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Core 2 architecture features:

Core 2 is basically a brand name which refers to the wide range of Intel’s processors. The design of the
core 2 duo processors is based on the Intel’s micro architecture range. These models are embedded on
single die or integrated circuit unlike quad core processors which are embedded on the two IC’s.
However core based processors lack in Hyper threading technique. This technique enables the user to
perform multiple tasks simultaneously using software and processor at the same time.

Core 2 Duo is a wave of technology and improved processors. This processor is entrenched with variable
features. The core 2 Duo processors have sustained the back ward compatibility with the software and
existing hardware. Though the older hardware is not capable of making use of the advanced features of
the core 2 duo still they are compatible to work well with them. Instead if e put it in other words our
supporting processor is able to match well with them. The existing motherboard like Intel LGA 755 is
capable enough to accept the core 2 duo processing only with the up gradation of BIOS. Modern core 2
Duo processors are also efficient enough to run two operating systems at a time by help working virtual
machines. The virtual machines are smart enough to share physical hardware, having separate
operating system and busy running their own applications. Therefore core 2 Duo processors have
removed the need for the high end servers. The inclusion of advanced security features is also a drastic
improvement in these systems. It is core 2 Duo which has enabled to set the trusted Platform Module as
an important standard for upcoming PC’s.

Some Remarkable Improvements

The introductions of core 2 duo processors have also improved the functioning of the net books. The
features like appropriate power consumption has helped in increasing the battery life of the current net
books. Besides being really improved core 2 processors are also using L2 cache. This compromise is
made in order to reduce the power needs needed to charge or run the computers. However the cache
size is varied. Like for example Allendale processors have 2Mb cache while Conroe has 4 MB cache. The
reduced power needs of the Merom processors have made it desirable to use for net books. The cache
utilization is regarding the core 2 duo processors is amazing as the 2 core allows the caches to compete
for cache allocation. Therefore the resulting speed of the processor is simple remarkable. Moreover the
processor is capable of running four instructions in single clock cycle. This is the highest speed as
compared to the previous processors. Core 2 duo processors have the capability to replace AMD’s 4 core
processor which was designed to beat the efficiency of the core 2 Processors and their underlined
features.

Difference between core 2 and Pentium architecture

1. Pentium is a line of microprocessors that followed the 486 line while Core 2 is the successor to the
Core line.
2. Pentiums are either single core or dual core while Core 2 Duo are dual core processors
3. Core 2 Duos have a lower clock speed than the fastest Pentiums
4. Core 2 Duos and Pentiums do not share the same architecture
5. Core 2 Duos provide significant performance advantage over Pentiums
Intel Core (microarchitecture)

The Intel Core microarchitecture (previously known as the Next-Generation Micro-Architecture) is


a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. It is based on the Yonah
processor design and can be considered an iteration of the P6 microarchitecture, introduced in 1995
with Pentium Pro. The high power consumption and heat intensity, the resulting inability to effectively
increase clock speed, and other shortcomings such as the inefficient pipeline were the primary reasons
for which Intel abandoned the NetBurst microarchitecture and switched to completely different
architectural design, delivering high efficiency through a small pipeline rather than high clock speeds.
The Core microarchitecture never reached the clock speeds of the Netburst microarchitecture, even
after moving to the 45 nm lithography.
The first processors that used this architecture were code-named 'Merom', 'Conroe', and 'Woodcrest';
Merom is for mobile computing, Conroe is for desktop systems, and Woodcrest is for servers and
workstations. While architecturally identical, the three processor lines differ in the socket used, bus
speed, and power consumption. Mainstream Core-based processors are branded Pentium Dual-Core or
Pentium and low end branded Celeron; server and workstation Core-based processors are branded
Xeon, while desktop and mobile Core-based processors are branded as Core 2. Despite their names,
processors sold as Core Solo/Core Duo and Core i3/i5/i7 do not actually use the Core microarchitecture
and are based on the Enhanced Pentium M and newer Nehalem/Sandy Bridge/Haswell
microarchitectures, respectively.

Features

The Core microarchitecture returned to lower clock rates and improved the usage of both available
clock cycles and power when compared with the preceding NetBurst microarchitecture of the Pentium
4/D-branded CPUs.[1] The Core microarchitecture provides more efficient decoding stages, execution
units, caches, and buses, reducing the power consumption of Core 2-branded CPUs while increasing
their processing capacity. Intel's CPUs have varied widely in power consumption according to clock rate,
architecture, and semiconductor process, shown in the CPU power dissipation tables.
Like the last NetBurst CPUs, Core based processors feature multiple cores and hardware virtualization
support (marketed as Intel VT-x), as well as Intel 64 and SSSE3. However, Core-based processors do not
have the Hyper-Threading Technology found in Pentium 4 processors. This is because the Core
microarchitecture is a descendant of the P6 microarchitecture used by Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium
III, and Pentium M.

The L1 cache size was enlarged in the Core microarchitecture, from 32KB on Pentium II/III (16 KB L1
Data + 16 KB L1 Instruction) to 64 KB L1 cache/core (32 KB L1 Data + 32 KB L1 Instruction) on Pentium
M and Core/Core 2. It also lacks an L3 Cache found in the Gallatin core of the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition,
although an L3 Cache is present in high-end versions of Core-based Xeons. Both an L3 cache and Hyper-
threading were reintroduced in the Nehalem microarchitecture.

Technology

While the Core microarchitecture is a major architectural revision it is based in part on the Pentium M
processor family designed by Intel Israel.[2] The Penryn pipeline is 12