplace fact of everyday life; and we are apt

to forget that the wonder of it has become less.

greater

and not

75

In these dazzling days it is idle to predict. The inventor has everywhere put the prophet out of business. Fact has outrun Fancy. When Morses, for instance, was tacking up his first little line of wire around the Speedwell Iron Works, who could have foreseen two

80

hundred and fifty thousand miles of submarine cables, by which the very oceans are all aquiver with the news of the world? And when Bell stood in a dingy workshop in Boston and heard the clang of a clock-spring come over an electric wire, who could have foreseen the.

85

massive structure of the Bell System, built up by half the telephones of the world, and by the investment of more actual capital than has gone to the making of any other industrial association? Who could have foreseen what the

telephone bells have done to ring out the old ways and

90 to ring in the new; to ring out delay and isolation

and to

ring in the efficiency and the friendliness of a truly united people?

I Inventor

of the telephone

(1847-1922)

2 Pioneering scientist in the field of electronics (1858-1935)

J U.S. Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln (1801-1872)

4Jules Verne and H.G. Wells were nineteenth-century writers.

5 Inventor of the telegraph (1791-1872)

science-fiction

GOONTO THE NEXTPAGE

,

II [I

~

[I

~

[I

16. The primary

purpose

of the passage

is to

(A)

describe

the historical

factors that led to the

invention

of the telephone

(B)

propose solutions

to the engineering

problems

that hindered

early use of the telephone

(C)

explain how the telephone

was instrumental

in making

the United States a truly united

nation

(D)

argue that the invention

of the telephone

was

one of the most significant times

events of modern

(E)

draw attention

to the momentous

and

unprecedented

nature of the invention

of the

telephone

17. Lines 16-18 ("Since

telephony.")

most strongly

suggest which of the following?

(A)

Most conservative engineers in 1910 were familiar with Pupin's method of automatically propelling electricity.

(B)

Conservative engineers in 1910 were similar to poets in their belief that a telephone will eventually be able to transmit messages across the world.

(C)

Conservative engineers in 1910 no longer considered a transatlantic telephone system impractical.

(D)

Most conservative engineers in 1910 were working on the problem of establishing a telephone line connecting New York to Seattle.

(E)

Few conservative engineers in 1910 took the problem of transatlantic communication seriously.

18. Carty's statement in lines 36-38 ("Are there

not

whole earth?")

implies that

(A)

the telephone

will be used by a great number

of people

(B)

it is not foolish to imagine seems outlandish

something

that

(C)

the invention

of the telephone

shares

similarities

with advances

in medical

science

(D)

the feeling of isolation experienced by two people separated by a great distance is as common as the cells of the human body are

(E)

Carty is as certain about the fate of a worldwide telephone system as he is about details of human anatomy

[I

[I

n

[I

~

~

[I

~

19.

The author refers to long-distance

telephony

as an

"asset"

(line 45) because

(A)

long-distance telephony allows communication without the time and money associated with long-distance journeys

(B)

many companies will profit from the implementation of long-distance telephony

(C)

long-distance telephony will allow face- to- face conversations to occur easily and cheaply

(D)

any nation that possesses long-distance telephony has an advantage over a nation that does not

(E)

at least one twentieth

of the nation's

wealth

 

has been invested in the development telephone

of the

20.

As used in the passage,

"tractable"

(line 57) means

(A)

controllable

(B)

theoretical

(C)

weak

(D)

versatile

(E)

changeable

21.

The author would most likely describe Bell's invention of the telephone with the words

 

(A)

"delay and isolation" (line 90)

(B)

"practical use" (line 61)

(C)

"universal system" (line 28)

(D)

"poetical fancy" (line 15)

(E)

"who could have foreseen" (line 88)

22.

The author mentions the "wise men of Greece"

(lines 59-60) primarily to

(A)

support the assertion

that not even the most

learned

scholars knew about electricity

(B)

contrast

scientists

of antiquity

with Morse and

Bell

(C)

emphasize

how radically

electricity

different the idea of

harnessing

was

(D)

ridicule

ancient scholars

for confusing

science

with poetry

(E)

show how legends impeded

the progress

of

scientific

discovery

GO ONTO THE NEXTPAGE

23. The author states that "In these dazzling

days it is

24. Which of the following

would be the most logical

idle to predict"

(line 75) in order to

choice for a new paragraph one?

to come after the final

(A)

show how wrong earlier science-fiction

writers

were in not predicting

the telephone

(A)

A paragraph discussing the growing problems

(B)

indicate that science and religion

overlap

with the telephone.

dangerously

(B)

A paragraph detailing recent innovations in

(C)

lament that there are no longer any fancies

the field of telephone technology.

.

that science has not achieved

(C)

A paragraph comparing the works of Morse

(D)

emphasize the speed of technical progress at the time the author was writing

and Bell to predietions made by science- fiction writers.

(E)

demonstrate that even Morse and Bell

(D)

A paragraph outlining the impact of the

were astounded

by the pace of scientific

telephone on modern family life.

breakthroughs

(E)

A paragraph weighing the economic costs of the telephone system.

STOP

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section in the test.

5

5

5

c:::J

SECTION 5

Time -

25 minutes

18 Questions

Turn to Section 5 of your answer sheet to answer the questions

5

in this section.

5

Directions: This section contains two types of questions. You have 25 minutes to complete both types. For questions 1-8, solve each problem and decide which is the best of the choices given. Fill in the corresponding circle on the answer sheet. You may use any available space for scratchwork.

1. The use of a calculator is permitted.

2. All numbers used are real numbers.

3. Figures that accompany problems in this test are intended to provide information useful in solving the problems. They are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific problem that the figure is not drawn to scale. All figures lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated.

4. Unless otherwise specified, the domain of any functionfis f(x) is a real number.

assumed to be the set of all real numbers x for which

The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360. The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180.

1.

If x -

3 = 8, then (x - 4? =

(A)

25

(B)

49

(C)

64

(D)

81

(E)

121

304. 11PRACTICE TESTS FOR THE NEW SAT & PSAT

Degrees

Radians

Degrees-Radians

0"

0

90"

1t

-

2

Conversion

180"

1t

360"

P

2. In the table above, what is the value of p ?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

1

31t

-

2

21t

51t

-

2

31t

r-

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

720"

4rc

5

5

Note: Figure not drawn to scale.

5

3. In the figure above, 0 is the center of the circle. What is the measure of LMNO ?

(A)

30°

(B)

60°

(C)

90°

(D)

120°

(E)

180°

4.

Iff(x) = 3x2+ 7, for which of the following values

of x

doesf(x)

= 19 ?

(A)

-4

(B)

-2

(C)

.0

(D)

1

(E)

4

5.

A babysitter is trying to determine the ages of three children, Jerome, Keenan, and Leitha. She knows the following facts about their ages: the sum of Jerome's and Keenan's ages is 20 years; the sum of Jerome's and Leitha's ages is 21 years; and the sum of Keenan's and Leitha's ages is 23 years. How many years old is Leitha?

(A)

9

(B)

10

(C)

11

(D)

12

(E)

13

c::::J

5

Weekly allowance

5

Number of third-graders receiving that allowance

$2

1

$3

3

$5

3

$8

2

$10

6. A study recorded the weekly allowances received by 10 third-graders, as shown in the table above. What is the average (arithmetic mean) w~ekly allowance received by a third-grader in the study?

(A)

$5.00

(B)

$5.20

(C)

$5.60

(D)

$6.00

(E)

$6.20

7. The three-digit integer ABC is formed from the dig- its A, B, and C, where A = ab, B = bc, and C = ac. If a is an element of {1, 3}, b is an element of {2, 3}, and c is an element of {I, 2}, then which of the following numbers CANNOT be ABC?

(A)

221

(B)

222

(C)

262

(D)

313

(E)

646

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

5

5

5

8. Seven members of the school band-Aretha, Ben- ny, Charles, Darryl, Ella, Frances, and Gerald- have been selected to playa special jazz tribute for the governor's office. For the tribute, the governor's office will arrange these members standing in a row of seven spots on a platform, subject to the follow- ing restrictions:

Charles must stand in the middle spot.

Aretha must stand in the leftmost

spot.

There must be exactly two spots between Benny and Frances.

Darryl cannot stand next to Charles.

In which of the following pairs could neither person be placed in the last position from the left?

(A)

Benny and Darryl

(B)

Darryl and Aretha

(C)

Charles and Ella

(D)

Benny and Frances

(E)

Ella and Gerald

306 . 11 PRACTICETESTSFORTHENEWSAT& PSAT

5

c:::J

5

GOONTOTHE NEXTPAGE

5

5

5

5

5

Directions: For Student-Produced Response questions 9-18, use the grids at the bottom of the answer sheet page on which you have answered questions 1-8.

Eachof the remaining 10 questions requires you to solve the problem and enter your answer by marking the circles in the special grid, as shown in the examples below. You may use any available space for scratchwork.

Write answer

in boxes.

Grid in

result.

Fraction

line

· Mark no more than one circle in any column.

· Because the answer sheet will be machine-

scored, you will receive credit only if the circles are filled in correctly.

.Although not required, it is suggested that you

write your answer in the boxes at the top of the columns to help you fill in the circles accurately.

.Some problems may have more than one correct answer. In such cases, grid only one answer.

. No question has a negative answer.

· Mixed numbers

such as 3 4 must be gridded as

3.5 or 7/2. (If ~

interpreted as l!, 2

CD.

.

not 3.1.) 2

is gridded,

it will be

9. If 8a + 4 = lOa, what is the value of a ?

Answer: 2.5

Answer: 201 Either position is correct.

2

.15

2

0

1

2

0

1

CDCD

Q

@@@

CDCf)i(f5Cf)

e.

--Decimal

point

01000

@e@

CDCDCDe

WeWW

@@@@

W W W W ~~

0000

e@@

CD CD

CD CD

.CDCDe

eWWW

@@@@

G)1G)1G)c0-

CD

WeWW

@@@@

WWWW

WWWe

CIDCIDCIDCID

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Note: You may start your answers in any column, space permitting. Columns not needed should be left blank.

. Decimal Answers:

If you obtain a decimal answer

with more digits than the grid can accommodate, it may be either rounded or truncated, but it must fill the entire grid. For example, if you obtain

, your result as .666 or .667. A less accurate value such as .66 or .67 will be scored as incorrect.

an answer such as 0.6666

you should record