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at the same time.


Window: TCP senders use a number called window size to regulate how much data they send to a
receiver before requiring an acknowledgment in return. If the window size becomes too small,
network data transfer will be unnecessarily slow, while if the window size becomes too large, the
network link can become saturated (unusable for any other applications) or the receiver may not be
able to process incoming data quickly enough (also resulting in slow performance).

Checksum: The checksum value inside a TCP header is generated by the protocol sender as a
mathematical technique to help the receiver detect messages that are corrupted or tampered with.

Urgent Pointer: The urgent pointer is valid only if the URG flag is set. TCP's urgent mode is a way for
the sender to transmit emergency data to the other end. This feature is rarely used.

2] UDP (User Datagram Protocol): UDP is a Transport Layer protocol. UDP is a part of Internet
Protocol suite, referred as UDP/IP suite. Unlike TCP, it is unreliable and connectionless protocol. So,
there is no need to establish connection prior to data transfer.
UDP provides two services not provided by the IP layer. It provides port numbers to help distinguish
different user requests and, optionally, a checksum capability to verify that the data arrived intact.
UDP just sends the packets, which means that it has much lower bandwidth overhead and latency.
With UDP, packets may take different paths between sender and receiver and, as a result, some
packets may be lost or received out of order.
UDP permits packets to be dropped instead of processing delayed packets. There is no error checking
in UDP, so it also save bandwidth.
UDP Header Format:

Fig. 3.2.2.4 UDP Header Format

Source Port. 16 bits: The port number of the sender. Cleared to zero if not used.

Destination Port. 16 bits: The port number of the receiver.

Length. 16 bits: The length in bytes of the UDP header and the encapsulated data. The minimum
value for this field is 8.

Checksum: This field stores the checksum value generated by the sender before sending. IPv4 has
this field as optional so when checksum field does not contain any value it is made 0 and all its bits are
set to zero.