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Three-dimensional Stress Analysis and Weibull Statistics based Strength Prediction in Open Hole Composites

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www.elsevier.com/locate/compositesa

strength prediction in open hole composites

a,*

E.V. Iarve , R. Kim a, D. Mollenhauer b

a

University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park Avenue, Dayton, OH 45469-0168, United States

b

US Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/MLBC, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7750, United States

Received 6 January 2005; received in revised form 5 January 2006; accepted 7 January 2006

Abstract

The critical failure volume (CFV) method is proposed. CFV is deﬁned as a ﬁnite subvolume in a material with general nonuniform

stress distribution, which has the highest probability of failure, i.e. loss of load carrying capacity. The evaluation of the probability of

failure of the subvolumes is performed based on the lowest stress and thus provides an estimate of the lower bound of the probability of

local failure. An algorithm for identifying this region, based on isostress surface parameterization is proposed. It is shown that in the case

of material with strength following Weibull weak link statistics such a volume exists and its location and size are deﬁned both by the

stress distribution and the scatter of strength. Moreover the probability of failure predicted by using the CFV method was found to

be close to that predicted by using traditional Weibull integral method and coincide with it in the case of uniform stress ﬁelds and in

the limit of zero scatter of strength. Experiments performed on homogeneous epoxy resin plaques with and without holes showed that

the predictions bound the experimentally measured open hole strength. The Weibull parameters used for prediction were obtained from

testing only unnotched specimens of diﬀerent dimensions. The eﬀect of the hole size on tensile strength of heterogeneous materials such as

quasi-isotropic carbon–epoxy composite laminates was considered next. Fiber failure was the only failure mechanism taken into account

and a strain-based failure criterion was used in the form of a two parameter Weibull distribution. The stacking sequence was selected to

minimize the eﬀect of stress redistribution due to subcritical damage. Not unexpectedly an up to 30% underprediction of the strength of

the laminates with small (2.54 mm diameter) holes was observed by using classical Weibull integral method as well as Weibull based CFV

method. It was explained by examining the size of the CFV, which appeared to be below Rosen’s ineﬀective length estimate. The CFV

method was modiﬁed to account for the presence of a limit scaling size of six ineﬀective lengths, consistent with recent Monte-Carlo

simulations by Landis et al. [Landis CM, Beyerlin IJ, McMeeking RM. Micromechanical simulation of the failure of ﬁber reinforced

composites. Mech Phys Solids 2000;48:621–48] and was able to describe the experimentally observed magnitude of the hole size eﬀect

on composite tensile strength in the examined range of 2.54–15.24 mm hole diameters.

2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: A. Laminates; B. Stress concentrations; C. Statistical properties/methods; C. Numerical analysis; Open hole

posite design in the aerospace industry. Both approaches

Strength of composite materials with stress concentra- are two-parameter models, where the notched strength is

tions is a central design issue often dictating the design predicted based on the unnotched strength and an addi-

allowables for the entire structure. In 1970s two empirical tional parameter having a dimension of length. In Waddo-

methods, Waddoups et al. [1] and Nuismer and Whitney ups et al. [1] the length parameter represents an inherent

ﬂaw size, and in the Whitney and Nuismer model, it is the

characteristic distance from the edge of the hole. It should

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 937 2559075; fax: +1 937 2588075. be mentioned that the inherent ﬂaw concept used in the ﬁrst

E-mail address: endel.iarve@wpafb.af.mil (E.V. Iarve). model is not a physical model of inherent ﬂaw evolution but

1359-835X/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2006.01.004

E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185 175

a fracture mechanics-based phenomenological model where strength prediction is highly mesh dependent. Shahid and

the size of this ‘‘ﬁctitious ﬂaw’’ is determined based on Chang [9] oﬀered a practical solution to alleviate the severe

notched strength. Once the size of the ﬁctitious ﬂaw is deter- mesh dependency of the tensile failure prediction by mak-

mined for a given laminate for one hole size, the model is ing the property degradation coeﬃcient dependent upon

capable of predicting the hole size eﬀect, i.e. a signiﬁcant the area of the region where tensile ﬁber failure is detected.

increase of net tensile strength with hole size reduction. In Nevertheless it still did not address the underprediction of

the second model a characteristic distance is also deter- ﬁber failure initiation.

mined based on a notched strength for a given hole size, Weibull’s statistical theory of strength [10] provides an

so that the stress at this distance away from the hole edge integral form allowing one to calculate the upper bound

would reach the unnotched strength at failure. Besides this of probability of failure in brittle materials in the presence

approach, called the point stress failure criterion, an aver- of stress gradients based on distribution of strength

age stress criterion was also proposed where the stress obtained for uniformly stressed samples. In this case the

was averaged over a certain (characteristic) distance from Weibull modulus, characterizing the scatter of strength,

the hole edge. Similar to the fracture mechanics approach, becomes the parameter deﬁning the notch sensitivity. Wu

the point and average stress criterion were able to predict [11] for the ﬁrst time applied the integral form of the Wei-

the hole size eﬀect on strength of notched composites. How- bull distribution to predict the notched strength in the

ever, none of the additional scaling parameters proved to quasi-isotropic composites. A tensor polynomial function

represent a material property across a family of composite [12] was used in the Weibull integral to account for com-

laminates with diﬀerent layups. Nevertheless, both models plexity and interaction of the failure modes. It was shown

are widely used in the industry for sizing design. A key that the predictions are in agreement with the experimental

aspect of these models is that no notched strength predic- data of Nuismer and Whitney [2], showing the hole size

tion can be made based on the data determined by testing eﬀect on the notched tensile strength. Wetherhold and

unnotched composites only. The knowledge of notched Whitney [13] applied the integral form of Weibull’s distri-

strength is required to calculate the value of the additional bution to predict the hole size eﬀect in quasi-isotropic lam-

length parameter. inates. A one-dimensional approximation of the Weibull

A signiﬁcant body of work has been devoted to strength volume integral in the radial direction was introduced. As

prediction in notched composites based on ﬁnite element a result of this simpliﬁcation, the predicted mean values

methods combined with element property degradation of stress appeared signiﬁcantly lower than the experimental

rules. Lee [3] performed the ﬁrst 3D ﬁnite element stress data, however the hole size eﬀect trend was clearly demon-

analysis combined with the property degradation technique strated. In later works Wetherhold [14] extended their work

for damage modeling and strength prediction in open hole to include interactive failure criterion (see [15]). Gurvich

composites. The property degradation was performed by and Pipes [16] developed the theoretical aspects of reliabil-

fully degrading (multiplying by D = 106) the stiﬀness ity of composites in random stress states considering full

component responsible for the type of damage for which anisotropy of random strength properties. A generalization

the stress component exceeded its ultimate value. Although of this approach was also proposed by Gurvich [17] to

far preceding its time in its level of analysis ﬁdelity, the account for the strength size eﬀect and moderate nonuni-

application of such intuitive property degradation rules formity of 3D distributions of random stresses. The stress

leads to strong mesh sensitivity of the strength prediction distribution in the cited works was based on lamination

for notched laminates and unrealistic strength predictions theory. No estimate of the size of the critical region of most

if applied to unnotched laminates. The latter was addressed likely failure was performed.

by developing laminate level property degradation tech- In the pioneering work of Kortshot and Beaumont [18],

niques based on internal damage variables methods devel- the strength of laminates with a through-the-thickness

oped by Talreja [4] and Lee et al. [5]. Nguen [6] extended crack was considered. Two types of damage, namely longi-

this methodology [4] and applied it for 3D strength predic- tudinal splitting and delamination, were parametrically

tion of open hole composite strength. Simpliﬁed algorithms introduced into the so-called 212D analysis method, where

for notched strength prediction, where the damage vari- each delaminated portion as well as the intact laminate

ables are determined a priori and ﬁxed, were proposed by were considered as a separate plain stress plates. Account-

Tan [7]. A stiﬀness reduction coeﬃcient D1 (0.007) was ing for these two types of damage was critical to predict the

used to reduce the longitudinal modulus inside the ﬁnite stress relaxation in the ﬁber direction in the 0 ply. The

element, for which the tensile ﬁber failure criterion was laminate failure load was then predicted by applying the

reached. Camanho and Matthews [8] extended this integral form of Weibull scaling. The authors also reported

approach to 3D analysis in composite fastener joints. The that in calculation of the Weibull’s integral, most of the

common shortcoming of these methods in the problems contribution came from a small region near the stress con-

dealing with stress concentration is the lack of strength centration. The method of stress analysis used by the

scaling mechanisms. The failure criteria signiﬁcantly authors, although not 3D in nature, provided accurate ﬁber

(30–40%) underpredicts the ﬁber failure origination loads stresses in these regions of the delaminated section of the 0

in the elements adjacent to the hole, and the subsequent plies.

176 E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185

Recently de Morais [19] performed 3D/2D global local where dv = det(J) dx dy dz in Cartesian coordinates and J is

ﬁnite element analysis in quasi-isotropic composite lami- the Jacobian matrix. Integral (2) is derived by subdividing

nates with open holes. His results showed signiﬁcant diﬀer- the nonuniformly loaded specimen into an inﬁnite number

ence between the stress concentration factor (in-plane stress of inﬁnitesimal cells, each being loaded by stress r(x),

in the ﬁber direction at the edge of the hole) calculated by which can be assumed constant within the cell. The expo-

using lamination theory and the average stress concentra- nent in Eq. (2) expresses the probability of simultaneous

tion factors in individual plies computed by the global– survival of all mesh cells (each under a diﬀerent stress),

local approach. To predict the strength of the notched assuming that the probability of failure of each mesh cell

composite, a simple relationship was introduced for the is given by (1). Physically F can be interpreted as the prob-

strength of the notched composite ruN as ability of damage initiation anywhere in the volume of the

vf ruf specimen and therefore interpreted as an upper bound of

ruN ¼ ; the probability of failure. Eqs. (1) and (2) relate events

K t1

on the same scale. Indeed if the specimens tested to deﬁne

where vf is the ﬁber volume fraction, Kt1 is the stress con- the function B(r) were unnotched quasi-isotropic lami-

centration in the 0 ply calculated by using the global–local nates, then Eq. (2) can be used to estimate the upper bound

approach, and ruf is the average tensile strength of the ﬁ- of the probability of failure of the same notched quasi-iso-

bers on a length scale linked to the hole diameter. The tropic laminate. In this case the volume integration is re-

apparent consequence of this assumption results in predic- duced to 2D in-plane integral since the thickness

tion of the same scatter in their distribution, whereas the direction in both cases is the same. The integrand in Eq.

ﬁber strength is characterized by much larger scatter than (2) is generally a very nonuniform function of coordinates

that of the composites for reasons explained by Rosen [20]. and often dominated by the contribution of only a small

The focus of the present paper is on predicting the volume near the stress concentration. We shall discuss

catastrophic ﬁber failure in the presence of stress concen- the physical meaning of such a critical volume in the next

tration. As shown by Iarve et al. [21], even in the quasi- section. It is conceivable that this volume is small as com-

isotropic composites, signiﬁcant redistributions of the pared to the characteristic size of the scale at which the

stress magnitude due to splitting in the 0 ply are possible problem is considered. In the example at hand, i.e. notched

for certain stacking sequences, in particular with the outer strength of the quasi-isotropic laminates, the characteristic

0 plies. By selecting the experimental data from the open scale size is the thickness of the laminate. Indeed, if most of

literature, we tried to avoid such stacking sequences and the contribution to integral (2) is coming from a small re-

assumed that the stress ﬁeld in the pristine composite gion near the hole edge with a characteristic dimension of

deﬁnes its strength. We shall consider the highly stressed less than a laminate thickness, the accuracy of the predic-

near-hole volume, introduce a measure of critical failure tion is questionable, because of the 3D stress distribution

volume and discuss its physical meaning. Two types of in this region, which is neglected in the 2D (lamination the-

stress analysis will be considered: two-dimensional analy- ory) analysis.

sis, based on lamination theory, and three-dimensional In the case of the shape function B(r) in traditional

ply level stress analysis based on displacement spline power form

approximation developed by Iarve [22]. a

r

BðrÞ ¼ ; ð3Þ

b

2. Determination of the critical failure volume

one can rewrite Eq. (2) in the form

rw a

2.1. Deﬁnitions and traditional Weibull integral F ¼ 1 e ð b Þ ; ð4Þ

Consider a population of test samples each having a vol- where

ume V0 and loaded so that the state of stress in each sample Z 1=a

is uniform. Set r the single stress component or a combina- 1 a

rw ¼ ðrðxÞÞ dv ð5Þ

tion, such as the tensor polynomial function in Wu [11], V0 V

which controls the strength of that sample. Weibull weak is called the Weibull stress [29]. A direct observation which

link statistics is then based on the assumption that the can be made from (5) is that in linear elasticity, Weibull

probability of failure for a sample of similar specimens of stress is proportional to loading, and thus the distribution

arbitrary volume is (4) and consequently (3) will have exactly the same shape

f ðr; V Þ ¼ 1 e

VV BðrÞ

0 . ð1Þ parameter a as (1). This was shown earlier by Wetherhold

and Whitney [13], where instead of introducing the Weibull

Eq. (1) can also be generalized [10] for nonuniform stress stress, a similar manipulation was applied to recalculate b.

ﬁelds as In the case of multiaxial stress state failure in composites is

R described by a failure criteria, i.e. Tsai and Wu [12]. Such

1 BðrðxÞÞ dv

F ¼ 1 e V0 V ; ð2Þ formal extensions of Eqs. (1) and (2) are discussed by

E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185 177

Wu [11]. However, the conceptual diﬃculty is that diﬀerent This function is equal to the volume of the specimen with

failure modes in composite materials do not exhibit similar stress higher or equal to qrm. In this case

statistical/scaling properties as reviewed by Wisnom [30]

V c ¼ vðqc Þ; rc ¼ qc rm ; ð10Þ

and thus no physical basis was established to application

of Eqs. (1) and (2) in general multiaxial loading cases. where

f ðqc rm ; vðqc ÞÞ ¼ max f ðqrm ; vðqÞÞ. ð11Þ

2.2. Critical failure volume in Weibull media q

In this section we shall discuss the physical meaning of

the critical or most likely local failure region in the presence fc ¼ f ðqc rm ; vðqc ÞÞ. ð12Þ

of stress concentration. As mentioned previously, integral

(2) provides the probability of failure initiation, i.e. failure Without limitation of generality one can assume that the

of an inﬁnitesimal volume. We shall determine below the stress distribution is continuous, which means that the

probability of failure of a ﬁnite volume and its size. function f(qrm, v(q)) is as well. Depending upon the stress

The failure or loss of load carrying capacity was deﬁned distribution which deﬁnes the volume function v(q), this

only for uniformly loaded specimens as their apparent function can have complex shape. For a typical open hole

strength, described by distribution function (1). Transition- problem and shape function B(r) in the form (3), one ob-

ing to a nonuniform stress state is based on the assumption tains f = 0 for q = 0 and q = 1, meaning that the function

that the probability of failure P of a nonuniformly stressed f(qrm, v(q)) will have at least one local maximum (f P 0)

specimen with stress distribution r(x) and the probability for 0 < q < 1. The fact that f = 0 for q = 1 follows from

of failure (1) of the same specimen under uniform state the premise that the maximum stress is attained at a point

of stress ru are related associated with zero volume, i.e. v(1) = 0.

For an arbitrary volume Vq with an isostress qrm

P P f ðru ; V Þ; ð6Þ boundary, one can write

Z

if BðrðxÞÞ dv P Bðqrm ÞV q ;

Vq

ru ¼ minðrðxÞÞ. ð7Þ

x2V

where B(r) is a monotonic function, and qrm is the mini-

The estimate given by Eq. (6) is not very useful when ap- mum value of stress in the integration volume. Thus the

plied to the entire volume of the specimen. On the other probability F calculated by integral (2) always satisﬁes

hand, one can select a ﬁnite region in the nonuniformly the inequality

loaded specimen, which has a volume Vi and minimum

F P fc . ð13Þ

stress of ri, and calculate the probability of failure for this

subvolume f(ri, Vi). Suppose that we have found a subre- Direct calculation shows that for homogeneous state of

gion with volume Vc and minimum stress rc, for which this stress, F and fc reduce to (1), where v(q) = V (total volume)

probability is the highest, i.e. for any q.

As will be shown in examples, the probabilities F and fc

f ðrc ; V c Þ ¼ max f ðri ; V i Þ; ð8Þ will be close and approach each other for a ! 1. Besides

i

the probability of failure, we will be interested in the aver-

where index i scans all subregions of the specimen. Then age values of strength resulting from criteria (2) and (12).

the subregion Vc will have the highest probability of local As mentioned before, both criteria will result in Weibull-

failure, and we will call it critical failure volume (CFV). type stress distributions with the same shape parameter a.

Identiﬁcation of the CFV and calculation of its failure For Weibull distribution (1) with shape function (3), the

probability is easily performed in the case of ﬁnite maxi- average value of strength ra and the coeﬃcient of variation

mum stress. Although two-parameter function (3) is used x (standard variation divided by average value) are given

in this study, other more complex distributions may be by well known equations:

considered as well. Such distributions, e.g. Gurvich et al.

1=a

[28], may be helpful to capture more sophisticated nonlin- V0 1

ear size eﬀects, i.e. where relationships between logarithms ra ¼ b C 1þ ; ð14aÞ

V a

of average strength and size parameter are nonlinear sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

functions. Cð1 þ 2=aÞ

x¼ 1; ð14bÞ

Denote the ﬁnite maximum stress magnitude as rm. C2 ð1 þ 1=aÞ

Introduce a set of isostress surfaces qirm, q0 = 1 > q1 >

q2 > q3 > 0. Consider a continuous function v(q), where C-denotes the gamma function. By using Eqs. (1), (3)

0 6 q 6 1: and (14a), one can ﬁnd the average strength value for a

known a if the probability of failure is known for just

vðqÞ ¼ volðV q Þ; x 2 V q () rðxÞ P qrm . ð9Þ one value of r, i.e. f is equal to f1 for r = r1. In this case

178 E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185

1=a 1 ble problem if using standard ﬁnite element programs. A B-

ra ¼ r1 ð lnð1 f1 ÞÞ C 1þ . ð15Þ

a spline displacement approximation approach developed by

Iarve [22] was shown to provide highly accurate stress solu-

Eq. (15) will be used to calculate the average strength for

tions in the immediate vicinities of the ply interface and

both the upper F and lower fc estimates of the probability

hole edge intersections, where there is singular stress

of failure, which will inversely result in lower and upper

behavior.

average strength estimates. Finally, it is worth mentioning

Three-dimensional approximation is built by using the

that Eq. (14a) provides a formal way to calculate the Wei-

tensor product of one-dimensional approximations. Con-

bull modulus a for a set of experimental data with known

sider an elementary cube [0, 1]3 in local x1, x2, x3 coordinate

coeﬃcient of variation by solving a nonlinear equation.

system, then the 3D displacement approximation can be

written as

3. Stress analysis and v(q) function calculation XXX

uðx1 x2 x3 Þ ¼ X i ðx1 ÞY j ðx2 ÞZ k ðx3 ÞUijk ; ð19Þ

Consider a rectangular orthotropic plate containing a i j k

circular hole having a diameter D, as shown in Fig. 1. where u is the displacement vector and Uijk are vectors of

The plate consists of N plies of total thickness H in the z- displacement approximation coeﬃcients not necessarily

direction and has a length L in the x-direction and width associated with nodal displacements, and indexes i, j and

A in the y-direction. The following displacement boundary k in Eq. (19) change from 1 to the total number of approx-

conditions were applied to the specimen on lateral sides imation functions in each direction. Depending upon the

ux ð0; y; zÞ ¼ ux ðL; y; zÞ ¼ e0 L=2; application and geometry, diﬀerent orders of splines (from

ð16Þ 1 to 8) can be used in each direction. Besides changing the

uy ð0; 0; 0Þ ¼ uz ðx; y; 0Þ ¼ 0.

order of splines, one can also change their defect (maxi-

Traction-free boundary conditions are present on all other mum number of discontinuous derivatives) in the node,

surfaces. The dimensionless loading parameter e0 corre- thus being able to apply standard linear or a higher order

sponds to relative elongation of the specimen. The z-direc- p-type ﬁnite element approximation if desired. Curvilinear

tion displacement component on the bottom surface is coordinate transformation x = x(x1x2x3), xT = (x, y, z)

constrained due to symmetric lay-up of the laminates con- with Jacobian matrix J(x1x2x3) is used to map the unit vol-

sidered, which allows one to model only half of the speci- ume into the global x, y, z, coordinate system. The Gauss-

men. The constitutive relations of each ply are as follows: ian integration procedure is used to calculate the

rij ¼ C pijkl ðekl apkl DT Þ; i ¼ 1; . . . ; N ; components of the stiﬀness matrix. For the details of vari-

ational formulation and detailed veriﬁcation of stress pre-

where C pijkl

and apkl

are elastic moduli and thermal expan- diction accuracy, the reader is referred to Iarve [22]. For

sion coeﬃcients of the pth orthotropic ply, and DT is the purposes of the present study, we shall describe the proce-

temperature change. The average applied traction was then dure of calculating the overstressed volume function v(q).

calculated as After the solution is completed and all vectors Uijk are

Z determined, a post-processing step is performed when each

r0 ¼ rxx ð0; y; zÞ dy dz. ð17Þ integration point of the structure is examined twice. First

y;z

the stress and strain components are computed, and the

A cylindrical coordinate system is deﬁned originating from maximum value rm of the component of interest is found

the center of the hole: by searching through all integration points. A large num-

x ¼ r cos h þ xc ; y ¼ r sin h þ y c ; z ¼ z; ð18Þ ber M (in our analysis M = 101 and 201) is then prescribed,

and a sequence

where xc, yc are the coordinates of the center of the hole.

Three-dimensional ply level stress analysis in realistic qi ¼ 1 i=M; i ¼ 0; . . . ; M

composite laminates containing holes represents a formida- deﬁned. The overstressed volume function v(q) is then cal-

culated in M points as

XXX g

vðqi Þ ¼ wg1 wg2 wg3 det J ðxg11 ; xg22 ; x33 Þgðr qi rm Þ

g1 g2 g3

ð20Þ

by using the Heaviside step function

1; r > 0;

gðrÞ ¼ ð21Þ

0; r 6 0.

In Eq. (20) indexes gi, i = 1, 2, 3 denote Gauss integration

points in x1, x2 and x3 directions, respectively, and wgi are

Fig. 1. Schematics of the open hole tension specimen. respective Gaussian weights. Step function (21) cuts oﬀ the

E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185 179

contribution from all integration points where the stress is Function f(qrm, v(q)) in Eq. (11) for the specimen at

lower than the threshold qirm. For low values of the thresh- hand is shown in Fig. 3 for two diﬀerent values of Weibull

old value, v(q) will include almost all integration points in modulus a. For a = 5 (hypothetic material with very large

(20) and become close to the entire volume. The probability 23% coeﬃcient of strength variation) qc = 0.261, which

fc is then calculated according to Eqs. (11) and (12) by corresponds to the uniformly loaded large area away from

scanning through all f(qi) values. The integral in Eq. (2) the hole, meaning that most failures of the open hole spec-

can be calculated directly by using a formula similar to imen will not happen throughout the hole at all. The CFV

(20), where the step function is replaced by corresponding to this case is very large, and according to

g

Bðrðxg11 ; xg22 ; x33 ÞÞ. Fig. 2 (solid curve) is comparable to the volume of the spec-

imen. For a less variable material with a = 9

4. Homogeneous plate with a hole (c.v. 13.2%), we ﬁnd qc = 0.838, which corresponds to

the near hole area. In this case Vc is on the order of less

4.1. Variation of CFV location and size and comparison with than 0.001V0, as can be seen in Fig. 2.

Weibull integral method The average values of notched strength predicted by

Weibull integral criterion (2) and CFV criterion (11) and

The size and location of the CFV as functions of scatter (12) are compared in Fig. 4 as functions of Weibull modu-

of strength will be investigated in homogeneous isotropic lus a. In both cases the average strength was calculated by

plates with an open hole. The speciﬁc size and elastic mod- using Eq. (15) and normalized to average strength of the

ulus of the material are not of essence for this study, unnotched specimens. The error bars show +/ one stan-

although the properties were those of neat epoxy resin pla- dard deviation bounds. The percentage values correspond-

ques considered in the next section. ing to selected values of Weibull modulus a are the

The overstressed volume function v(q) normalized to respective values of the coeﬃcient of variation. As

specimen volume for a typical open hole coupon under uni- expected, the Weibull integral (2) and the CFV criterion

axial loading with boundary conditions (18) is shown in converge to each other with increasing a (decreasing the

Fig. 2. Two scales are used: the solid line depicts the func- c.v.). Only for the smallest a the predicted means are just

tion for the entire specimen (left scale), and the dashed line outside the one standard variation bounds from each other.

shows the same function on the smaller scale (right-hand The deterministic 1/KT estimate is approximately 20%

side scale), which corresponds to higher stress regions near more conservative than the statistics-based prediction even

the hole. Step-like behavior in the proximity of q = 0.261 for a = 50 (c.v. = 2.5%).

means that a signiﬁcant volume of the specimen is experi-

encing a homogeneous state of stress. The fact that q is 4.2. Experimental data

lower than 1/3 reﬂects the ﬁnite geometry of the plate,

resulting in stress concentration equal to KT = 3.84 for Prior to considering the strength of laminated compos-

the present geometry. ites, a set of experiments on neat epoxy plaques cured

according to manufacturer’s recommendations was con-

ducted. All specimens were cut out of 3.0 mm-thick panels.

Two sets of 20 unnotched specimens having dimensions of

1 0.01

L = 5.08 cm long · W = 1.27 cm wide and L/2 · W/2 were

function v(q) for near hole region

function v(q) for entire specimen

f(qσm,v(q)), α=9 (c.v.=13.2%)

f(qσm,v(q)), α=5 (c.v.=23%)

0.5

0.6 v(q)/V0 0.006 q=0.261

Probability of failure

0.4

0.2

0.2 v(q)/V0 0.002

0.1

q=0.261

0 0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

q q

Fig. 2. Function v(q) for an isotropic plate with a hole, overall shape Fig. 3. Probability of ﬁnite volume failure function f(qm, v(q)) for two

shown with solid line and the near-hole shown with dashed line. values of Weibull modulus.

180 E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185

1 1

F, β β=84.1MPa

Mean Notched strength and variation

F

XT/KT

0

unnotched strength, V

0.8 fc

0.8

F

0.6

notched strength

1/KT

Probability of Failure

1

unnotched strength, V

0.6

fc, βfc

0.4

0.4

0.2

20% 10% 5% 2.5%

0.2

β

0 1

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Weibull modulus - α

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Fig. 4. Average failure load and standard deviation estimated by using

Weibull integral (2)—F and estimated by using CWV criterion (11), (12)— Normalized Strength

fc. Fig. 5. Experimental data and predictions of tensile strength in neat resin

plaques with and without open hole. Test points: j—control volume

unnotched specimens, m—small volume unnotched specimens, s—open

tested in tension in the direction of length. In addition a set hole specimens. All solid curves are Weibull distributions with a = 10.7.

Strength is normalized by that of the unnotched specimens XT.

of 20 notched specimens with in-plane dimensions L · W,

containing a D = 5.08 mm center hole were also tested.

In all cases the length given is equal to the gage section

length, whereas the specimens contained additional control volume and small volume specimens respectively.

2.54 cm tabs on each end. The elastic stiﬀness properties The open circles show experimentally measured strength

were E = 3.79 GPa and m = 0.39. The average tensile of the specimens with open holes. The continuous curves

strength of the control volume V0 = 1.93 cm3 (L · W) spec- in Fig. 5 are Weibull distributions with the same shape

imens was XT = 80 MPa with a coeﬃcient of variation parameter a = 10.7. The one closely ﬁtting the control vol-

(c.v.) of 13.4% (corresponds to a = 9). The second set of ume unnotched data has b = 84.1 MPa, and the one closely

unnotched specimens of smaller dimension and volume ﬁtting small volume unnotched data has b1 = bXT/xT. The

V1 = V0/4 had an average strength of xT = 91 MPa and predicted open hole specimen strength distributions

c.v. of 12% (corresponds to a = 10). Three panels were pro- (bF = 47.5 MPa, bfc = 53.7 MPa) appear to bound the

duced and showed similar coeﬃcient of strength variation experimental data.

and average strength. A particular diﬃculty in deﬁnition A note must be taken that the results of strength predic-

of the unnotched strength distribution is deﬁning the Wei- tion are highly sensitive to values of Weibull modulus a. An

bull shape parameter, which reﬂects the intrinsic variation accurate determination of the Weibull modulus requires a

of strength rather than that caused by experimentation. In signiﬁcant number of unnotched specimens to be tested,

present work we are following the methodology described avoiding strength values, which result from grip failures.

by Bazant [27] and determine a from the average strength In principle, however, the question of predicting notched

values of the two sets of specimens of diﬀerent volumes as strength based on testing exclusively unnotched samples

is answered. Overall, the Weibull statistics-based strength

a ¼ lnðX T =xT Þ= lnðV 1 =V 0 Þ. prediction provides a physically sound indisputable

It results in a = 10.7, which corresponds to c.v. of 11.3% improvement upon the stress concentration factor-based

and is quite close to the c.v. of the experimental values value of XT/KT, which is also shown in Fig. 5.

for either set of unnotched data. The strength of the open

hole specimens was predicted by using the unnotched 5. Notched strength prediction in quasi-isotropic laminates

strength distribution with b = 84.1 MPa, a = 10.7 and

V0 = 1.93 cm3, where the parameter b was calculated from The present section is devoted to evaluation of probabil-

Eq. (14a) based on the average strength value of XT. The ity of failure in quasi-isotropic laminates with open holes.

average open hole strength predicted by using Weibull inte- Experimental data reported by Whitney and Kim [26] were

gral method and CFV was rave,F = 44.7 MPa and rave,fc = used in the present study. The T300/934 composite and two

52.4 MPa, respectively, whereas the average value of exper- stacking sequences, [±45/0/90]s and [90/0/±45]s, were con-

imental data is rave = 46.9 MPa. sidered. Unnotched strength, open hole strength with three

The experimental data and predictions are shown in diﬀerent hole sizes of D = d, D = 3d and D = 6d, where

Fig. 5. The solid squares and triangles correspond to exper- d = 2.54 mm (0.100 , 0.300 and 0.600 ), and strength with three

imentally measured strength of unnotched specimens of sizes of through-the-thickness cracks were evaluated on a

E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185 181

Material stiﬀness properties used in the analysis and notched specimens with diﬀerent hole sizes varies sig-

[0] [90/0/45/45]s niﬁcantly. There is no monotonic trend, which can be

EL (GPa) 146.7 54.9 established for the coeﬃcient of variation as a function of

ET (GPa) 11 hole size, except that it is lower than for unnotched speci-

Ez (GPa) 11 mens. Based on the range given in Table 2, the analysis

vLT 0.3 0.3

vLz 0.3

was carried out for the following values of a = 14.7, 18,

vzT 0.33 24 and 30.

GLT (GPa) 4.82 20.7 The failure prediction was performed by using maxi-

GLz (GPa) 4.82 mum ﬁber direction strain. Eq. (1) was replaced with

GzT (GPa) 4.82 a

V e

The data reported in Ref. [26] is typed in bold, and the data added for 3D f ðV ; eÞ ¼ 1 e V 0 be . ð22Þ

analysis is typed in regular font.

Weibull parameter be was obtained as be = b/Equasi, where

Equasi is the laminate tensile modulus given in Table 1. The

total of 296 tests. Both stacking sequences showed very value of b was calculated for each value of a by using Eq.

similar notched strength with 10% diﬀerence in the unnot- (14a) for ra = 499.2 MPa. The dimensions of the unnot-

ched strength due to reportedly extensive delamination in ched specimens were assumed to be the same as in Ref.

ﬁnal stages of failure of the unnotched [±45/0/90]s lami- [2] and were L = 10.125 cm, W = 1.905 cm.

nates. The stress–strain curves reported for the unnotched Three-dimensional distribution of the stress–strain ﬁelds

[90/0/±45]s laminate were linear until failure, and that is at the hole edge has been extensively studied analytically

why this stacking sequence was chosen for the present anal- [21–23] and experimentally Mollenhauer et al. [24]. Exper-

ysis. The ply and laminate stiﬀness properties used for ply imental investigation of the strain distribution at the hole

level analysis and for lamination level analysis are shown in edge was performed by means of Moiré interferometry

Table 1. The data reported in Ref. [26] are shown in a bold developed by Mollenhauer and Reifsnider [25]. Ply level

font, and the additional data added by the authors for stiﬀ- (3D) stress analysis based on the displacement spline

ness properties in the out-of-plane z-direction are shown in approximation approach Iarve [22] described above was

a normal font. The geometry of the specimens had a gage performed for the [90/0/ ± 45]s laminates with all three

length of L = 22.86 cm in the x-direction and a width of hole sizes. Fig. 6 illustrates the nonuniformity of the ﬁber

W = w, W = 1.5w and W = 2w in the y-direction, where strain distribution at the hole edge at the h = 90 location,

w = 2.54 cm for hole sizes of d, 3d and 6d, respectively. where the angle h was deﬁned by Eq. (18) and shown in

All notched strength data in the cited report were reported Fig. 6. At this location the ﬁber direction strain coincides

after the ﬁnite width correction factor was applied to exper- with the circumferential strain ehh. The strain value is nor-

imental data. For the purposes of present comparison the malized to the specimen elongation e0 deﬁned in Eq. (16).

actual experimental values were restored by using the cor- A signiﬁcant strain increase in the 0 plies for both

rection factors from Ref. [2] and dividing the reported cor-

rected values of strength by 1.01, 1.05 and 1.12 for the hole

diameter to width ratios of D/W = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, top surface 1

respectively. [90/0/45/-45]s

In order to perform the strength predictions one needs [45/-45/0/90]s

to deﬁne the Weibull parameters for strength in the ﬁber

direction. The experimental data from Whitney and Kim 0.75

[26] for unnotched and notched strength relevant to present 2-D solution

0 - ply

analysis is summarized in Table 2. As in the previous sec- z/H

tion the diﬃculty is in obtaining the shape parameter of

0.5

the strength distribution, which characterizes the intrinsic

strength variation. As seen in Table 2 the coeﬃcient of var- 0 - ply

0.25

Table 2

Experimental data from Ref. [26] on unnotched and uncorrected notched

strength for [90/0/45/45]s laminate

midsurface 0

ravg (MPa) c.v. (%) a 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Unnotched 500.2 7.8 14.7 Normalized circumferential strain

0.100 Hole 315.8 5.6 20.1

Fig. 6. Through the thickness distribution of the circumferential strain

0.300 Hole 259.2 4.2 27.2

component at open hole edge of quasi-isotropic laminates with D = d hole

0.600 Hole 208.0 6.2 18.1

at h = 90 circumferential location.

182 E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185

quasi-isotropic stacking sequences over the lamination the- corresponding to diﬀerent values of a are shown. The

ory-based 2D constant value of 3.02 can be seen. At the trends which can be seen on the two graphics in Fig. 7a

same time the strain distributions in the 0 plies of the and b show that for larger hole sizes the 3D and 2D anal-

two laminates are the same, which is in agreement with ysis based strength predictions are very close especially for

the practically equal notched strength values reported for low values of a. The second trend, namely that the Weibull

the two laminates in Ref. [26]. integral and CFV based predictions converge with increas-

The comparison of the average strength values predicted ing a can also be seen. However, the more important trend,

by using ply level (3D) analysis and lamination theory which is unambiguously observed, is that all predictions

based (2D) analysis with the experimentally obtained aver- signiﬁcantly underestimate the hole size eﬀect on strength.

age values is shown in Fig. 7. All strength values are nor- This observation can be explained by examining the size

malized by average unnotched strength value of of the CFV as a function of hole diameter and a. We shall

ra = 499.2 MPa. Thick solid lines connect the experimental introduce a linear measure lc of the CFV by assuming it to

data and the thin lines connect the predicted values. The have a square in-plane cross-section and span through the

predictions based on Weibull integral (2) are marked with thickness of the ply so that

F on the left and contain triangle symbol pointing up, pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

whereas the CFV prediction contains triangle symbol lc ¼ V c =h=2. ð23Þ

pointing down. Four pairs of curves of predicted values

Estimation of the linear dimension of the CFV is important

in order to compare it with micromechanical scale param-

eters such as ﬁber diameter and ineﬀective length intro-

0.8

fc duced by Rosen [20]. The size lc, deﬁned by Eq. (23) for

diﬀerent holes sizes is shown in Table 3, where the ﬁst num-

0.7

F ber corresponds to 2D analysis and the second (after for-

2D stress analysis

fc ward slash) to 3D analysis. The values of lc decrease

from around 0.8 mm to as small as 0.01 mm for small holes

Normalized Strength

F

0.6

and large values of a. The latter value is signiﬁcantly below

fc α=14.7 the estimate of so called ineﬀective length d [20], where

F

fc α=24 α=18 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃrﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

0.5 F 1 Ef

α=30 d ¼ 1:14d f pﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 . ð24Þ

mf Gm

0.4

For the T300/934 material we estimate the value of

d = 0.0538 mm for ﬁber modulus Ef = 206.8 GPa (T300),

0.3 matrix shear modulus Gm = 1.31 GPa (934 Epoxy), ﬁber

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 volume fraction vf = 0.6 and ﬁber diameter of df = 7 lm.

(a) Normalized Hole diameter D/d The strength of the unidirectional composite cannot be

0.8 scaled by using Eq. (22) down to dimensions of less than

2d, because for such ultra short composites the process of

ﬁber macrocrack formation will no longer be self similar

0.7 3D stress analysis to larger composites. However, even 2d appears to be be-

fc

low the limit of applicability of Eq. (22) . A Monte-Carlo

Normalized Strength

F

0.6 sizes for Weibull scaling of unidirectional composite

fc α=14.7 strength was recently performed by Landis et al. [31]. It

F α=18 was shown that for composites with ﬁber strength scatter

0.5 corresponding to Weibull modulus of a = 10 (carbon ﬁbers

fc 5–6) and length l0 = 3d signiﬁcantly over predict the

α=24

F strength of longer composites with l0 = 6d and l0 = 9d,

0.4 fc

F α=30 when Weibull scaled. The intermediate value of l0 = 6d

(46df) was considered as the minimum scalable length.

It is also worth mentioning that Landis et al. [31] investi-

0.3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 gated the size of the minimum Weibull scalable cross-sec-

(b) Hole diameter D/d tion, which was on the order of 30 · 30 ﬁbers. Thus these

Fig. 7. Weibull integral and CFV based predictions of average strength of

are the particular dimensions in the ﬁber direction and in

quasi-isotropic laminates for four values of a. Solid curves correspond to the direction perpendicular to ﬁbers which matter rather

a = 18 and 30, whereas dashed lines to a = 14.7 and 24. than the volume. The CFV method allows in principle to

E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185 183

Table 3

Linear size in mm of CFV for notched laminates (2D/3D)

a = 14.7 a = 18 a = 24 a = 30

00

0.1 Hole 0.140/0.0813 0.106/0.056 0.0933/0.0424 0.0718/0.0105

0.300 Hole 0.422/0.263 0.353/0.183 0.289/0.137 0.220/0.0320

0.600 Hole 0.848/0.707 0.707/0.462 0.572/0.299 0.420/0.079

obtain its individual dimensions in diﬀerent directions. values of such ultra small volumes is to evaluate the prob-

However, in the present study we are using a simple esti- ability of failure of a larger volume, which has a linear

mate given by Eq. (23) and comparing it to the largest of dimension of l0 = 6d (6d = 0.323 mm). Now we follow

the scalable volume dimensions from Landis et al. [31]. the dashed horizontal line from left to right and ﬁnd a

The CFV method can be readily modiﬁed to account value of q = 0.78, which corresponds to l0 = 6d and then

for additional physical considerations, such as presence the associated probability of failure f(l0) = 0.175, which

of a limit scaling volume and deﬁne the probability of fail- yields the average failure strength value of 241.3 MPa.

ure as Revised predictions by using the criterion (25) for all

( hole sizes and values of a are shown in Fig. 9a–c. The

f c ; lc P l0 ;

f ðl0 Þ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð25Þ results obtained by using 2D analysis (up pointing trian-

f ðvðq0 Þ; q0 Þ; l0 ¼ vðq0 Þ=h=2; lc < l0 . gles, dashed line) and 3D ply level analysis (down pointing

triangles, solid lines) are shown for l0 = 3d, 6d, and 9d

So that when CFV has a linear dimension larger then l0

respectively. In all cases the Weibull modulus values of

then the probability of failure coincides with Eq. (11) and

a = 14.7, 18, 24 and 30 were examined. It is apparent that

else with that of the volume corresponding to dimension

the introduction of l0 = 6d as a limiting size of Weibull

l0. In the present study we will consider the same values

scaling yields results that capture the magnitude of experi-

of l0 = 3d, 6d, and 9d as in Landis et al. [31].

mentally observed strength increase with the hole size

The evaluation of f(l0) is illustrated in Fig. 8 showing the

reduction. The values of a in the mid 20s range, are also

probability of local failure f(v(q),pq)) and the linear size of

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ consistent with the 23–29 values cited for similar materials

the corresponding volume l ¼ vðqÞ=h=2 as functions of

by Wisnom [30]. It is not surprising that criterion (25)

q. The hole diameter is 7.62 mm and a = 24. The original

yields practically similar results for stress analysis per-

CFV is deﬁned on the bell-shaped f(v(q), q) curve by its

formed by using lamination theory as well as ply level anal-

maximum and corresponds to qc = 0.8775, which yields

ysis, since 6d 3h. It is also important to point out that no

fc = 0.34 and the average failure stress of 216.5p MPa. The

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ subcritical damage such as matrix cracking and delamina-

size of the CFV can be obtained from the l ¼ vðqÞ=h=2

tions were taken into account. In most laminates, however,

curve at q = qc and is equal to lc = 0.137 mm, which is

modeling of such damage is critical and can only be accom-

apparently smaller then l0 = 6d (6d = 0.323 mm). Accord-

plished by using 3D ply level stress analysis.

ing to Ref. [31] the strength of such a small volume cannot

It is worth mentioning that similar correction of the pre-

be estimated based on Weibull scaling and is in fact higher.

dictions based on Weibull integral (2) by taking into

The best one can do without precise knowledge of strength

account micromechanical process zone is not equally

straight forward and leads to considerations such as non-

local Weibull theory by Bazant [27], which was proposed

0.5

in the 1990s.

Linear Representation of Volume (mm)

0.4 length scale l0 = 6d in the present analysis is certainly dis-

f(v(q),q) appointing from the stand point that its direct measure-

Probability of Failure

1.2 fc

l=(v(q)/h/2)^0.5 0.3 Failure ment is problematic. It is however, interesting to compare

Probability its magnitude l0 = 0.323 mm with the size of the character-

0.8 f(lo)

Difference istic distance d0 = 1.016 mm in the point stress failure crite-

0.2

rion applied by Whitney and Kim [26] to the hole size eﬀect

analysis of the same problem. The latter dimension is not

0.4 l0=0.323mm

0.1 unexpectedly higher because it combines the eﬀects of Wei-

lc=0.137mm bull scaling of unidirectional composite strength as well as

0 0 microscopic ﬁber failure process zone eﬀect. The proposed

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 method in some way separates the ply level eﬀects and the

q-argument ﬁber level eﬀects, which are responsible for collective or

Fig. 8. Modiﬁcation of the CFV to take into account micromechanics nonlocal type of failure, requiring certain ﬁnite volume to

based limit of Weibull scaling. be overstressed in order to occur.

184 E.V. Iarve et al. / Composites: Part A 38 (2007) 174–185

0.8 6. Conclusions

α=14.7

l0 =3δ

The critical failure volume method is proposed. The CFV

0.7 was deﬁned as a subvolume, which has the highest probabil-

α=18

ity of local failure. The failure in this case is deﬁned as loss

Normalized Strength

0.6 point failure event. An algorithm for identifying this region,

α=24

based on isostress surface parameterization was proposed.

α=30

It was shown that the probability of the subvolume failure

0.5

at a given load is always lower then the probability of failure

predicted by Weibull integral criterion for the same subvo-

lume. The two coincide for uniform stress ﬁelds and con-

0.4

verge to each other when the scatter of strength reduces.

Notched strength of homogeneous neat epoxy resin pla-

ques was studied experimentally and predicted based on

0.3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weibull integral and CFV methods. The open hole strength

(a) Normalized hole diameter D/d was predicted exclusively based on strength data measured

on unnotched specimens. The average strength of open hole

0.9

specimens predicted by the two methods diﬀered by approx-

α=14.7

imately 11% and provided a good agreement with average

0.8 strength measured experimentally. Experimental data was

α=18 tightly bounded by two predictions, with the tail of distribu-

l0=6δ

tion being closer to CFV method and the high probability

Normalized Strength

0.7

of failure data to that predicted by Weibull integral. Overall

α=24

in the case of homogeneous material the traditional Weibull

0.6 α=30 integral method performed very satisfactory and the CFV

provided a tight lower bound on the failure probability.

0.5 The eﬀect of the open hole size on strength of quasi-iso-

tropic graphite-epoxy laminates was considered. The Wei-

bull integral method and classical Weibull strength based

0.4

CFV showed that both methods are not capable of describ-

ing the experimentally observed magnitude of the hole size

0.3 eﬀect on strength. However, the analysis based on CFV

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

(b) identiﬁed the size of the most likely failure region for small

Normalized hole diameter D/d

hole sizes to be smaller then the estimated lower limit of

1 length scale at which the unidirectional composite strength

α=14.7 can be scaled. The stress contour based framework of CFV

0.9 method was modiﬁed to include such a limit scaling volume

α=18 l0 =9δ

and the revised results showed good correlation with exper-

0.8 imental data. Similar modiﬁcations of the Weibull integral

Normalized Strength

α=24 method are not equally straight forward and lead to non-

0.7 α=30 local formulations, see Bazant [27].

0.6 Acknowledgments

Laboratory, under contract number F33615-00-D-5006.

0.4 The authors are grateful to Prof. O. Ochoa for considerable

revision of the manuscript and Dr. N. Pagano and Dr. M.

0.3

Gurvich for comments and discussion.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(c) Normalized hole diameter D/d

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