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Building Zone Primary Air cfm / ft2

Heating Cooling Lights/Equip. People Air Changes or


Classification
Btuh / ft2 ft2 / ton Watts / ft2 (1) ft2 / person Ventilation (2) E/S/W N Core
and Occupancy
Assembly (A)
360 or 20
Auditoriums 32 seats/ton 2.0 7 5 1.1
110 or 10
Bars/Taverns 25 seats/ton 1.0 10 9 3
375 or 1.5
Bowling Alleys 32 tons/alley 2.5 25 13 1.1
415 or 25
Churches 29 seats per 0.75 8 6 1.1
ton
Conference Centers 32 340 2.5 8 6 1.0
Funeral Homes 25 500 3.0 20 9 0.8
Gambling Casinos 35 200 15.0 (1) 8 9 3.0
Libraries 29 325 3.0 (1) 100 17 1.7 1.5 1.2
Municipal Buildings
Court Houses 29 300 4.0 14 6 1.4
Town Halls 29 330 3.2 12 5 1.2
Museums 32 440 2.5 25 9
Restaurants
Fast Food Service 25 200 3.25 (1) 10 9 1.5
Formal Dining 28 250 3.25 (1) 14 10 1.2
Kitchen 20 180 12.0 (1) 100 6 2.2
Business (B)
Banks 21 300 4.0 (1) 33 17 1.4
Barber Shops 25 310 3.5 (1) 40 10 1.2
Beauty Shops 24 225 5 (1) 40 25 2.0
Colleges
Admin/Classroom 34 340 3.5 15 8 1.3
Science Buildings 44 275 4.0 40 17 1.3
Dental Offices 25 290 2.5 100 17 1.3
Doctor’s Offices 25 330 2.0 200 17 1.3
Laboratories 40 250 20 40 17 2.0
Medical Centers 28 425 2.5 100 17 1.3
Offices
High Rise 30 450 3.0 (1) 200 17 1.2 1.0 0.8
Low Rise 25 350 3.0 (1) 200 17 1.3 1.0 0.8
Small Suite 28 350 3.0 200 17 1.2 1.0 0.8
Conference Rms. 30 300 4.0 2 6 1.4
Police Stations 28 355 3.0 20 6 1.4
Post Offices 28 355 2.5 14 6 1.4
Educational (E)
Elementary/Jr. High 21 415 2.0 40 15 1.0
High Schools 32 450 2.5 28 13 1.2
Vocational Schools 32 750 3.0 50 19 1.4
Factory/Industrial (F)
Light Mfg. 30 240 3.0 (1) 100 15 1.7
Medium Mfg. 32 440 10.0 (1) 200 15 2.7
Heavy Mfg. 36 375 45.0 (1) 333 15 5.0
Institutional (I)
Hospitals/Nursing Homes/Assisted Living
Patient Rooms 25 300 1.5 100 2 air changes 1.4 1.2 1.0
Hallways 10 400 2.0 - 2 air changes 0.5
Exam/Procedure
27 300 3.0 (1) 50 2 air changes 1.3
Rooms
Waiting Rooms 30 330 2.0 (1) 30 11 1.5 1.3 1.0
Jails 24 600 1.0 20 10 1.2
Mercantile (M)
Bakeries 30 225 6.0 77 19 1.8
Clothing Shops 24 280 2.0 50 11 1.1
Department Stores
Basement 20 440 2.0 30 16 1.0
Building Zone Primary Air cfm / ft2
Heating Cooling Lights/Equip. People Air Changes or
Classification
Btuh / ft2 ft2 / ton Watts / ft2 (1) ft2 / person Ventilation (2) E/S/W N Core
and Occupancy
Main Floors 24 375 2.0 35 16 1.6 1.45 1.2
Upper Floor 26 500 2.0 50 16 1.3 1.1 0.9
Drug Stores 25 250 3.0 (1) 50 23 1.6
Florists 21 250 3.0 (1) 125 11 1.2
Gift Shops 24 300 2.0 50 15 1.3 1.1 1.1
Grocery Stores 25 500 2.0 125 15 1.3 1.1 1.1
Jewelry Stores 21 250 4.0 100 11 1.6
Shoe Stores 24 300 2.0 50 15 1.3
Shopping Malls 24 500 1.5 25 9 1.0
Residential (R)
Residences (5)
15% Glass 30 700 (6) 1.5 100 11 0.60
25% Glass 35 550 (6) 1.5 (1) 100 11 0.75
Hotels/Motels
Guest Rooms 22 345 1.0 100 11 1.0 0.7 -
Hallways 19 500 2.0 - - - - 0.5
Lobby/Public 25 275 2.0 33 10 2.0 1.8 1.7
Apartments
Rental Suites 21 560 1.0 600 11 0.7 0.6 -
Hallways 16 685 2.0 - - - - 0.5
Dormitories 20 375 50 8
Storage (S)
2
Warehouses 16 - NS 0.06/ft 0.5
There is no substitute for an accurate load analysis of a building, but these figures will help you to get a ballpark idea of
the occupancy, lighting, ventilation, heating, cooling, and zone primary airflow requirements of a building in a timely
manner. All figures assume the outdoor air ventilation rates shown.

(1) Where indicated, the lighting load includes other equipment such as driers, stoves, computers, etc.
(2) Ventilation rates are cfm/person Default Values based on ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004.
(3) Bakery figures assume that half of the floor space is dedicated to the kitchen and
half to the seating/serving/display area.
(4) The figures for the casino include some area allocated for a modest restaurant and for public bathrooms.
(5) In residences, the percent shown is the ratio of glass square footage to total
outside wall square footage, ex pressed as a percent. A typical standard is 15%.
A custom-built standard is 25%.
(6) Do not count unexposed, below-grade areas. They have no cooling load.