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determine the appropriate subject matter expert for consultation on applicability to the
user’s specific case.

1400 Intrinsic Safety

Abstract

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This section provides guidelines for the selection of intrinsically safe equipment that

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can be used to design intrinsically safe instrumentation systems. A number of appli-
cations are presented as well as sample calculations for specifying intrinsic safety
barriers.

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Contents Page
1410 Introduction 1400-2
1420
1421
1430
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Intrinsic Safety
Reasons To Use Intrinsically Safe Designs
Cost Considerations
1400-2

1400-4
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1440 Intrinsic Safety Standards 1400-4
1441 General
1442 Types of Equipment Certification
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1443 Definition of Simple Apparatus


1444 Certification Requirements
1450 Fundamental Requirements of Intrinsic Safety 1400-9
1451 Design and Installation Considerations
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1452 Protective Components


1453 Grounding and Shielding
1454 Maintenance of Intrinsically Safe Systems
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1455 Inspection and Commissioning


1456 Documentation
1457 Typical Applications
1458 Sample Calculations for Cable and Barriers
1460 References 1400-23

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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

1410 Introduction
Intrinsic Safety is a design and construction method that can be applied to electrical
instruments and their interconnecting wiring for safe use in a hazardous (classified)
location. The intrinsically safe method is preferred in some Company facilities.
This section includes:
• The advantages and disadvantages of intrinsically safe, explosionproof, nonin-
cendive, and purging methods of design and construction
• Selected applications for intrinsically safe designs
• Industry standards and requirements

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• Sample calculations for specifying intrinsic safety barriers

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1420 Intrinsic Safety

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Intrinsic safety is the result of the design, manufacture, installation, and mainte-
nance of electrical equipment that limits the energy in an instrument circuit. A
hazardous or classified area or location, as defined by the National Electrical Code
(NEC), is an area where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases
or vapors, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or ignitible fibers or flyings.
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Intrinsically safe wiring and equipment is incapable of releasing enough thermal or
electrical energy to cause ignition of a specific hazardous mixture in its most easily
ignited concentration. This definition applies to service in both normal operation
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and in abnormal fault conditions. The term specific hazardous mixture is the most
hazardous material composition possible at a specific temperature and pressure.
Barrier intrinsic safety uses electrical barriers as the primary means of limiting
energy. The barrier is also an isolation device which electrically separates equip-
ment in the nonhazardous location from the equipment in the hazardous area.
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Current and voltage-limiting power supplies also provide this energy limiting/isola-
tion function. This section explains the technique of using electrical barriers.
The requirements for equipment located on the nonhazardous side of the barrier are:
1. Equipment must not use or generate a voltage exceeding 250 volts.
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2. Proper wiring and grounding practices must be followed.


The requirements for equipment on the hazardous side of the barrier are:
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1. Each field circuit must have its own barrier.


2. Field devices must comply with either system or entity approval standards for
intrinsically safe installations.
3. Proper wiring and grounding practices must be followed.
4. Total capacitance and inductance (including the cable) must be below certain
levels.
5. Manufacturer’s documentation and user calculations must be obtained and
maintained.

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Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

1421 Reasons To Use Intrinsically Safe Designs


Circuits and systems designed to be intrinsically safe reduce, but do not eliminate,
the possibility of igniting hazardous substances through equipment operation or
malfunction. The margin of safety for properly designed and maintained intrinsi-
cally safe systems is always greater than that of alternative methods. The reason for
this added margin of safety is that the components have been tested in a wide range
of normal and fault conditions to insure that they do not release the energy needed
to contribute to an ignition. Other techniques, such as air purging, provide protec-
tion only as long as the integrity of the equipment enclosure is maintained. A loss of
supply air or the inadvertent opening of a purged enclosure without the power being
disconnected first, for example, would render the purge useless.

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Intrinsically safe designs improve the maintainability and testability of circuits and
systems. Intrinsically safe equipment in a hazardous area may be worked on live
(i.e., circuits may be tested with all equipment energized and operating). This saves
time, labor, and the extra equipment needed to insure that the environment in which

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the circuit is installed is free from flammable mixtures. Accessibility is also
increased since intrinsically safe construction may not require explosionproof
construction, which is necessary for other design methods.

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Thus, cost savings may be realized by reducing both the amount of explosionproof
equipment required and installation and labor costs. However, some operating loca-
tions prefer to install intrinsically safe equipment and wiring in explosionproof or
purged housings and conduit for physical and environmental protection. The cost of
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such explosionproof construction is substantial. The cost of intrinsically safe instru-
mentation is usually higher than that of equivalent non-intrinsically safe products. It
is unlikely, however, that this premium by itself would be of sufficient magnitude to
be a determining factor. The same conclusion is true for incremental design costs.
Costs are likely to be less when completely new electronic instrumentation systems
are being installed than when small additions are made to existing older, non-
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intrinsically safe systems.


The benefits of intrinsic safety are (1) the incremental cost of intrinsically-safe-
certified equipment is more than offset by the savings in installation material and
labor costs (laying armored cables in cable trays versus pulling cables in overhead
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or buried conduits, using weatherproof versus explosionproof terminal boxes, etc.);


and (2) maintainability is improved in the operating environment. At facilities
where the full advantages of intrinsic safety are not utilized, and cables are still
installed in conduits, intrinsic safety is justified on the basis of eliminating explo-
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sionproof enclosures and improving maintainability.


Before adopting intrinsically safe design techniques, it is essential to understand
hazardous area classification and the types of equipment that are suitable for these
areas. See Section 300 of the Electrical Manual.

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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

1430 Cost Considerations


Two factors currently control Company policy with respect to the cost of intrinsi-
cally safe installations compared to other alternatives.
1. Facilities that have not used intrinsically safe designs continue not to because
of the perceived added costs.
2. All facilities that originally used intrinsically safe designs typically continue the
practice. Maintenance training costs are absorbed as normal operating costs.
These facilities balance training and capital costs with savings that result from
easier equipment maintenance. In addition, construction costs for intrinsically

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safe systems are significantly lower.

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A $150 to $500 per loop hardware cost differential between general purpose and
intrinsically safe construction and equipment can be expected. This cost difference
includes barriers mounted in I/O cabinets and changes in enclosures to accommo-

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date the spacing and partitioning requirements.
The greatest potential for cost reduction is in the installed cost of explosionproof
enclosures and rigid conduit compared to the cost of general purpose enclosures and
armored cable in cable tray. Company experience shows that installed cost reduc-

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tions of 25 to 33% are realistic. There are many variables to be considered,
including the size and number of enclosures needed, the number of multi-conductor
cables required, and the complexity of the tray or conduit runs.
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1440 Intrinsic Safety Standards

1441 General
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The following is a brief overview of the certification authorities for the United
States, Canada, and Europe. The publications referenced in this section are cited
fully in Section 1460.

United States
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The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) publishes a standard which is


applicable to intrinsic safety. The National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) provides
guidance on the installation of electrical equipment in hazardous locations, and is
recognized as a standard by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
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NFPA does not test and/or certify equipment.


Underwriters’ Laboratories Inc. (UL) is an organization that prepares its own stan-
dards and provides manufacturers with testing and listing services that signify
adherence to UL standards. Document UL 913 provides construction and testing
requirements for intrinsically safe apparatus and associated apparatus. Local
approval authorities at some locations, such as Los Angeles, require UL certifica-
tion. Certification by other organizations is not accepted.
Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FM) is another U.S. organization that
prepares its own standards and provides manufacturers with testing and listing

1400-4  1999 Chevron USA Inc. All rights reserved. July 1999
Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

services that signify adherence to FM standards. Document FM 3610 also provides


construction and testing requirements for intrinsically safe apparatus and associated
apparatus.
The technical contents of UL 913 and FM 3610 are the same.
The Instrument Society of America (ISA) publishes an ANSI-adopted standard,
ANSI/ISA-RP 12.6. This document is a guideline for safe design and installation
practices of intrinsically safe wiring.

Canada
The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) maintains standards and certified elec-

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trical apparatus for hazardous locations in Canada. CSA approval is acceptable to

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local approval authorities at some Company locations in the United States.

Europe and International

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The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the international body for
electronic standardization. It is affiliated with the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO), but has technical and financial autonomy. The IEC’s stan-
dards form the basis for the standards adopted by the European nations (including
the United Kingdom) who are members of the electrotechnical committee called the
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European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC).
Under the CENELEC system, each member nation has its own certifying authority.
In the United Kingdom, for example, the certifying and testing agency is the British
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Approvals Service for the Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres
(BASEEFA).
The United States is not a CENELEC member nation, but the IEC does recognize
ANSI standards.
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Figure 1400-1 shows the current intrinsic safety standards and the corresponding
appropriate testing or certifying authorities.

1442 Types of Equipment Certification


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There are two methods that manufacturers use to evaluate their equipment in the
United States: (1) The system approval method, which involves testing a specific
barrier for use in combination with specific field apparatus, and (2) the entity
concept approval, a more recent approach.
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System Approval Method


Figure 1400-2 is an example of a system approval certificate. It shows that a Rose-
mount transmitter, Model 1151, has been given approval for use with a Westing-
house, 75SB02 model barrier in a Class I, Division 2, Group C classified area.
The system approval process is involved and expensive because it requires testing
unique equipment combinations. The certifying agency requires extensive data and
documentation to be submitted by the equipment manufacturer in order to apply for
certification.

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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

Fig. 1400-1 Current Intrinsic Safety Standards (Courtesy of R.Stahl, Inc.)


Standard or
Area Source Recommended Practice Testing Institution
International IEC 79-11
USA FM Class #3610 FM
UL UL 913 UL
ANSI/ISA RP 12.6 (Installation)
CANADA CSA CSA C22.2 CSA
No. 157

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EUROPE CENELEC EN 50014 and PTB (D)

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EN 50020 BASEEFA (GB)
CESI (I)
INEX (B)
LCIE (F)

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Entity Concept Approval
The entity concept allows the interconnection of approved intrinsically safe equip-
ment to approved barriers and other associated apparatus that have not been specifi-
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cally tested together under system approval. This interconnection is allowed
providing certain conditions are met relative to voltage, current, capacitance, and
inductance. Note that Figure 1400-2 shows the parameters and values required for
entity approval.
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The exact requirements and calculations can be found in FM 3610 and UL 913.
These are discussed below.

1443 Definition of Simple Apparatus


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Intrinsically safe design limits energy transmitted to a hazardous area. The storage
of energy inside a classified area must also be considered. This means accounting
for the presence of inductive or capacitive elements. Apparatus that do not store
energy, that is, that have no capacitance or inductance, or do not contain batteries,
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are classed as simple apparatus. Apparatus which do not meet these requirements
are called non-simple. Thermocouples, resistance temperature devices (RTDs), and
switch contacts are examples of simple apparatus. The circuits they are part of are
classed as simple circuits. Only capacitance and inductance of the cable need to be
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considered. An electronic transmitter, on the other hand, is an energy-storing device


and thus is a non-simple apparatus.

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Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

Fig. 1400-2 Example of Intrinsic Safety Certifications for Rosemount Model 1151 Electronic Transmitter (Courtesy of
Rosemount, Inc.) (1 of 2)
FM Intrinsic Safety Certifications for Rosemount Transmitter Model 1151
Intrinsic Safety, FM
• Factory Mutual (FM) Intrinsic Safety approval available when used with approved barriers shown below.
• Stainless steel certification tag provided.
• Not available with Output Codes B and G, or Option Codes V2 and V3.

Systems Approvals

FM Approved for Class I,II,III, Division 1&2 Groups

Barrier Manufac-
turer Barrier Model A B C D E&G

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Foxboro 2AI-I2V-FGB • • • • •

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2AI-I3V-FGB • • • • •
2AS-I3I-FGB • • • • •
3A2-I2D-CS-E/FGB-A • • • • •

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3A2-I3D-CS-E/FGB-A • • • • •

Taylor 1130FF21000 NA NA • • •
1130FF22000 NA NA • • •
1135FF21000 NA NA • • •
1135FF22000
5850FL81100
5851FL81100
5850FL81200
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NA
NA


NA












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5851FL81200 NA NA • • •

Westinghouse 75SB02 • • • • •

Leeds & Northrup 316569, 316747 • • • • •

Honeywell 38545-0000-0110-113-F5B5 • • • • •
38545-0000-0110-111/112- NA NA • • •
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F5B5

Measurement 115,122,128+,128-,129
Technology 188,188R,322,2441 • • • • •

Stahl 8901/30-280/070/70 • • • • •
8901/30-199/130/70 • • • • •
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8901/30-199/100/70 • • • • •
8901/31-280/100/70 • • • • •
8901/31-280/070/70 • • • • •
8901/31-199/130/70 • • • • •
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8901/31-199/100/70 • • • • •
8901/30-280/165/80 NA NA • • •
8901/31-280/165/80 NA NA • • •
8903/51-200/050/7 Supply}
8901/31-086/150/7 Return} • • • • •
8903/31-315/050/7 Supply}
8901/31-086/150/7 Return} • • • • •

Fisher Controls AC302 NA NA • • •

July 1999  1999 Chevron USA Inc. All rights reserved. 1400-7
1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

Fig. 1400-2 Example of Intrinsic Safety Certifications for Rosemount Model 1151 Electronic Transmitter (Courtesy of
Rosemount, Inc.) (2 of 2)
FM Intrinsic Safety Certifications for Rosemount Transmitter Model 1151
Intrinsic Safety, FM
• Factory Mutual (FM) Intrinsic Safety approval available when used with approved barriers shown below.
• Stainless steel certification tag provided.
• Not available with Output Codes B and G, or Option Codes V2 and V3.

Entity Approvals

FM Approved for Class I,II,III, Division 1&2 Groups

Associated Equipment
1151 Parameters Parameters A B C D

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VMAX = 40V Voc  40V

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IMAX = 165mA Isc  165mA • • • •
C1 = 0 CA > 0
L1 = 0 LA > 0

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VMAX = 40V Voc  40V
IMAX = 225mA Isc  165mA NA NA • •
C1 = 0 CA > 0
L1 = 0 LA > 0

1444 Certification Requirements at


If the field device is labelled as simple apparatus, system certification is not
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required. These devices can be regarded as part of an intrinsically safe system if:
1. They are properly connected to a barrier with intrinsic safety certification.
2. Cable capacitance and inductance do not exceed the permissible capacitance
and inductance connected to the barrier. These cable parameters must be
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checked, as cabling provides a source of energy storage.


If the field apparatus is non-simple, either system approval or entity approval of the
field apparatus and barrier is required. With system approval, design calculations by
the user are not necessary.
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Application of entity-approved equipment requires simple calculations by the design


engineer to verify the compatibility of electrical characteristics. Barrier parameters
identified by the testing authorities as part of their entity approval are: maximum
open-circuit voltage, maximum short-circuit current, and maximum capacitance and
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inductance permitted to be connected to the barrier.


The same parameters are also identified by the testing agency as part of their entity
approval for non-simple field apparatus.

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Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

To ensure intrinsic safety when the barrier and non-simple field apparatus have
entity approvals, the following four conditions must all be met. (To apply condi-
tions 1 through 4, refer to Examples 1 and 2 in Section 1458).
1. The barrier open-circuit voltage must be less than or equal to the maximum
voltage the field apparatus can receive:
Voc  Vmax
(Eq. 1400-1)
2. The barrier short-circuit current must be less than or equal to the maximum
current that the field apparatus can be subjected to:

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Isc  Imax

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(Eq. 1400-2)
3. The capacitance allowed to be connected to the barrier must be greater than or
equal to the sum of the maximum unprotected capacitance of the field appa-

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ratus plus the cable capacitance:
Ca  Ci + Cc
(Eq. 1400-3)
4.
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The inductance allowed to be connected to the barrier must be greater than or
equal to the sum of the maximum unprotected inductance of the field apparatus
plus the cable inductance:
L a  L i + Lc
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(Eq. 1400-4)
An accepted alternate condition to Equation 1400-4 is that the inductance-to-resis-
tance ratio (L/R) of the cable be less than the L/R ratio of the barrier:
L/R cable < L/R barrier
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(Eq. 1400-5)

1450 Fundamental Requirements of Intrinsic Safety


This section discusses the fundamental requirements of intrinsic safety and the
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following: design and installation of cables, terminals, wires, and enclosures


(Section 1451); protective components (Section 1452); grounding and shielding
(Section 1453); maintenance and inspection and commissioning (Sections 1454 and
1455); documentation (Section 1456); and applications (Section 1457). Two exam-
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ples of sample calculations for cable and barriers are also included (Section 1458).
All intrinsically safe apparatus and circuits are tested and certified by approval
agencies to meet two basic requirements:
1. The energy available at the hazardous location must not be great enough to
cause ignition by arcing or high temperature during normal operation. Normal
operation includes use at the maximum supply voltage and with any adjust-
ments made at the most unfavorable settings. The field wiring may be opened,
shorted, or grounded. In addition, a safety factor of 1.5 is applied to energy.

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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

2. The energy available under fault conditions must not be great enough to cause
ignition by arcing or high temperature after a single fault, with a multiplier of
1.5 applied to arc energy; and after two faults with no additional safety factor
applied to the energy released. A fault is any defect or electrical breakdown
which can adversely affect the electrical or thermal characteristics of the intrin-
sically safe circuit.
The safe release of stored energy for resistive, capacitive, and inductive circuits has
been determined experimentally. From these data, curves have been published
showing the relationship between voltage and current at ignition levels. These igni-
tion curves are given in UL 913. Equipment manufacturers have tested their equip-
ment in these specific atmospheres during the certification of their equipment.

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The protective device ensures that the two basic requirements above are satisfied
even if specific faults occur. Wiring practices minimize the occurrence of wiring
faults.

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If a fault does occur, the circuit is protected. Assume Figure 1400-3(a) represents a
4 to 20 milliamp signal operating at 24 VDC. If a high AC voltage enters the circuit
as shown in Figure 1400-3(b) and the circuit is not designed to limit such a fault,
that voltage will be present in the hazardous area. A protective interface must be

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included in the circuit to prevent such conditions. Various protective devices are
discussed in Section 1452. The most common of these is the Zener safety barrier. Its
location in the circuit is shown in Figure 1400-3(c).
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1451 Design and Installation Considerations
This section discusses the wiring design and installation considerations recom-
mended by FM 3610, UL 913, NEC Article 500, and ANSI/ISA RP 12.6.

Cables and Cable Routing


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Interconnecting cables in hazardous areas for non-intrinsically safe circuits should


be installed according to NEC for the Class and Division involved, as well as for
power-limited circuits. Similar signal types (such as 4 to 20 mA) should be grouped
together and separated from dissimilar types, such as thermocouple, RTD, and alarm
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contact signals.
Install intrinsically safe wiring in conduit or raceway separate from non-intrinsi-
cally safe wiring. See ANSI/ISA RP 12.6 for certain exceptions. Intrinsically safe
circuits must be visually identifiable as specified in ANSI/ISA RP12.6.
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Cables must be electrically compatible with the intrinsically safe components being
used. The minimum specifications for cables allowed in intrinsically safe circuits
are given in UL 913. Figure 1400-4 shows the tabulation for two cables commonly
used in many Company facilities.

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Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

Fig. 1400-3 Nonhazardous (Safe) and Hazardous Areas With and Without Circuit Fault Protection

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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

Fig. 1400-4 Table Showing Typical Parameters of Instrument Cables


Typical Single-Pair Signal Typical Multi-Pair Signal
Cable 16 Gage Cable 20 Gage
UL-913 Cable Specification for Intrinsically Safe Circuits
Minimum Strand Diameter 0.019 inch 0.012 inch
0.008 inch
Minimum Insulation Thickness 0.015 inch 0.015 inch
0.010 inch
Minimum Insulation Rating 1000 V 1000 V
500 V

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Maximum Capacitance 58 pF/foot 31 pF/foot

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60 pF/foot (picofarads/foot)
Maximum Inductance 0.016 mH/foot 0.18 mH/foot
0.020 mH/foot (microhenries/foot)

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Sample calculations for cable capacitance and inductance are presented in Section 1458.

Terminals, Wiring, and Enclosures


The creepage and clearance distances between uninsulated live parts as listed in
UL 913 must be observed.
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Terminals for intrinsically safe wiring must be separated from terminals for non-
intrinsically safe circuits. The preferred method is to locate each circuit type in a
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separate enclosure.
A common enclosure is allowed if the intrinsically safe circuits are separated from
the non-intrinsically safe circuits by either of two methods. Separation can be
accomplished with an insulating or grounded metal partition or by a minimum
distance of 2 inches between the adjacent terminals.
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The following practice, not specifically required by the standards, is considered


good procedure and is recommended.
• Strip only enough insulation from conductors to provide a secure termination.
Wiring should be secured to maintain separation and no more than 6 inches of
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slack should be permitted at the terminals. These precautions and attention to


terminal layout will minimize the chance of a ground or short between circuit
types.
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• Test points should be located to minimize the possibility of degrading the


intrinsic safety of circuits. Acceptable types of test equipment should be identi-
fied by permanently attached tags located near the test points.

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Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

1452 Protective Components


Intrinsically safe circuits depend on the use of components that limit current and
voltage. Some components are internal to intrinsically safe devices that are sized
and specified by the manufacturer as part of the certification process. Examples of
these include:
• Transformers
• Damping windings
• Shunt diodes
• Resistors
• Capacitors

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More detailed information on these items is provided in UL 913 and FM 3610.

Zener Barriers

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Zener barriers are the most common type of component in intrinsically safe instru-
mentation and are sized by the design engineer. Zener barriers are capable of
limiting voltage and current to a hazardous area by means of the protected circuit. A
circuit schematic of a typical barrier is shown in Figure 1400-5. The resistors must
meet the requirements described in UL 913. The zener diodes must be able to with-
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stand 1.5 times the maximum available voltage and current without failure. In order
for smaller diodes to be used, most barriers incorporate non-replaceable fuses to
limit the maximum fault current through the zener diodes. These fuses must be
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capable of interrupting large fault currents in one-tenth of the diode’s rated
maximum conduction time for the current. This current, typically, is many times
larger than anticipated fault currents in the instrument loop.
Apparatus connected to the hazardous side of the barrier must be approved for use
with the barrier by either system or entity procedures. In three-wire, bridge circuit,
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or specially grounded loops, more than one barrier may be required to isolate all
legs of the loop.

Fig. 1400-5 Safety Barrier Circuit Diagram (Courtesy of R.Stahl, Inc.)


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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

Active Isolators
The devices described above are called passive isolators. Active isolators are also
available. They too are sized by the design engineer. Active isolators are usually in
the form of solid state isolating relays and thermocouple or strain-gage amplifiers.
Active isolators should be tested and approved for their intended application.

1453 Grounding and Shielding


Intrinsically safe systems require reliable and secure grounds, and design of the
grounding network therefore requires care and attention.

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Grounding requirements are found in ANSI/ISA RP 12.6. The major requirements

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are:
• Barriers and cable shields must be grounded together
• Dedicated, redundant intrinsic safety ground cables that terminate at the instru-

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ment system grounding electrode are recommended
• The maximum allowable resistance from the ground cables to the instrument
system grounding electrode is 1 ohm

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1454 Maintenance of Intrinsically Safe Systems
Intrinsically safe systems are not capable of releasing enough electrical or thermal
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energy to ignite a specific flammable mixture despite open circuits, shorts, grounds,
and two faults in the system. Therefore, the system will almost always fail to
perform its function long before a safety hazard develops. However, environmental
conditions, such as corrosion, moisture, shock and vibration, may slowly degrade
the integrity of a system. Periodic inspections are needed, especially to confirm the
ed

integrity of the grounding system.


A more likely way for an intrinsically safe installation to be violated is by improper
modifications. If a new device is wired into a loop, it is possible to do so without
having verified whether the limiting inductance or capacitance is exceeded. Devices
must be approved for use in existing loops. Another way to violate an intrinsically
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safe installation is to add a device to panel wiring that violates the separation
requirements between intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe circuits.
Periodic inspections are recommended to ensure that intrinsically safe systems have
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not been violated. All changes to intrinsically safe wiring should be documented,
reviewed, and approved by a qualified engineer.

1455 Inspection and Commissioning


All intrinsically safe instrumentation systems must be tested prior to startup, just as
with other types of instrument installations. The engineer is usually responsible for
identifying and documenting those components and circuits which must be tested
during commissioning and inspected periodically thereafter. The tests and inspec-
tions should be witnessed or performed by a Company representative qualified to

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Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

work with intrinsically safe systems. The operating management of the installation
is responsible for ensuring periodic inspections.

Items to be Inspected
The items listed below require inspection or testing during commissioning and peri-
odically thereafter. This list should be carefully reviewed by the design engineer.
Intrinsically safe instrumentation systems should be tested or inspected to verify
that:
1. All components are labelled with instrument and certification tags.

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2. All junction boxes, cable trays, conduits, cables, cabinets, and instrument hous-

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ings are labelled as containing intrinsically safe circuits or equipment.
3. Terminations are neat and made in a workmanlike manner with proper parti-
tions, cable ties, and insulation.

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4. All conductors are of the proper type, insulation, gage, and color, and are prop-
erly routed.
5. All barriers are installed and operational.
6.
7.
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All power supplies are of the proper rating and usage.
All grounds are properly installed and tested.
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8. All fuses are of the proper type and rating.
9. No jumpers or modifications violate the integrity of the system’s intrinsic
safety.
10. All documentation is accurate, complete, and available at the site. See
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Section 1456.
11. All inspections and testing are completed without fault or omission prior to
energizing the intrinsically safe circuits.
12. A procedure and a schedule for periodic maintenance and inspection are
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provided to operations.

1456 Documentation
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All documentation for an intrinsically safe instrumentation system should be


complete, assembled, and available on site for testing and commissioning (as with
other types of instrument installations). All drawings, manuals, and other documen-
tation for intrinsically safe apparatus must indicate that the components, circuits, or
apparatus are part of an intrinsically safe system.

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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

Documentation for intrinsically safe apparatus should be approved as part of the


design, and should include:
1. Equipment manuals.
2. System or entity approval documents from equipment manufacturers including
adherence to Equations 1400-1 through 1400-4.
3. Replacement parts list.
4. Grounding interconnection and wiring diagrams.
5. Instrument wiring diagrams.

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6. Power supply interconnection and wiring diagrams.

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7. Design specifications.
8. Procedure and schedule for periodic maintenance and inspections.

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9. Instructions for future modifications and additions.

1457 Typical Applications


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This section contains recommended design techniques for typical applications,
including thermocouples, alarms, electrical equipment, interlocks and shutdowns,
milliamp loops, fiber optics, and intelligent transmitters.
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Thermocouples
The voltages produced by thermocouples are usually suitable for intrinsic safety
design. The main objective is to prevent dangerous voltages from being connected
to thermocouple wiring from electronics in the unclassified areas through faults or
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maintenance errors.
Barriers or active isolators may be used for individually grounded or ungrounded
thermocouples. Individually field-mounted thermocouple transmitters may be used
where individual thermocouples need to be grounded; these could be certified intrin-
sically safe or mounted in explosionproof housings with field barriers.
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For large thermocouple scanning systems, the alternatives are intrinsically safe
multi-plexers, barriers with floating (ungrounded) thermocouples, or explosion-
proof construction.
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Alarms
Hermetically sealed alarm contacts are recommended for reliability in all alarm
systems, whether or not they are intrinsically safe. They are not acceptable in Divi-
sion 1 areas without explosionproof enclosures unless the system is intrinsically
safe. Intrinsically safe alarm systems are readily available and are recommended.
The major design effort is to assure the integrity of the intrinsically safe alarm
wiring.

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Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

Isolation from non-intrinsically safe wiring and circuits is important. This may be
achieved using safety barriers, approved solid state relays, and approved wiring
techniques.
Alarm contacts in switchgear and motor starters usually are not approved for
connection directly to intrinsically safe systems since a hazardous foreign voltage
could be placed on the hazardous or field side of the barrier. Approved interposing
relays installed between the field contacts and barriers provide the required
protection. In addition, the signal wiring for these contacts should be installed in
cables/conduits separate from other intrinsically safe circuits.

Electrical Equipment

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Associated electrical equipment (motor starters, circuit breakers, transformers, and

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power system instrumentation) are either located in an unclassified area or are
mounted in explosionproof housing. The greatest risk with associated apparatus is
the possibility of imposing unsafe voltages or currents on intrinsically safe wiring

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through faults or incorrect wiring. Electrical equipment associated with intrinsically
safe instrumentation should be purchased with the necessary terminal spacings,
ground isolation, and grounded wireway dividers or separate wire routing. It is best
to have all associated circuits brought out to a separate cubicle, junction box, or

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terminal strip, as appropriate.
Intrinsically safe alarm circuits may be wired to contacts on relays containing non-
intrinsically safe circuits, provided that the non-intrinsically safe circuits comply
with standard creepage and clearance distances and do not exceed the current and
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voltage limitations specified in UL 913. Certification of acceptable usage should be
obtained for each relay. Approved barriers, solid state relays, and current repeaters
may be used to provide isolation. These are preferred over electro-mechanical
devices and should be conspicuously located in a separate cubicle or junction box.
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The design engineer should review and approve pertinent drawings and shop-
inspect intrinsically safe wiring in electrical apparatus.

Interlocks and Shutdowns


Sensing switches, electrical equipment interlocks, solenoid valves, and sequencing
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relays connected to typical shutdown and interlock circuits may be located in


hazardous areas. Some sensing devices are approved as intrinsically safe or are
nonincendive. Most other components in this application are typically of general-
purpose construction and are located in nonhazardous areas or are mounted in
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explosionproof enclosures. Approved barriers and solid state relays may be used to
ensure intrinsic safety. Relays shared with non-intrinsically safe circuits are
permitted as stated above. Sensors with multiple hermetically sealed or indepen-
dently switched contacts may also be used to separate intrinsically safe circuits from
non-intrinsically safe circuits.
To minimize the number of interconnections between intrinsically safe and non-
intrinsically safe portions of a shutdown or interlock system, the designer should
consider partitioning the system logic into intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically
safe parts. Apparatus located in hazardous areas should be wired in an intrinsically
safe manner to compatible logic circuits. A minimum number of contacts should

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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

then be connected from the non-intrinsically safe part of the system through appro-
priate barriers or isolators.
Special attention should be given to the design of interconnection diagrams for
interlock and shutdown systems because of the large amount of non-intrinsically
safe apparatus that could be involved.

Milliamp Loops
Intrinsically safe milliamp control loops should be designed for a 4 to 20 milliamp
range. Interconnections between multiple power supplies should be analyzed to
eliminate the possibility of unsafe overvoltages, overcurrents, and overpowered
circuits. Approved barriers are available for these circuits. Proper grounding is crit-

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ical, and includes proper termination of cable shields.

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Field-powered Milliamp Loops
Analyzers and other self-contained and self-powered instrument systems are often

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associated with centrally located controls. These systems are most often located in
nonhazardous areas or are mounted in explosionproof enclosures. Approved barriers
and isolating current repeaters can be used to connect these self-powered milliamp
loops to intrinsically safe controls. These protective devices must be located at the

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field device. Multiple barriers in series may result in such loops limiting the
maximum allowable cable resistance. The field device must be referenced to the
intrinsic safety ground. The field power supply should be included in the multiple
power supply analysis recommended above.
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Fiber Optics
Not all fiber optic equipment is intrinsically safe. Some fiber-powered transmitters
and high-speed communications equipment transmit and receive enough energy to
ignite hazardous mixtures. All fiber optic equipment in hazardous areas must be
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certified as intrinsically safe. The current certification stage of instruments consid-


ered for purchase should be checked carefully. Not all manufacturers’ products have
yet been certified as intrinsically safe.

Intelligent Transmitters
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Some makes of intelligent transmitters cannot be addressed through certain makes


and models of zener barriers. Check with the vendor before purchasing equipment
to verify that transmitters and barriers are compatible.
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Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

1458 Sample Calculations for Cable and Barriers


Sample calculations for cable and barriers presented in examples 1 and 2 below are
based on Equations 1400-1 through 1400-4, as follows:

Voc  Vmax
(Eq. 1400-1)

Isc  Imax
(Eq. 1400-2)

Ca  Ci + Cc

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(Eq. 1400-3)

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La  Li + Lc
(Eq. 1400-4)

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Example 1—Entity Concept Calculations for a Non-simple Device
The basic steps are:
1. Choose the non-simple device and barrier. (The requirements of Equations
1400-1 and 1400-2 must be satisfied.)
2.
3.
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Choose the cable, determine the required length, and calculate Cc, Lc.
The requirements of Equations 1400-3 and 1400-4 must be satisfied. The L/R
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ratios may be checked as an alternate to Equation 1400-4.
4. Calculate the loop resistance. It must be less than or equal to the maximum
allowable resistance of the barrier.
5. Ensure that the rated current of the barrier fuse is equal to or greater than the
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maximum operating current of the loop.


Note These steps may require several iterations to meet all conditions.
Figure 1400-6 shows a Stahl barrier, Model Number 9001/51-280-091-14 connected
to a Rosemount transmitter (a non-simple device) Model Number 3051C, FM
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approved, with transient protection (option code T1) and 4-20 mA output with
digital signal based on HART protocol (output code A) in a Class I, Division 1,
Group B classified area. The cable is a single twisted and shielded pair (16 AWG).
Vendor data are:
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Barrier
• Voc = 28 V
• Isc = 88.2 mA
• Ca = 140,000 pF
• La = 4500 H
• Maximum Resistance = 317 ohms
• Fuse Rating = 160 mA
• L/R = 14.2 H/ohm

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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

Fig. 1400-6 Non-Simple Device: Example 1: Sketch (Courtesy of R. Stahl, Inc.)

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Transmitter
• Vmax = 40 V
• Imax = 160 mA


Cable
Ci = 10,000 pF
Li = 1050 H at
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• Capacitance = 58 pF/foot
• Inductance = 0.16 H/foot
• Resistance = 0.009 ohms/foot per conductor
• Length = 1,500 feet
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By inspection, the conditions of Equations 1400-1 and 1400-2 are met.


Cc and Lc can be obtained as follows:
1500 ft x 58 pF/ft = 87,000 pF
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Lc = 1500 ft x 0.16 H/ft = 240 H


Equation 1400-3 requires that:
Ca  Ci + Cc
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140,000  10,000 + 87,000 = 97,000 pF


Equation 1400-4 requires that:
La  Li + Lc
4500  1050 + 240 = 1290 H
Equations 1400-3 and 1400-4 are satisfied.

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Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

A check of the L/R ratios shows that:

0.16 H/ft
L/R cable = ------------------------------- = 8.9H/ohm
0.018 ohm/ft

L/R barrier = 14.2H/ohm

L/R cable < L/R barrier


(Eq. 1400-6)

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Next, check the end-to-end resistance of the barrier with respect to the loop. The
loop has a 24 volt power supply and a 4 to 20 mA signal (as shown in

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Figure 1400-7). Resistance is 24 volts / 0.02 amps = 1200 ohms at 20 mA.

Fig. 1400-7 Basic Loop Diagram with Intrinsic Safety Barrier (Courtesy of R. Stahl, Inc.)

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The minimum voltage at which the transmitter will operate is 12 volts. At 20 mA,
the interior resistance of the transmitter is 600 ohms. The input impedance of the
receiving equipment is 250 ohms. The total resistance so far is 850 ohms. Last,
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determine the signal wire resistance. Since the twisted pair has a combined resis-
tance of 0.018 ohm/foot, the cable will have a total resistance of 1500 
0.018 ohm/foot = 27 ohms for the loop.
Thus, the total of these resistances is 877 ohms, leaving 323 ohms for the barrier.
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Thus, the end-to-end resistance of the specified barrier cannot exceed 323 ohms.
A check of vendor data shows that the maximum allowable barrier is 317 ohms.
Finally, ensure that the rated current of the barrier fuse (in this case 160 mA) is
equal to, or greater than, the maximum operating current of the loop (20 mA).

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1400 Intrinsic Safety Instrumentation and Control Manual

Example 2—Entity Concept Calculations for a Simple Device


The basic steps are:
1. Choose a barrier. Determine the barrier cable parameters from vendor data.
2. Choose the cable. Determine the allowable length from cable parameters.
3. Calculate the loop resistance. It must be less than, or equal to, the maximum
allowable resistance of the barrier.
Note that these steps may require several iterations to meet all conditions.
In the case of a non-energy-storing (simple) device connected to a barrier, all of the

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capacitance and inductance permitted for the device can be allocated to the

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connecting cabling.
An MTL Model 187 barrier is chosen for the switch contact in the field as shown in
Figure 1400-8. From published vendor data:

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• Maximum cable capacitance allowed = 130,000 pF
• Maximum cable inductance allowed = 80 H
• Maximum resistance allowed = 340 ohms

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If a 16 AWG twisted pair cable has parameters of 58 pF/ft capacitance and 0.16
H/ft inductance, then the allowable length cannot exceed the lesser of:
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130 000 80
--------------------- = 2 241 feet or ---------- = 500feet
58 0.16
(Eq. 1400-7)
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Fig. 1400-8 Example 2: Model 187 Simple Device Sketch (Courtesy of MTL)
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1400-22  1999 Chevron USA Inc. All rights reserved. July 1999
Instrumentation and Control Manual 1400 Intrinsic Safety

If the cable parameters are not known, UL 913 allows the following maximum
values to be used:
• Capacitance = 60 pF/ft
• Inductance = 0.2 H/ft
A check of the total cable resistance shows that:
500 ft x 0.018 ohms/ft = 9 ohms < 340 ohms

1460 References

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Chevron Electrical Manual, Section 300, “Area Classification”

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Specification ICM-MS-3651 “Installation Requirements for Digital Instrumentation
and Process Computers”
API Recommended Practice RP 500 Classification of Locations for Electrical

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Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Division 1 and Division 2
API RP 505 Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum
Facilities Classified as Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2

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API Recommended Practice RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems
for Offshore Production Platforms
FM 3610 Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated Apparatus for Use in Class I,
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II, and III, Division 1 Hazardous Locations, October 1988
ISA dS12.1 (1988) Definitions and Information Pertaining to Electrical Instruments
in Hazardous (Classified) Locations (Draft)
ANSI/ISA RP 12.6 (1987) Installation of Intrinsically Safe Systems for Hazardous
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(Classified) Locations
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code, 1987
Underwriter’s Laboratories (UL) 913 Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated
Apparatus for Use in Class I, II, and III, Division 1, Hazardous (Classified) Loca-
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tions, Fourth Edition July 29, 1988


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1400-24  1999 Chevron USA Inc. All rights reserved. July 1999