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ECAS

in the towing vehicle

System description and installation


instructions

2nd Edition

This publication is not subject to any update service.


You will find the new version in INFORM under
www.wabco-auto.com

© Copyright WABCO 2007

Vehicle Control Systems

The right of amendment is reserved


Version 002/06.07(en)
815 010 027 3
Table of contents

Table of contents
1. Important instructions and explanations 3 6.2.9 ECAS 4x2/6x2 24V CAN 32
1.1 Safety instructions and hazard notes 3 6.2.10 ECAS/ESAC 35
1.2 Range of application 3 6.3 ECAS solenoid valve 37
1.3 Explanation of symbols 3 6.3.1 Spring-returned valve 38
6.3.2 Pulse-controlled sliding valves 38
2. Introduction 4 6.3.3 ECAS solenoid valve 39
6.3.4 Interchangeability ECAS solenoid valves 41
3. System functions 5 6.4 The Remote Control Unit 51
3.1 Operating principle of the ECAS base system5 6.4.1 Remote control unit for vehicle combination
3.2 Basic definitions 5 54
3.2.1 Axle types in towing vehicles 5
3.2.2 Air suspension bellows in air suspension 7. Brief Description of the individual systems 55
systems 5 7.1 ECAS 1st generation without pressure sensor 55
3.3 Desired level control 6 7.2 ECAS 1st generation with pressure sensor56
3.3.1 Normal level I 7 7.3 ECAS 4x2A 57
3.3.2 Normal levels II and III 7 7.4 ECAS 6x2A 61
3.3.3 Memory level 7 7.5 ECAS 4x2 Ratio 65
3.4 Height limitation 7 7.6 ECAS 4x2 KWP 2000 67
3.5 Lateral stabilisation 8 7.7 ECAS 6x2 Ratio 69
3.6 Lifting axle control 8 7.8 ECAS 6x2 DV 71
3.7 Normal level shift 8 7.9 ECAS 4x2 / 6x2 CAN 76
3.8 Traction help 8
3.9 Overload protection 9 8. Start-up and diagnosis 81
3.10 Tyre Impression Compensation 9 8.1 General 81
3.11 Control of load-sensing valve 10 8.2 Diagnostic card overview 82
3.12 Crane operation 11 8.3 Diagnostic software 82
3.13 Pressure control in vehicles with 11 8.3.1 Diagnosis with the diagnostic controller 82
a lifting axle/trailing axle 8.3.2 Diagnose with PC 83
3.14 Axle load determination in CAN II electronic
systems 12 9. Setting parameters 84
9.1 Optional parameter 84
4. Control Algorithm 13 9.2 Value parameters 84
4.1 Control algorithm for levelling control 13 9.2.1 Counts 85
4.2 Control algorithm for lifting axle control 16 9.2.2 Timer ticks 85
4.2.1 Lifting axle function diagram in vehicles with 9.3 Explanation of parameters 85
pressure equalising control 17 9.3.1 Device address parameters 85
4.2.2 Traction help control 19 9.3.2 Optional parameter 86
9.3.3 Value parameters 96
5. System configuration 21
10. Calibration 106
6. Components 23 10.1 Distance sensor calibration 106
6.1 Sensors 23 10.1.1 Distance sensor calibration with the PC 106
6.1.1 Distance sensor 23 10.2 Pressure sensor calibration 108
6.1.2 Pressure switch 25 10.2.1 … for calibrating to atmospheric pressure108
6.1.3 Pressure sensor 26 10.2.2 … for defining the permissible bellows
6.2 Electronic Control Unit (ECU) 446 055 ... 027 pressure during normal operation 108
6.2.1 ECAS 1st generation without pressure sensor28 10.2.3 … for defining the permissible bellows
6.2.2 ECAS 1st generation with pressure sensor28 pressure when traction help is activated 108
6.2.3 ECAS 4x2 A 28
6.2.4 ECAS 6x2 A 29 11. Safety concept 109
6.2.5 ECAS 4x2 Ratio 30 11.1 Minor errors 109
6.2.6 ECAS 4x2 (Ratio) KWP 2000 30 11.2 Plausibility faults 109
6.2.7 ECAS 6x2 Ratio 31 11.3 Severe faults 110
6.2.8 ECAS 6x2 DV 31 11.4 Fault finding 111

2
Important instructions and ECAS 1.
explanations

1. Important instructions and explanations


1.1 Safety instructions and hazard notes Only draw on information from the approved circuit
diagrams identified by a ten-digit WABCO number
ECAS is a system for failsafe performance in vehicles.
for work on the ECAS system.
Changes the system's settings may only be performed by
Circuit diagrams without a WABCO-number may
suitably qualified persons in command of the required
be incorrect. They must be considered as
specialist knowledge.
diagrams that have not been approved by
When the ignition is switched on, or while diagnosis WABCO.
starts, unexpected movements of the vehicle or a sudden WABCO does not assume any warranty for
lifting/lowering of the lifting axle may occur. systems whose structure differs from the one
described here.
If you work on the air suspension system, advise other
persons by attaching an information sign to the steering You require WABCO's approval for the following actions :
wheel of the vehicle. • Use of components other than those shown in the
circuit diagrams (cables, valves, sensors, remote
Only one ECAS system may be installed in the towing
control units),
vehicle. It is not allowed to combine ECAS with other air
suspension control systems, since the possibility of • Integration of any appliances by other manufacturers
dangerous interactions cannot be excluded. in the system, or
• Implementation of other functions than those
Following points have to be observed when welding work described above.
is performed on the vehicle:

! number
• The electronic systems must be disconnected from The structure of the ECAS system is specified by a
the power supply (interrupt terminals 31, 15, and 30). of circuit diagrams in chapter 9 "System
At least the supply line between the towing vehicle description".
and trailer must be disconnected.
• System components (ECU, sensors, actuators, lines 1.3 Explanation of symbols
etc.) must never come into contact with welding and Potential risks:
ground electrodes. Personal injury or material loss
Never drive while the vehicle body is lowered onto the
!
Additional instructions, information, tips
buffer, because vehicle and load may be badly damaged.

1.2 Range of application


 WABCO empirical data, know-how,
recommendation

! suspension system in vehicles.


ECAS was designed only for control of the air
• List
– Action step

To avoid dangerous interaction, combination with ↑ refer to (previous section, previous chapter,
other air suspension control systems are not previous illustration/table)
permissible. ↓ refer to (paragraph, chapter, illustration/table
below)
Important basic requirements for ECAS operation:
• Compressed air supply must be sufficient.
• Power supply has to be ensured.
• ABS connectors or EBS connectors must be plugged
in.

3
2. ECAS Introduction

2. Introduction
Air suspension systems have been used in motor • control of cornering roll.
vehicles since the 50s - especially in buses. They greatly
contribute to improving ride comfort. The control system was initially designed with pure
Air suspension systems are now also prevalent in lorries mechanically operating levelling valves. Soon
and trailers, particularly in vehicles designed to carry afterwards, however, electromechanical control systems
heavy loads. Special design criteria for the wheel were developed. This served to enhance ease of
suspension have been decisive factors for this operation and to facilitate raising/lowering processes.
development. There can be quite a significant difference,
regarding static axle loads on the towing vehicle's rear ECAS is the most advanced development along these
axle, between unladen and laden condition of the lines. The use of electronic control units greatly improved
vehicle. These differences can cause problems in
the conventional system.
vehicles with steel spring suspensions when the are
unladen or partially laden. The suspension behaviour
deteriorates. In addition, ride comfort plays an important ECAS - Electronically Controlled Air Suspension
role - just as it does for buses. (Electronically controlled air suspension system)
The benefits of air-suspension systems as opposed
to-steel spring suspension systems ECAS is an electronically controlled air suspension
• The entire spring travel is available for balancing system for vehicles and has a large number of functions.
dynamic axle load cycles. Static axle load cycles are It has been used in towing vehicles since the early 80s.
compensated by means of pressure changes. This
results in a gain in height for the vehicle body layout. In mechanically controlled air suspension systems, the
• The best possible suspension, regardless of the road device that measures the level also controls the air
condition and the loading condition, improves ride spring. ECAS, on the other hand, control is taken over by
comfort and protects the load. Vehicle rolling noise is an electronic control unit. It actuates the air spring via
not transferred. solenoid valves using information received from sensors.
• The wheels run evenly on the road surfaces; this
improves braking performance and steerability, and In addition to normal level control, the ECU, together with
considerably extends the life of the vehicle's tyres. the remote control unit, also controls functions that
• Accurate load-dependent control of the compressed- require a large number of components in the context of
air braking system by using the bellows pressure as conventional air suspension systems. With ECAS, it is
the control pressure for the brake-power regulator . possible to implement functions which could not be
• Constant vehicle height is maintained regardless of provided by conventional means.
the static load.
• Controlled raising and lowering processes for loading ECAS generally only operates when the ignition is
ramp and container operation. switched on. Stand-by operation, however, can be
• Control of lifting axles is possible. activated if an additional battery is installed.
• Individual control of the bellows pressure to
compensate lateral forces (e.g. when negotiating ECAS with CAN bus
bends) is possible.
The most recent generation of the ECAS systems has
• Less impact on the road surface.
CAN bus capability. Here the electronic system are
Disadvantages of air suspension systems as networked by means of a CAN bus and information is
opposed to steel-spring suspension systems transmitted via SAE-CAN identifiers CCVS or TCO1.
• system incurs more costs,
• axle systems are more complicated due to the use of The CAN bus (Controller Area Network) is a serial data
axle steering and axle stabilisers, bus system that was developed to connect electronic
• a larger number of parts due to numerous pneumatic control devices in motor vehicles with the aim to reduce
components, cable harnesses and thereby weight. Instead of using an
• high loads on control valves due to constant air intake electrical circuit for each transmitted signal, the "bus" is
and air exhaust; shorter service life due to greatly based on a communication platform which regulates the
alternating loads, relaying of messages between several devices.

4
System functions ECAS 3.

3. System functions
The basic purpose of ECAS is to balance any control 3.2 Basic definitions
deviations. Control deviations are caused either by
disturbances (such as a change in the load) or by 3.2.1 Axle types in the towing vehicle
changes in the nominal values (e.g. by way of the remote
Main axle (driving axle, also driving axle)
control unit). These control deviations cause the distance
A driven axle is referred to as the axle that always
between the vehicle's axle and the vehicle body to
remains on the ground and that cannot be steered. Every
change. ECAS balances these control deviations by
towing vehicle has a driving axle, which is usually the
means of levelling control.
rear axle. If a vehicle only has air suspension on the
driving axle, it is referred to as a vehicle with partial air
3.1 Operating principle of the ECAS base suspension.
system Front axle (steering)
(↓ Fig. 1) As a rule, the front axle on a vehicle is the axle which can
be steered. If a vehicle has air suspension on the front
1. A distance sensor (1) is mounted on the vehicle body and rear axles, it is referred to as a vehicle with full air
and is connected to its axle via a lever system. The suspension.
distance sensor picks up the distance between the
axle and the vehicle body / body. The intervals Lifting axle
depend on the vehicle's operating time (driving or The lifting axle is usually combined with the driving axle
loading operation). to form a multi-axle combination. When the vehicle
exceeds a defined axle load on its driving axle, the lifting
2. This measured value is used as the actual value in the axle is lowered and can be raised again once the load
control loop and is sent to the electronic control unit falls drops below this level.
(2).
Trailing axle
3. The ECU compares this actual value to the nominal The trailing axle is generally also an axle that is
value defined in the ECU. combined with the driving axle to form one axle
assembly. Typical examples include dummy and
4. In the event of a control deviation, the ECAS solenoid
steering axles. In contrast to the lifting axle, they cannot
valve (3) receives an actuating signal.
be raised; they can only be relieved (load reduction). The
5. Depending on the type of actuating signal received, advantage compared to a lifting axle is that the mass of
the ECAS solenoid valve now increases or decreases the axle is not added to the vehicle body weight. A
the air pressure in the supporting bellows (4). The disadvantage, however, is the increased tyre wear that
change in pressure in the supporting bellows alters must be expected.
the distance between the axle and the vehicle body.
3.2.2 Air suspension bellows in air suspension
6. The new distance is also picked up by the distance systems
sensor, and the cycle begins again.
Supporting Bellows
The remote control unit (5) is no longer part of the ECAS Supporting bellows are the commonly known air
base system. It is mentioned because it allows the user suspension bellows on the axles. They are responsible
to change the desired level directly. Switches or buttons for the actual suspension of the vehicle. The supporting
located in the towing vehicle are also frequently used to bellows on the axles which are in contact with the ground
influence the desired level. are always filled with a bellows pressure which is

Basic System:
Distance 1 1 Distance sensor
3
Body/Axle 4 2 2 Electronic (ECU)
3 ECAS solenoid valve

5 4 Supporting Bellows
5 Remote Control Unit (optional)
Fig. 1 Basic operation of the ECAS System

5
3. ECAS System functions

proportional to the respective wheel load while the variety of uses in accordance with customer
vehicle is in operation. The supporting bellows of raised requirements.
axles are either pressureless or a low residual pressure
is applied to avoid damage to the bellows. Supporting
bellows are found on all the types of axles described
3.3 Controlling the desired level
above. The desired level is the nominal distance value between
the vehicle body and the axle. It is defined by calibration,
Lifting Bellows by setting parameters, or by defining a value using a
Lifting bellows are firmly connected to a lever system of remote control unit. Adjustment to a desired level is the
the lifting axle. They raise or lower the lifting axle when basic function of ECAS.
the pressure exceeds or falls below a defined limit
pressure in the supporting bellows of the axle assembly's A solenoid valve functioning as an actuator is triggered,
main axle. There are also hydraulic systems that may aligning actual level with desired level by way of
carry out this function. ventilating (charging and exhausting) supporting
bellows. This occurs if there are:
ECAS is a control system consisting of at least one
• Control deviations exceeding a certain tolerance
control loop. A nominal value is specified in a control
range,
loop. A sensor is aligned with the system by a calibration
process that is performed when the system is taken into • Modification of the specified value for the desired
operation. This sensor measures the actual value of the level.
system and sends it to an electronic control unit (ECU). Unlike conventional air suspension systems, ECAS
controls not only the normal level but also any other
The ECU compares the actual value to the nominal specified level. Thus, a level set for loading or unloading
value. It is possible that control deviations occur during procedures is assumed to be the desired level and the
this process. level is adjusted accordingly.
A control deviation denotes that the actual value lies
outside a defined reference range. Distinction between static / dynamic changes in
wheel load
In the event of a control deviation, the ECU initiates a By using the speed signal, ECAS differentiates,unlike
corrective adjustment to the nominal value in the conventional air suspension systems, between static and
supporting bellows via an actuator. dynamic changes in the wheel load. This distinction
facilitates the best possible reaction to changes in the
Nominal values are: wheel load.
• specific distances (levels) of the vehicle body above
the vehicle axle, Static wheel load changes
The static wheel load changes occur when the vehicle's
• vehicle conditions that are dependent on the axle load
loading condition changes while it is stationary or moving
(e. g. traction help, limit pressure for lifting axle
slowly. This requires the nominal value in the
control).
corresponding air suspension bellows to be checked at
short intervals and adjusted as required by increasing
There are two ways to transfer a nominal value to the
(charging) or reducing (exhausting) the air pressure.
ECU:
ECAS performs this check once every second. The
• The vehicle manufacturer sets values during initial check interval can be defined in the parameter settings.
start-up by means of setting parameters and
calibration. Dynamic wheel load changes
• The system user setting the values via the remote Dynamic wheel load changes are mainly caused by
control unit. uneven road surfaces, cornering, braking and
accelerating, and are more likely to occur at high speeds.
Please note that not all the functions described are Dynamic wheel load changes are usually balanced by
necessarily available; this depends on system design the compliance behaviour of the supporting bellows. In
and configuration. The type of system (number of lifting this case, bellow charging or exhausting would not be
axles, with or without front axle air suspension) desirable because only shut-off bellow have an almost
determines whether or not the functions can be constant compliance character. For this reason, the
implemented. regulation is checked at greater intervals when the
vehicle is moving at higher speeds - usually every
ECAS can easily be adapted to any vehicle type. Thanks 60 seconds. Actual value and nominal value are still
to the modular structure, the system can be put to a wide compared continuously.

6
System functions ECAS 3.
It is possible to avoid unwanted corrections of dynamic • Driving speed (only normal level II in the case of
wheel load changes during braking: if the ECU receives electronic systems up to and including CAN I).
the brake light signal, no air is charged into or exhausted
from the bellows. The chosen normal level remains as the current normal
level until another normal level is selected.
Normal level
The system adjusts to normal level (also known as – To adjust to the current normal level, briefly press the
driving level) when the vehicle moves at a higher speed. Normal level button.
A maximum of 3 normal levels can be set for ECAS. – Set the values for the adjustment mode and the
switching points for adjustment when setting the
3.3.1 Normal level I parameters.
Normal level I is the desired level defined by the vehicle
– Define normal level III as the highest normal level.
manufacturer for optimal normal driving. It is possible to
deduce the vehicle's overall height and the vehicle's Special aspects with regard to CAN II electronic
theoretical centre of gravity from this normal level. It has systems
a special significance as opposed to the other normal • CAN II electronic systems also permit setting
levels. Normal level I is described as a basic design parameters for normal level 3 as a speed-dependent
parameter for the vehicle. level
• Customer Level: Independent parameters can be set
! with regard to overall height.
Please observe the legally permitted maximum value
for levels on rear axle left and rear axle right.
• All levels are obtained via CAN identifier ASC2_… .
The vehicle's theoretical centre of gravity is a nominal
value for calculation the vehicle's braking action. 3.3.3 Memory Level
– Only the calibration process may be used to Two different memory levels can be used for each
communicate the value for normal level I to the system. The memory level applies to the overall
system. vehicle. A remote control unit is required for using the
memory level function.
– Adjust to normal level I via the driving speed and/or
the remote control unit when operating the vehicle. Adjusting to memory level is an option when:
– Specify the speed value that is to be defined as a • loading or unloading while vehicle is at a standstill or
switching point for adjusting to this level in the
• moving at a slow speed.
parameter settings.
This level provides the option to set a level for the vehicle
3.3.2 Normal levels II and III body that facilitates loading or unloading.
Unlike the unloading level, which is firmly stored in the
Both normal levels differ from normal level I. This may be ECU, the memory level can be defined and changed any
necessary: time. Once defined, the system will store a memory level
• for lowering the body as a means to save fuel, until it is changed by the user - even with ignition OFF.
• for level adjustments aligning the towing vehicle -
trailer combination, 3.4 Height limitation
• for improving lateral stability at higher speeds. The ECU automatically aborts any change in the level if
the defined value for the upper and lower height limits
Speed-dependent lowering the vehicle body is made on have been reached. These values can be freely selected.
the assumption that higher speeds are achieved on This prevents excessive strain on the rubber buffers and
sound road surfaces which do not require full use of the height limit stops (e.g. bellows, arrester cables).
bellows suspension travel.
Unloading is detected, and the original desired level is
– The value for this normal level is stored in the system readjusted so that the rebound stops are not strained.
as the differential to normal level I in the course of
setting the parameters.
3.5 Lateral stabilisation
Adjustment to this normal level is achieved by one of the
For vehicles where an uneven axle load distribution can
following means:
be expected (e. g. loading on one side), it is possible to
• Switch, set different pressures in the left and right supporting
• Remote control unit, bellows of an axle by means of two control loops.

7
3. ECAS System functions

This is not required for vehicles carrying evenly 3.8 Traction help
distributed loads (e. g. road tanks).
It is possible to implement a traction help function in 6x2
vehicles given a sufficiently heavy load. By reducing the
3.6 Lift axle control pressure in the lifting axle supporting bellows and/or
raising the lifting axle, the load on the driving axle of the
When the vehicle is stationary, its lifting axle will towing vehicle is increased. The objective in doing this is
automatically be lowered or weight shifted to the trailing to increase the tractive effort. (↓ Fig. 2)
axle if the permissible axle load of the main axle is
exceeded. The corresponding signal reaches the ECU – The traction help function is activated using a switch
from the pressure sensor (↓ 6.1.3 Pressure sensor) or contact.
the pressure switch at the suspension bellows of the – Activation possible via CAN signal, depending on the
main axle. The lifting axle cannot be lowered parameter setting P3.1: Operation via switch or via
automatically when the vehicle is in motion, even when CAN message (ASC2).
pressure peaks occur.
The traction help mode is split into 5 groups. In this
The lifting axle status is maintained when the vehicle is respect, the applicable national legal provisions are met
parked and the ignition switched off. This means if a by setting the corresponding parameters accordingly
lifting axle has been lifted, it remains lifted. (with/without time speed, load limits, with/without forced
interval).
Pressure sensor system
The changes that came with Guideline 97/27/ECC
Apart from automatic lowering, it is also possible to
coming into force must be taken into account when
implement automatic lifting of the lifting axle after the
setting the parameters.
vehicle has been unloaded. This is known as 'fully
automatic lifting axle operation'. • Type "Germany"
The traction help can be activated for max. 90
Pressure switches/-buttons system seconds using a button. After these 90 seconds have
The lifting axle is lowered automatically. In this case, the elapsed, activation of the traction help is blocked for
lifting axle must be lifted manually using the ECAS at least 50 seconds. The traction help is automatically
remote control unit or a separate button/switch. deactivated if a specified speed (max. 30 km/h) is
exceeded. The tractive force increase is specified, but
The traction help function can only be used when fully is not allowed to be more than 30 % above the
automatic lifting axle operation is activated. permissible on the driving axle.
• Type "EU99"
3.7 Normal level shift The traction help, once it is activated with the
corresponding button, is active for an unlimited
It is possible to automatically increase the normal level period. Once the traction help procedure has been
when the lifting axle is lifted. This procedure increases terminated, it can be repeated immediately. The
the clearance of the lifting axle wheels. This applies to traction help is automatically deactivated if a specified
the whole of the vehicle. speed (max. 30 km/h) is exceeded. The tractive force

standard driving Traction help

RA LA RA LA

Traction help drive power

Axle load Increased axle load


Normal drive power

Fig. 2 Axle load and drive power variation with activated traction help

8
System functions ECAS 3.
increase is specified, but is not allowed to be more – Now you must unload the vehicle until the remaining
than 30 % above the permissible axle load. static axle load requires an air suspension supporting
• Type "Outside Germany" bellows pressure which is below the maximum
The traction help type "Outside Germany" is permitted supporting bellows pressure. When the
analogous to the traction help type "Germany", ignition is switched back on again, ECAS attempts to
except for one difference. The traction help can be inflate the bellows and to restore the vehicle body to
posttriggered, i. e. repeatedly requesting the traction its normal level.
help restarts the traction help without a forced
Never drive with a lowered vehicle body because
intermission.
vehicle and load may suffer severe damage as a
• Type "Northern" (via 2-position switch) result.
The traction help function is not limited to a time
period and may be activated by a switch. After
termination of the traction help procedure, it can be 3.10 Tyre Impression Compensation
repeated immediately. The traction help is For vehicles with a particularly large overall height, small
deactivated when the switch is moved back to its wheels are used, as well as very short compression
initial position (exception: 6x2 vehicles with ECAS- travel when unladen.
CAN – see 7.9 "Brief description of the ECAS 4x2/6x2
CAN system"). The tractive force increase is As the vehicle is being loaded, however, the suspension
specified. travel requirement increases. It is possible to add the tyre
deflection, caused by increasing load, to the possible
• Type "manual traction help" or type "Northern"
suspension path, while the overall vehicle height remains
(via 3-position switch/button)
constant. (↓ Fig. 3)
The traction help function is not limited to a specific

! must be observed.
period and is operated using a 3-position switch/ The legal provisions with regard to vehicle height
button. With this type it is possible to increase and
reduce traction continuously. If the switch is in its
central position, the set traction is maintained. This control system may be desirable if the overall height
Traction help is deactivated once the tractive force of the vehicle body is close to the maximum limit defined
increase has been completely withdrawn again. by law.

This control is possible with all ECAS systems. It is


3.9 Overload protection optional. Basic requirements are the presence of a
distance sensor and at least one pressure sensor. The
Overload protection can be implemented by specifying a
desired level is increased. Any changes in load cause the
maximum permitted supporting bellows pressure.
nominal value to be changed.

This protection leads to a lowering of the vehicle's vehicle Prior to implementing this control system, the differences
body down to the rubber buffers in the event that the in tyre deflection between the unladen and the fully laden
supporting bellow pressure was exceeded by vehicle and for the tyres to be used must be known or
overloading. must be determined. As a result, the unladen vehicle with

mUNLADEN
mLADEN Impression compensation by means
of Desired level increase by ∆h
Desired level s

hcomp. = s + ∆h
Desired level s

compensated
Desired level

pUNLADEN pLADEN

Distance axle to Distance axle to


road hUNLADEN road hLADEN

Tyre
impression ∆h
Fig. 3 Effect of tyre impression compensation on the desired level
for various vehicle loading conditions

9
3. ECAS System functions

supporting bellows pressure punladen can be assigned a The precise values for the tyre impression compensation
tyre deflection ∆h0% and the vehicle with maximum load are best determined by conducting a test on the vehicle
and supporting bellows pressure p100% can be assigned type that is actually going to be used. Apart from tyre
a tyre deflection ∆h100%. impression, the linking kinematics of the axle also has a
The difference pLADEN - pUNLADEN represents the max. certain bearing on the tyre impression compensation.
adjustment range within which the normal level is The following process is suggested for this:
adjusted relative to the load by a value between ∆h100% -
∆h0%. – park the unladen vehicle on a smooth, level surface
with the parking brake released.
– The basic values for this control must be programmed – define a reference point on the vehicle body above
into the electronic control unit when the parameters the axle and measure the distance between the
are set. reference point and the ground.
The ECU then uses them to compute the increase in the – generate the maximum permissible loading condition/
nominal value for the driving level. axle load.

!
If the assignments of basic values does not match – connect a diagnostic tool and determine the distance
the tyres used, unexpected shifts in level may be the sensor actual value (WSW1) on the axle.
result when the vehicle is laden. – Raising the vehicle body until the distance between
The control process is achieved at follows. When the reference point and ground is the same as that of the
unladen vehicle.
"normal level" nominal value is specified, the system
determines the pressure in the support bellows of the – obtain the new actual distance sensor value WSW2
main axle. The ECU can then use this determined on the axle and calculate the distance sensor
pressure p, together with the values stored for tyre differential WSW2-WSW1.
impression compensation, to compute a nominal value – the distance sensor differential WSW2-WSW1
for the normal level which is higher by ∆r and to provide corresponds to the tyre deflection differential ∆h100% -
this to the system as the new nominal value for the ∆h0%.
normal level.

Now the same adjustment procedure applies as the one 3.11 Control of LSV valve
described in chapter 3.1 "Operating principles of the Towing vehicles with air suspension systems and a
ECAS base system": conventional braking system have a load-sensing valve
1. The distance sensor determines the actual distance fitted which is controlled by the bellows pressure.
between the vehicle body and its axle, and compares
this to the new nominal value just computed. In the event of a bellows pressure failure (e.g. bellows
are leaking badly or are destroyed), the load-sensing
2. In the event of a control deviation, the actuator valve would receive unladen vehicle signal in spite of it
(solenoid valve) receives an adjustment signal. being fully loaded. As a consequence, underbraking
3. The pressure in the supporting bellows on the leading would ensue, and with it excessive stopping distances.
axle is increased or decreased accordingly. ECAS includes a function for detecting such an event
and can, should it occur, conduct the supply pressure of
4. This causes the distance between the vehicle axle
the air suspension system to the LSV control port 41/42
and the vehicle body to change.
and thus to simulate a full-load situation to the load-
sensing valve.
Summary

A load-dependent normal level increase can be initiated


by means of the following settings: 1
• Support bellows pressure pUnladen when vehicle
condition is unladen 2
4241 pSupply LF
2
• Supporting bellows pressure p100% with the vehicle
loaded to its maximum level
Load sensing valve
• Tyre impression difference ∆h100% -∆h0% between
unladen vehicle and vehicle laden to maximum level.
Solenoid valve Lifting
The tyre impression compensation is not operational bellow
when traction help has been activated.
Fig. 4 The circuit for the "LSV" function

10
System functions ECAS 3.

3.12 Crane operation Pressure equalising control does not require a lot of
components. The pressure value is determined using
In the case of towing vehicles with mounted cranes, a pressure switches or pressure sensors. (↓ Fig. 5)
function referred to as the "crane operation function" may
be beneficial. The background to this function is that Permanently optimised traction control
outriggers are deployed in order to operate mounted In a 6x2 towing vehicle with ECAS, it is possible to control
cranes. These outriggers raise the vehicle so that the the axle load distribution in the rear axle unit so that the
driving axle is loaded to 100 % and the lifting/trailing axle
wheels are no longer in contact with the ground. The idea
absorbs the residual load. This is referred to as ECAS
is to prevent the vehicle suspension from being
6x2 DV (DV is a German abbreviation for pressure ratio
subjected to the force from the crane load. The distance
control).
between the axle and the vehicle body increases as the
wheels are raised clear of the ground. Normally, ECAS This type of control may well prove advantageous when
would attempt to reduce this distance by exhausting the operating the vehicle on a smooth or slippery surface.
bellows. As a result, the supporting bellows would be The driving forces which can be transferred to the driving
vented to no purpose, and this may result in damage to axle are always high, thereby permitting good traction.
the bellows when the vehicle is lowered back to the This method of distributing the axle load reduces tyre
ground. ECAS detects this situation and stops the bellow wear on the lifting/trailing axle when cornering.
air exhaust process before they are completely
The disadvantage of this configuration lies in the fact that
exhausted.
the braking forces which can be applied on the driven
and lifting axles may be widely divergent from one
3.13 Pressure control in vehicles with another. If you assume that both axles are equipped with
the same brake cylinders and the same pressure is
lifting/trailing axle applied to both axles, then the load on the brakes will be
different.
In 6x2 vehicles with a lifting or trailing axle, and
depending on the functions of the ECAS system, it is The complexity of components for optimum traction
possible to pursue different control strategies for the control is greater than that for pressure equalising
supporting bellows pressures in the rear axle unit control. The bellows pressure is determined by pressure
between the driven and the lifting/trailing axle. sensors. The number of pressure sensor fitted varies
depending on the vehicle manufacturer, ranging from 2 in
Pressure equalising control SCANIA vehicles (1 pressure sensor on the driving axle,
the 2nd on the lifting/trailing axle) through to 5 in IVECO
The main feature of this control method is that the
vehicles (2 pressure sensors on each side on the driving
pressure in all supporting bellows of the rear axle unit is axle and lifting/trailing axle, and 1 pressure sensor on the
the same after the lifting axle has been lowered/load lifting bellows). (↓ Fig. 6)
transferred to the trailing axle. The driven and lifting/
trailing axles' supporting bellows on each side are Pressure ratio control
connected to one another in this arrangement. Pressure proportional control is closely related to

traction sequence braking sequence

RA LA RA LA

drive force half laden brake force full laden


drive force full laden
brake force half laden
axle load half laden
axle load laden
axle load laden
axle load half laden

Fig. 5 Axle load and drive power variation with active pressure equalising control

11
3. ECAS System functions

traction sequence braking sequence

RA LA RA LA

drive force RA – brake force


RA - axle load LA – brake force fully laden
LA - axle load half laden LA – brake force half laden
LA - axle load fully laden RA - axle load
LA - axle load fully laden
LA - axle load half laden
Fig. 6 Axle load and drive force variation with activated traction control

optimum traction control. Either of these two control 3.14 Determining axle load in CAN II
options can be selected in towing vehicles fitted with electronic systems
ECAS 6x2 DV.
By means of the installed pressure sensors, ECAS can
In the case of pressure ratio control, the supporting determine the axle load and provide this data to the
bellow pressures on the drive and lifting/trailing axles are vehicle data bus as a CAN message. This axle load
controlled according to a defined ratio. It is still possible information can be indicated to the driver via the display
to maintain the drive force at a relatively high level, but and/or can be used by other electronic control systems.
brake wear can be distributed more evenly between both The ECU can store up to 4 independent calculation
axles. This type of control would be suitable for delivery curves (max. 4 axles). Each curve is defined by 3 points
traffic or long-distance haulage, for example. of weight/pressure.

The complexity of the components for pressure ratio The axle load information (mean value from the time
control corresponds to that for optimum traction control. interval) is sent to the CAN bus in accordance with the
The required control method is selected in the parameter SAE J1939 protocol every 100 ms.
settings. (↓ Fig. 7)

The respective boundary conditions determine which of


the two latter options will be selected in a system with the
corresponding equipment.

traction sequence braking sequence

RA LA RA LA

drive force half laden DV brake force full laden DV


drive force full laden
brake force half laden
axle load half laden
axle load laden axle load laden
axle load half laden
Fig. 7 Axle load and drive power variation with pressure ratio control

12
Control algorithm ECAS 4.

4. Control algorithm

Desired level Deviation from Pulse frequency Current Pneumatic Axle (wheel)
(reference variable w) (correcting variable y)
Desired level (Controller (Controller load change
(control deviation e) output variable yR2) output variable yR1) (disturbance z)

Distance
Axle – vehicle body
Breather valve (controlled variable x)
comparing element actuator I
Setting element
Program
+ - control element
2/2 directional
control valve(s)
Pneum.
element Air
actuator II suspension
electronic system support
Controller
ECAS solenoid valve bellows
actuating device

controlled system

Distance sensor
Measuring Device
control system

actual level
(feedback variable r)

Fig. 8 Action diagram of the single ECAS control circuit

4.1 Control algorithm for levelling control When speeding up the readjustment process, the time
required for reaching new nominal value is reduced, the
Levelling control is a function that controls the distance system's tendency to overshoot increases.
between vehicle body and axle. The levelling control is
the basic function of ECAS. The large nominal width of the ECAS solenoid valves,
which is beneficial for adjusting small differences in
It may be necessary to readjust that distance because of nominal values, is detrimental if the differences in
disturbance factors, or because of nominal value nominal values are great. The latter increases the
changes. tendency to overshoot.
In order effectively to describe how ECAS controls the As far as the correct design of the pneumatic system is
levelling process, the basic physics of the air suspension concerned, the attempt must be made to achieve a
system are described below. pressure drop at the ECAS solenoid valve in every
operating condition. This means the pressure on the
General Comments on the Physics of ECAS reservoir pressure input side must be greater than the
The basic problem in any control system in the event of pressure at the bellows pressure output side.
a control deviation is to determine the best possible
response time. This time describes the period starting Oscillation damping and damping force
with the change of nominal value up to the time when the During the control process, the role of the vibration
actual value remains within a defined tolerance range for damper must also be taken into account. Conventional
the nominal value (↓ Fig. 9). Until this is achieved, the oscillation dampers can be designed for one operating
control process continues and thus consumes air. point only. The damping force for the vehicle is designed
for the upper loading range. This means that for vehicles
Long control times are the result of slow readjustments of which are only partially laden or unladen, the part of the
the actual value to the new nominal value. High control damping force which has to be overcome in the event
accuracy is here achieved at the expense of speed. that the nominal value is changed is disproportionately

13
4. ECAS Control algorithm

high. Variable damping control could improve this. This is This tendency to overshoot occurs especially when the
available from WABCO under the name of ESAC. ESAC, vehicle us unladen. On the one hand, the great pressure
however, will not be analysed any further at this point. difference between the supply pressure and bellows
pressure sides within the ECAS solenoid valve causes
The further the load is removed from the damper high flow rates while the bellows are being filled.
operating point, the greater the effect of the excess
damping force. On the other hand, the damping force ratio that needs to
be overcome is the greatest. The risk of the control loop
This issue becomes clear if we look at the way the oscillating is therefore also great. The result is an
oscillation damper works. Inside the damper, oil needs to unnecessarily large number of control cycles within the
pass from one chamber into another chamber via a small ECAS solenoid valve, thereby reducing its service life.
throttling port. The resisting force thus generated is
known as damping force. A rapid change in the distance If the tolerance range for the nominal value is defined
between the vehicle body and the axle also causes this widely enough, undesired oscillations can be prevented.
damping force to rise rapidly. However, this has a negative effect on the repeat
accuracy of the control process with identical nominal
Therefore, it is primarily the change in distance that is value definitions.
responsible for building up the damping force.
If, however, a specific dimension should be adhered to,
At the same time as the distance between the vehicle the control process must be changed in such a way that
body and the axle begins to change, damping force the influx of air is reduced even before the desired level
reduction is also initiated by the damper oil overflowing is reached. This would reduce the speed at which the
through the throttle. The time for this reduction is defined vehicle body is lifted, thereby suppressing the excessive
by the design of the damper (e.g. throttle diameter, tendency to oscillate or overshoot.
viscosity of oil...).
Because the solenoid valve can only pass or block the air
Now the damping force is a force counteracting the flow, without being able to throttle the air flow, the
motion of the vehicle body, preventing oscillation of the solenoid current of the ECAS solenoid valve is pulsed.
vehicle body and the wheel from losing contact with the This pulsing action briefly interrupts the air stream,
road. Consequently, it is also a force that counteracts thereby achieving a throttling effect which prevents
levelling control. excessive oscillation, i.e. overshooting.

This damping force, which varies over time, represents a Pulse repetition period and pulse length
problem for the control process.
The following terms are significant for valve pulsing:
Control process in the case of changes in the Pulse repetition period
nominal value
The pulse repetition period is a fixed value which is
When the forces of ECAS are balanced, the wheel load stored in the ECU as part of the procedure for setting the
acts on the supporting bellows of the axle. Any axle parameters. The beginning of the pulsing period is
steering transmission ratio must be taken into account in assumed to be the actuating pulse for the valve solenoid.
this regard. The pulse repetition period itself is in this case the period
The pressure in the supporting bellows multiplied by the that elapses before the valve solenoid receives the next
effective cross-sectional area of the bellows - and this actuating pulse. (↓ Fig. 9).
area cannot be computed directly from the diameter of Pulse Length
the supporting bellows - counteracts the wheel load. The The pulse length describes the length of time for which
pressure in the supporting bellows depends only on the the valve solenoid receives the actuating pulse. This
wheel load, not the level. value is variable and is newly calculated for each pulsing
period. The ECU computes the pulse length relative to
When the level is changed as a result of the change in
the nominal value (e.g.by using the remote control unit), the existing control deviation, i. e. the difference between
the desired level and the actual level.
the pressure in the bellows is increased or decreased
until the actual value for the distance between the vehicle This type of control is called 'proportional differential
body and the axle corresponds to the new nominal value. control' (or 'PD control' for short). The control process is
This is a dynamic process. The greater the desired carried out relative to the degree of control deviation and
change in the nominal value, the greater the acceleration the rate of control deviation change.
which can be achieved by the control process. The
system shows a tendency to oscillate. Overdriving may Greater control deviations lead to greater pulse lengths.
occur. If the computed pulse length is greater than the entered

14
Control algorithm ECAS 4.

pulse repetition period, the valve solenoid is energised • With regard to KD , on the other hand, extreme control
continuously. In this case, the change in the control deviation rates or high values while the control
deviation is therefore the greatest. deviation rate is the same, reduce the pulse length.
The pulse length is re-computed for each pulse repetition
Because of the large flow cross-sections, readjustment
period. A pulse length which exceeds the pulse repetition
during the lifting process must be slowed down shortly
period causes the solenoid to be energised continuously
before the new nominal value is reached. The rate at
('continuous pulse'). The shortest pulse length to be
which the control deviation changes is analysed and
executed is 75 milliseconds (0.075 seconds).
taken into account for the adjustment in this context.
Control deviations changing at high speeds cause the Shorter pulse times would jeopardize the
pulse length to be reduced. switching process of the solenoid valve at
temperatures below -40 °C .
Equation for calculating the pulse length when
"raising the vehicle body while stationary"
Pulse length =(| control deviation x KP | - | control Determining the proportional and differential
deviation rate of change x KD |) coefficients for setting the pulse controller
These factors have to be determined by way of trials on
"lowering the vehicle body while stationary"l and the vehicle. Like the other parameters, they lie within the
when "lifting/lowering when driving": scope of responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer.
Pulse length = (| Control deviation x KP |
For this reason, the following section is only intended to
KP (proportional coefficient) and KD (differential provide information for checking the control quality of the
coefficient) are important for describing the control cycle set control function:
and are stored in the ECU as part of the procedure for The vehicle is brought to a level which is directly below
setting the parameters. the nominal value tolerance. If the normal level is
reached without any excessive oscillation and without
The equation shows: repeated pulsing of the solenoid valve, the setting for the
• With regard to KP, great control deviations or high desired level tolerance and the proportional coefficient
values result in prolonged pulse lengths at equal are acceptable. The larger the KP value, the faster the
control deviations. pneumatic part of the system performs the control

Control behaviour with non-pulsed ECAS


Solenoid valve (overshoot)
Nominal value tolerance range

Desired level B
Vehicle body - vehicle axle

3. control deviation
1. control deviation

2. control deviation

Control behaviour with pulsed


4. Control
deviation
Distance

ECAS solenoid valve


deviation
5. Control

Nominal value leap


ECAS solenoid valve

Desired level A

ON
OFF
Time [s]
.......pulse period

Pulse repetition period


Fig. 9 Example for a control process when the nominal value is changed

15
4. ECAS Control algorithm

function within the limits of what is possible in terms of Summary


fluid mechanics. Unnecessarily high KP values increase
the tendency to overshoot. You can influence the control regarding the distance
between the vehicle body and the axle by way of the
In order to examine the differential behaviour, the control following settings:
function is checked using a large nominal value change • Pulse repetition period T,
which has to be compensated for by raising the vehicle
• Nominal value tolerance ∆s,
body (e.g.bringing the vehicle to its lowest possible
level). After the normal level button on the remote control • Proportional coefficient KP,
unit has been pressed, the vehicle body should move to • Differential coefficient KD,.
its normal level without overshooting and without
excessively long pulsing. A single vehicle body Self-learning controller
overshoot followed by a corrective adjustment to the Another type of controller works in a self-learning
desired level is still acceptable when the vehicle is empty. manner. With this method, the solenoid valves are no
The tendency to overshoot can be suppressed by means longer pulsed and this leads to a longer service life for the
of a well adjusted differential behaviour. Pulsing of the ECAS solenoid valves. This type of control is used in all
ECAS solenoid valve begins sooner as the KD value CAN electronic control units, as well as 4x2/6x2 MAN
increases, and thus the lifting process of the vehicle body and 4x2 RVI and DAF. ECAS learns the overshoot
is slowed down. behaviour after the very first control process. With regard
to subsequent control processes, switch-off already
It may be the case that the system needs to be occurs before the desired level is reached. The vehicle
manipulated in order to improve the control response body then accurately "swings" into the desired level. (↓
because the determined KP and KD values do not Fig. 10)
produce satisfactory control results within the
recommended framework. In such a case, the cross In the case of non-CAN electronic systems, the pulse
section of the air flow in the pneumatic section can be times are obtained my means of defined coefficients. If
reduced. Usually it is sufficient to fit a throttle in the air CAN electronic systems are installed, the pulse time is
line between the solenoid valve and the supporting adjusted according to the changing vehicle mechanics
bellow unit(s) of the axle concerned. (determination of dead time).

Control behaviour with non-pulsed ECAS


solenoid valve (overshoot)
Nominal value tolerance range

Desired level B
Vehicle body - vehicle axle

3. control deviation
1. control deviation

2. control deviation

Type of control in the case of self-


4. Control
deviation
Distance

learning controllers (CAN II)


deviation
5. Control

Nominal value leap


ECAS solenoid valve

Desired level A

ON Smooth level controller


OFF
Time [s]
.......pulse period

Pulse repetition period


Fig. 10 Example for a control process when the nominal value is changed if self-learning controllers are installed

16
Control algorithm ECAS 4.

4.2 Control algorithm for lifting axle General information on lifting axle control
control Concepts such as "traction help" and "overload
protection" also belong to the larger topic "lifting axle
Vehicles with a lifting axle can be equipped with a lifting control". These will also be covered in this context.
axle control facility. This is an optional extra and is not
Controlling the position of the lifting axle is based on the
necessarily used in every system.
pressure in the supporting bellows on the driving axle;
this pressure is sensed, depending on the design, by one
The lifting axle control adjusts the position of the lifting or more pressure switches or pressure sensors on the
axle relative to the axle load of the driving axle. For this supporting bellows. In systems with pressure switches,
purpose, ECAS decides whether the lifting axle is on the these switching pressures are predefined. The ECU
ground or lifted. Disturbance factors, usually changes in compares the pressure value picked up by pressure
the load, make lifting axle position control necessary. An sensors with various nominal values. These nominal
option for the user to actively modify the reference/ values will have been defined already as part of the initial
nominal value is not provided. start-up process for the ECU. They determine the
following limits:
However, a lifting axle which has been raised can always • Lowering or lifting pressure for the lifting axle
be lowered manually. The lifting axle can also be raised • Maximum permitted traction help pressure
in the partly laden condition, provided this does not result • Maximum permitted load
in the max. permitted supporting bellows pressure on the Thus, every pressure value has a specific condition of
driving axle being exceeded. the axle assembly assigned to it.

The following section always refers to the lifting axle. 4.2.1 Lifting axle function diagram in vehicles with
Essentially, this information can, however, also be pressure equalising control
applied to the control of a trailing axle. (Example: tank lorry)

poverload Overload limit value


Driven axle supporting bellows pressure

Traction help limit load


p130%

pLifting axle lowering Full-load limit value


= p100%
p*Lifting axle lifting

p*Lifting axle lowering


p Lifting axle lowering
Mass proportion of the lifting axle mLA
Limit of unladen
p Empty weight bellows pressure
m*(pLifting axle lifting)
m(pLifting axle lifting)
mempty

m*1max.(p100%)
m1max.(p100%)

m2max.(p100%)

m(poverload)

Axle load
RA unit

Fig. 11 Lifting axle function diagram in vehicles with pressure equalising control

17
4. ECAS Control algorithm

Figure 11 shows the progress of the support bellows 4. As the tank is filled further, the pressure in the driving
pressure (thick line) in the driving axle in relation to the axle's supporting bellows again rises to its maximum
load on the rear axle combination for a vehicle with permissible value .
pressure compensation control. Neither a pressure ratio
nor a traction control has been programmed on the 5. The pressure progresses through the maximum
vehicle, i. e. the support bellows of the lifting axle are permissible pressure for the bellows on the driving
exposed to the same pressures as those acting on the axle when traction help is activated, p130% point .
driving axle.
6. Finally it reaches a pressure poverload at which
The line traversed in the process of loading and overload protection commences.
unloading passes through a number of distinctive points.
Some of the pressures in the driving axle's supporting 7. Overload protection can only be activated in systems
bellows at these points must be specified for the ECAS with pressure sensors (not pressure switches). It
system in the parameter settings. Other pressures are means that when this pressure poverload is reached,
the result of reactions of the lifting axle and can therefore the supporting bellows of all axles in contact with the
not be manipulated - such pressures have been marked ground are exhausted. Under certain circumstances,
with an asterisk (*). activation of the overload protection may cause the
vehicle body to be lowered down onto the stops ).

! of compressed air and power.


Proper lifting axle control requires a sufficient supply This is intended to prevent the vehicle being driven
with an excessive load on the vehicle body. The
For the purposes of the explanation below, please pressure value for poverload must be made known to
suppose that a tank lorry is continuously filled with, or the ECU. The axle manufacturer's data and any legal
drained of, a liquid (↑ Fig. 11). provisions concerning vehicle load must be observed
in this regard.
1. The filling process begins at . On the driving axle,
the vehicle has an unladen weight munladen. This 8. The supporting bellows are only recharged once the
unladen weight is the combination of: axle load drops below the pressure poverload again, as
• the vehicle body mass a result of unloading or pressure reduction, for
• and a lifting axle mass proportion mLA. example; when the pressure in the supporting bellows
is reduced from the perspective of point . Switching
The corresponding supporting bellows pressure
the ignition OFF and ON is sufficient as a reset to
pUnladen can, for example, be read from the LSV
have the last desired level re-established.
plate.
9. Continuing with the above example: when more liquid
2. The filling process increases the loading of the
is drained from the tank body, the pressure in the
vehicle until  is reached. At this point, the lifting axle
supporting bellows drops below  down to 3a . At
is lowered. Let us call the corresponding supporting
this point, the pressure in the supporting bellows on
bellows pressure pLifting axle lowering, this being the the main axle is so low that it makes sense to raise the
lowering pressure for the first lifting axle. It must be
lifting axle. The pressure is referred to as the lifting
made known to electronic control unit via parameter pressure of the lifting axle pLifting axle lifting. It has to be
settings. The standard value for this pressure is the
made known to the ECU as part of the procedure for
permissible nominal value p100% of the pressure in the
setting the parameters.
supporting bellows when the vehicle is fully laden.
This value is also shown on the reference plate for the For proper functioning of this feature, the following
load-sensing valve. rules must be observed:
3. The loads on the rear axle assembly (RA) change • Pressure value pLifting axle lifting < Bellows pressure
when the lifting axle lowers. The load is reduced by p*Lifting axle lowering
the lifting axle mass proportion mLA. The pressure in • Lifting pressure pLifting axle lifting > Pressure pUnladen
the supporting bellows of the driving axle also falls (at unladen vehicle weight)
because the axle load is distributed to the supporting
bellows of the driven and lifting axles. The bellows Non-observance of these rules may result in
pressure curve proceeds from  to  after the lifting malfunctions of the lifting axle, e.g. continuous
axle has been lowered. The supporting bellows lifting and lowering if the pressure value is greater
pressure that now acts on the driving axle p*Lifting axle than the bellows pressure p*Lifting axle lowering.
lowering cannot be influenced by the user. Determining
this pressure, however, is useful for configuration of 10.In systems with a semi-automatic lifting axle, the
the lifting axle control. lifting axle can be raised manually should the

18
Control algorithm ECAS 4.
pressure drop below the critical pressure p*Lifting axle taken into consideration in order to establish a successful
lowering. lifting axle control.

11.In systems with a fully automatic lifting axle control, 4.2.2 Traction help control
the lifting axle is lifted once the lifting pressure has Generally, the traction help facility can be used only if a
been reached, and only the supporting bellows on the supporting bellows pressure (↓ Fig. 12) between 3a and
driving axle bear the axle load . The lifting axle mass  is determined. That means that the lifting axle must be
proportion mLA is now part of the load again. The on the ground. The description follows the requirements
pressure curve for the supporting bellows runs from of EC Directive 97/27/EC (EC 97/27).
3a to 2a where the resulting pressure in the
supporting bellows p*Lifting axle lifting cannot be Fig. 12 shows two examples, starting with A1 and B1 ,
influenced. to illustrate the effect of traction help after activation of
the different loading conditions.
12.After the unloading process has been fully completed,
the pressure curve for the supporting bellows is again Example 1
at point . In point A1 the supporting bellows of the lifting axle is
exhausted. There are pneumatic systems that avoid
Summary complete bellow exhaustion - a slight residual pressure is
You can set up the control of a lifting axle, including maintained to prevent damage to the bellows. The lifting
overload protection, applying the following settings: axle is now raised. A bellows pressure adjusts to a level
that lies on the extended line between  and  and is
• Lowering pressure of the lifting axle pLifting axle referred to as A2 . After traction help is deactivated, the
lowering pressure in the supporting bellows is again adjusted in
• Overload protection pressure poverload accordance with point A1 .
• Lifting pressure of the lifting axle pLifting axle lifting The load acting on the driving axle due to the traction
In addition, the specific boundary conditions for defining help function is limited in accordance with EC 97/27.
the lowering and lifting pressure of the lifting axle must be Unless the axle manufacturer has defined lower values,
Driven axle supporting bellows pressure

p130% Traction help limit load


pB2 = p130%
pA2 < p130%

pLifting axle lowering Full-load limit value


= p100%
mLA

Unladen bellows pressure limit


p Empty
mempty

Axle load
RA unit
Fig. 12 Traction help function diagram in vehicles with pressure equalising control

19
4. ECAS Control algorithm

the axle load on the driving axle is only allowed to exceed pressure is reached, the venting of the lifting bellows
the valid permitted axle load (defined in Germany in stops and the pressure in the supporting bellows of the
section 34 of the Motor Vehicle Construction and Use leading axle does not increase any further. B2 . In this
Regulations (StVZO)) by max. 30 %. case, the lifting axle remains on the ground. The excess
load is taken up by the supporting bellows of the lifting
The max. permitted driving axle bellows pressure with axle. After deactivation of the traction help, the pressure
traction help activated p130%, i.e. the pressure that in the support bellows is adjusted in accordance with B1
complies with these requirements, must be made known again.
to the ECAS electronic control unit via the parameter
settings. To be able to adjust to this condition, it is
To sum up then, the following values have to be made
necessary to program into the electronic control unit a
known to the ECU for the traction help facility:
nominal value range ∆p130% within which traction help
limit pressure control takes effect. The following then • max. permissible pressure in the driving axle's
applies to the control function: support bellows when traction help is activated p130%
(traction help limit pressure)
Control range = p130% – ∆p130%
• Nominal value range ∆p130%
The traction help limit pressure is therefore not exceeded • Speed limit for the traction help function
when the control system is operating. If traction help and
overload protection are provided for in an ECAS system, The timings for activation duration and intervals between
then the traction help limit pressure p130% must never actuation, as well as the different modes of traction help,
exceed the overload pressure poverload. can be specified in some systems using a code set on
certain pins in the ECAS electronic control unit. In other

! be effective at speeds below 30 km/h.


According to applicable law, traction help may only systems the mode may be freely assignable via ECU
parameter settings.

Example 2 It is possible to set parameters for up to 5 different types


The second example shows the behaviour when the of traction help (see chapter 3.8 "Traction help").
traction help limit pressure p130% is reached. Starting at
B1 , the initial step is again exhausting the supporting The extent two which these types are actually applied
bellows of the lifting axles. When the traction help limit depends on the particular ECAS system.

20
System configuration ECAS 5.

5. System configuration
ECAS is an extremely variable system that can be the steered axle with 1-point control and a driving axle
adapted to meet the requirements of the vehicle with with 2-point control.
great efficiency. Up to 3 base control loops may be
present in the vehicle. In addition, it is possible to control Generally, the following control types are found in
a lifting axle. The selection of the system components to vehicles:
be used is determined by how the vehicle manufacturer • 1-point control
expects the system to perform. • 2-point control
To illustrate this further, the following pages show • 3-point control
different control circuits for the complete vehicle
Looked at axle by axle, 1-point control is found on
combination.
steered front axles and on rear axles. In vehicles with
For ABS or EBS, the configuration can be determined on partial air suspension, the driving axle is sensed by a
the basis of the speed sensors/modulators installed in the distance sensor for 1-point control.
system (e. g. 4S/3M); In ECAS, on the other hand, it is the
2-point control is used in cases where irregular or
number of basic control circuits for level control which
uneven loading is expected in vehicles with a large tyre
determine the configuration. This number corresponds to
tread width, or in vehicles with a high centre of gravity.
the number of distance sensors installed. A system with
Even from an overall vehicle perspective, a 2-point
two distance sensors, for example, is therefore referred
control is also evident in vehicles with full air suspension
to as a 2-point control system.
where front and rear axles are equipped with one
The specification of the type of control may apply to all distance sensor each.
sections of the vehicle (as shown here) or to the
3-point control is only found in vehicles with full air
components of a single axle. A vehicle with full air
suspension and denotes the combination of 1-point
suspension and 3-point control, for example, consists of
control on the steered front axle and 2-point control on
the rear axle.

1-point control 2-point control

ECU ECU

Solenoid valve Solenoid valve


Driving axle Driving axle
RA RA RA RA
left right left right

Distance sensor Distance sensor Distance sensor


Abb. 13 Control for vehicles with partial air suspension

21
5. ECAS System configuration

The particular distance sensor configuration can be Pressure sensors are used on the driving axle whenever
extended if there is a lifting axle with pressure switches a fully automatic lifting axle, tyre impression
or pressure sensors. compensation, or the overload function is required. If
pressure ratio control or optimum traction control is
It is sufficient to fit pressure switches that determine the required, then additional pressure sensors have to be
bellows pressure for the automatic lowering of the lifting fitted to the lifting axle supporting bellows.
axle when certain fixed pressure values are reached in
the driving axle's support bellows. Pressure switches can
also be used to implement a traction help function.

2-point control 3-point control

ECU ECU

Distance sensor
FA FA
left right

solenoid solenoid Solenoid valve


valve valve Front axle
RA Drive steering FA
left axle axle
left

right right
Solenoid valve
Driving axle

RA RA
left right

Distance sensor Distance sensor

Distance sensor Distance sensor


Abb. 14 Control for vehicles with full air suspension

22
Components ECAS 6.

6. Components
Components of an ECAS System
• Distance sensor(s),
! Itusing
is not possible to test the distance sensor function
a voltage meter.
• Pressure switch,
• Pressure sensor(s)
(optional): (The use of pressure switches or pressure
sensor(s) is optional, i.e. it depends on the selected
system variant.) Sensor shaft
• Control unit (ECU) Sensor lever
• ECAS solenoid valve(s)
• Remote control unit (optional)
• Pneumatic components (air suspension bellows;
possibly lifting bellows; pressure limiting valves;
pipes; compressed air reservoir).
The pneumatic components are not dealt with here since Lever guide
they correspond to the pneumatic components in a Sensor shaft
conventional air suspension system and do not require
any particular explanation in the context of ECAS. The
electrical power supply will be dealt with separately as Sensor lever
part of the description of the ECAS electronic electronic
system.

Abb. 15 Distance sensor 441 050 0.. 0 and lever 441 050 718 2
6.1 Sensors
The starting point of the control process is the sensor.
These sensors pick up the quantities to be controlled,
and transmit them to the ECU via the sensor cable. Lifting Cylindrical coil
+

!
You must always install at least one distance sensor
in the ECAS system.
Pressure switches or pressure sensor(s) are used for
controlling additional functions.

6.1.1 Distance sensor


Armature
The distance sensor 441 050 0.. 0 is used as an actual -
value transmitter for continuous detection of changes in Lowering
height. The inductive measuring principle is used. Lever guide

A slewing motion is transferred to the inside of the sensor


by a lever. This movement is translated, following crank
mechanism logic, without play into a linear movement of
the armature in the coil. The 'dipping movement' of the
ferro-magnetic armature into the stationary coil causes a
phase displacement between current and voltage. The
ECU receives these signals and converts them into count Sensor shaft
values.

For the angle-of-rotation sensor 441 050 1.. 0, the Abb. 16 Sectional view of the distance sensor 441 050 0.. 0
change in inductance is generated by the rotary
movement of the sensor shaft.

23
6. ECAS Components

The distance sensor is permanently linked to the axle to


be controlled by means of a linkage. The rod has rubber
end pieces acting as dampers and compensators.

The type of sensors installed must be set in the


parameters (optional parameter 2.5).

The ECAS ECU converts the respective sensor value


into counts, i.e. into a byte value between 4 and 255
counts. More recent ECAS ECUs have been changed to
16 bit processing. The sensor values are here specified
Abb. 17 Angle-of-rotation sensor 441 050 1.. 0 as timer ticks (range from 256 to 65.536).

Installation note
plastic axle The distance sensor has a measuring range between
+ 43° and - 40° (initial position 90°, lever is level). Fig. 16
ferromagnetic core shows the assignment of positive and negative ranges.

The entire deflection range is most efficiently used when


the lever is almost horizontal at normal level.

! not be exceeded.
The maximum deflection of the lever (+/- 50°) may

The length of the sensor lever is selectable. However,


the length must be identical for all distance sensors on an
ferromagnetic axle.
sheet metal
Short sensor lever
coil A short sensor lever ensures a high resolution of the
measured values even when the change in the height is
Abb. 18 Diagram of the angle-of-rotation sensor 441 050 1.. 0 slight. However, it can only cover a small range of
settings.
If the distance sensor needs to be checked, the
resistance can be measured to verify proper function of Long sensor lever
the coil. The resistance must be approx. 120 ohm. The A long sensor lever covers a wide range of settings at the
coil's induction is evaluated more than 50 times a second expense of the resolution of measured values. The
by a special evaluation circuit within the ECU. The ECU objective is the best possible utilisation of the deflection
also monitors the sensor for proper function. angle.

! might
The distance sensor is located on the vehicle frame near Cranking of the lever must be avoided because this
the axle whose air suspension bellows are to be result in impermissible tilting torques acting on
controlled. the sensor shaft. For this reason, all swivelling axles
must be aligned in parallel.
A distance sensor (1-point control) is usually installed
above the centre of the steering axle. Driving axles may The distance sensor only exists in one variant for
also be equipped with 2 distance sensors as an installation on the right and left-hand sides.
alternative to the single sensor variant.
The sensor level can, however, be mounted in steps of
– Install the sensors so that they lie as far apart from 90 degrees on the sensor shaft which can be turned in
one another as possible to achieve optimal controlling the sensor housing without stops. For accurate operation
action of the individual distance sensors (2-point and accurate measured value acquisition, the sensor
control on one axle). shaft must be properly aligned.

24
Components ECAS 6.

To facilitate this process, two projections (↑ Fig. 16) Order Number Design
functioning as lever guides have been provided on the
441 050 120 0 Angle of rotation sensor; bayonet DIN
sensor shaft. 72585-A1-2.1-Sn/K2; without
temperature compensation; cross lever;
These projections point toward the right at right angles used by IVECO
relative to the direction of armature movement (as shown 441 050 121 0 Angle of rotation sensor; bayonet DIN
in the illustration). This permits the best possible 72585-A1-2.1-Sn/K2; without
utilisation of the distance sensor's measuring range. temperature compensation; cross lever;
used by DC

! freely
It is important that the distancesensor lever moves 441 050 122 0 Angle of rotation sensor; bayonet DIN
across the whole of its setting range, and that 72585-A1-2.1-Sn/K2; without
temperature compensation; cross lever;
the lever can only move within that range (i.e. does used by SCANIA Bus
not overshoot).
441 050 123 0 Angle of rotation sensor; bayonet DIN
72585-A1-2.1-Sn/K2; without
When mounting the distance sensor on the vehicle body, temperature compensation; cross lever;
take the sensor's raising and lowering reaction into used by MAN
account:
• Immersion of the cylinder coil in the LIFT direction 6.1.2 Pressure switch
increases the induction.
• Retraction of the cylinder coil in the LOWER direction
reduces the induction.

The acquired measured values can be displayed on


suitable diagnostic equipment (PC).

• Raising the vehicle body also increases the displayed


values. Abb. 19 Pressure Switch 441 014 … 0
• Lowering the vehicle body reduces them.
Pressure switches are used to permit simple extended
ECAS functions (lifting axle control, traction help) in
Distance sensor information for service purposes
systems operating according to the pressure equalising
Order Number Design principle.
441 050 006 0 Bayonet; without lever; used by MAN,
DAF and as replacement. Two pressure sensors, designed as an NCC, sense the
support bellows pressure. In unladen condition, the
441 050 007 0 slim housing; M24x1 thread; used by
Renault (cars); pressure switches are connected to terminal 15 via two
corresponding pins on the ECAS electronic control unit.
441 050 008 0 M24x1; without lever; used by DC, DAF,
MAN, RVI, Scania, other manufacturers
(replacement for 441 050 003 0) A pressure switch (with a switching point, for example, of
441 050 010 0 M27x1; without lever; used by RVI, e. g. 11 … 11.5 t) transmits a signal to the ECU when the
Neoplan and in trailers axle load is above or below the normally permitted level.
441 050 011 0 Bayonet DIN 72585-A1-2.1-Sn/K2;
The lifting or trailing axle is controlled in driving operation
without lever; used by MAN, IVECO, on the basis of this information. Dynamic influences on
Scania, DAF and in trailers the axle load are ruled out by selecting a certain length of
441 050 012 0 Bayonet DIN 72585-A1-2.1-Sn/K2; time (e .g. 2 or more seconds) during which the change
without lever; without temperature in switch position must be maintained in order to trigger
compensation; MAN TGA, DC Actros and an axle response.
Atego
441 050 013 0 as for 441 050 012 0, without colour The 2nd pressure switch (switching point: e. g. 13 t)
coding on the electrical connection
however; used by RVI transmits a signal to the ECU when the permissible axle
load with activated traction help is exceeded. Axle load
441 050 100 0 Angle of rotation sensor; bayonet DIN
72585-A1-2.1-Sn/K2; without distribution during activated traction help is controlled in
temperature compensation; straight accordance with this information.
lever; used by DAF
441 050 101 0 Angle of rotation sensor; bayonet DIN The advantage of using a normally closed contact is that
72585-A1-2.1-Sn/K2; without the lifting axle is always lowered / the load is always
temperature compensation; straight transferred to the trailing axle when there is no voltage
lever; used by DAF

25
6. ECAS Components

(i. e. the ignition is OFF). As a result, overloading can be


excluded.

6.1.3 Pressure sensor


Pressure sensors are required in order to use the
extended ECAS functions. In the simplest variant, the
pressure sensor senses the pressure in one bellows on
the driving axle. Abb. 20 Pressure sensor 441 040 003 0
This arrangement is selected for the simple control tasks: The pressure sensor with Schlemmer bayonet
• Control of the lifting axle, connection for the sensor cable. The smallest digital
• control of traction help, or measuring steps are 1/20 bar. 1 1 bar would equal 20
• to compensate tyre impression measuring values. This type of pressure sensor is
increasingly being replaced by the type described below.
For complicated control functions, e. g. pressure ratio
control, every supporting bellows has a sensor, including .
the lifting axles.

The pressure is measured by means of extension


measuring strips. As the pressure is increased, the
resistance at a Wheatstone bridge changes; this change
generates a voltage in proportion to the pressure.
Depending on the design, the pressure sensor is
supplied with 8 … 32 V. The voltage indicating the
Abb. 21 Pressure sensor 441 040 0.. 0
pressure is transmitted to the ECU via a signal line
(sensor cable). The pressure sensor is equipped with a DIN bayonet
connection for the sensor cable. The smallest digital
In a pressureless condition (pressure sensor offset), the measuring steps are 1/16 bar. 1 bar would equal 16
output is 0.5 V. measuring values. This type of pressure sensor is used
more and more frequently in vehicle systems (also if EBS
The transmittable voltage at the upper limit of the
is installed) because of its standardised DIN connection
measuring value at a pressure of 10 bar is 4.5 V
and will replace the variant described above.
(pressure sensor type with bayonet connector to DIN 72
585-A1-3.1 - DIN bayonet that is) or 5.5 V (pressure The same applies to replacing a pressure sensor which
sensor type with bayonet - older version). with a Schlemmer bayonet connection.

! pressure sensors may not be exceeded.


The maximum permitted pressure of 16 bar for these The replacement of the two types of pressure sensors
requires some attention. If a replacement becomes
necessary, the parameters in the electronic system
The output of measuring values is digital, i. e. in steps.
affecting pressure-related control processes must be
The acquired measured values can be displayed on
modified.
suitable diagnostic equipment (PC).

The pressure sensor is connected to a separate Pressure sensor information for service purposes
connector on the supporting bellows or on a T-piece on Order Number Design
the bellows' inlet port.
441 040 003 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; electr.
connection bayonet; 500mV/bar; only
The pressure sensor should never be fitted in the replacement DAF and trailers.
compressed air line between the supporting
441 040 004 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; electr.
bellows and the ECAS solenoid valve. Measuring connection M27x1; 500mV/bar; only
errors may be caused by the extreme dynamics of replacement DAF.
constant charging and venting actions. 441 040 005 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; O-ring seal;
electr. connection M 27x1; 500mV/bar;
only replacement RVI.
441 040 013 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; bayonet DIN
72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K2; 400mV/bar; ratio
version; used by DC, MAN, DAF, IVECO
and trailers; replacement for variant 007

26
Components ECAS 6.

Order Number Design • All data for which parameters have been set, which
have been calibrated, or are otherwise defined (e.g.
441 040 014 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; bayonet DIN
72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K2; 333mV/bar; 12 bar memory levels), are stored and managed.
measuring range; used by IVECO-S2000 • Any messages are recorded, stored and displayed via
441 040 015 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; Raufoss O- the signal lamp on the instrument panel if applicable.
ring seal; bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.1-Sn/ They can be read out using the appropriate software.
K2; 400mV/bar; used by IVECO (from
December 2000). • The electronic control unit stores the parameters
which determine how the specific system functions.
441 040 017 0 pneum. Connection M16x1.5; bayonet DIN
72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K2; 400mV/bar; with The vehicle manufacturer specifies the parameters
Gore filter; used by Scania (from January during initial start-up; the parameters are only allowed
2001) is replaced by 441 044 105 0 to be changed with the manufacturer's approval and
441 040 018 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; O-ring seal; after a training course has been completed.
bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K2; 400mV/
bar; used by RVI. • The data exchange with the remote control unit is
maintained and certain monitoring functions are
441 044 001 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; bayonet DIN
72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K2; 400mV/bar; used by performed.
DAF, DC, MAN. In order to ensure swift control reactions to any changes
441 044 002 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; Raufoss O- in actual values, the micro-processor runs through a
ring seal; bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.1-Sn/ programme cycle within fractions of second
K2; 400mV/bar; used by IVECO.
(25 milliseconds). One programme cycle performs all the
441 044 003 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; bayonet DIN tasks described above. This programme is permanently
72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K2; 333mV/bar; used by
Scania Bus. written into a program module (ROM). However, it uses
numerical values (parameter) which are stored in a
441 044 105 0 pneum. connection M16x1.5; bayonet DIN
72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K2; 400mV/bar; used by programmable memory. These parameters affect the
Scania computing operation and thus the control reactions of the
ECU. They are used to transmit the system configuration
and the other preset values concerning the vehicle and
6.2 Electronic Control Unit (ECU) functions to the computer programme.
446 055 … 0 The electronic control unit may be located in a wide
The ECU is the heart of the ECAS system. The ECAS range of different positions on or in the vehicle. The
electronic system is supplied with power via terminal 15 majority of vehicle manufacturers prefer to accommodate
(ignition). In addition, supply via terminal 30 (steady it in the area of the glove compartment, although
positive voltage) is possible. In this respect, it is decisive electronic control units have already been positioned
which system is used. under the seat (DAF) or in the driver's door (SCANIA).

! installation
The control process for the air suspension is coordinated For the diagnosis it is important to know the
in the ECAS ECU. That means: position, especially with regard to older
generations, so that the diagnostic interface can be
• All incoming signals from the distance sensors are inserted between the electronic control unit and the
continuously monitored, converted into computer- 25 or 35-pin connecting plug.
legible signals (counts or timer ticks) and evaluated.
• In systems with pressure switches fitted, lifting axle In newer systems, the electronic control unit can be
control is initiated relative to the pressure switch addressed via a central diagnostic interface.
position.
• If the system configuration includes a pressure The large number of different ECAS generations, air
sensor, these incoming signals are also continuously suspension systems and rationalisation (i.e. ratio) levels
monitored, converted into computer-legible signals leads to a wide variety of ECAS electronic control units in
(counts), and evaluated. the towing vehicle sector.
• In correspondence with the parameters settings, and Below is a classification of ECAS electronic systems:
the design of the system, the signals for controlling
- ECAS 1st generation without pressure sensor
the nominal values in the air suspension bellows are
- ECAS 1st generation with pressure sensor
determined and transmitted to the ECAS solenoid
- ECAS 4x2 A
valves.
- ECAS 6x2 A
- ECAS 4x2 (Ratio)
- ECAS 4x2 (Ratio) KWP 2000

27
6. ECAS Components

- ECAS 6x2 (Ratio) External characteristics as for electronic systems without


- ECAS 6x2 DV (= Pressure ratio control) pressure sensor.
- ECAS 4x2/6x2 CAN 1
- ECAS 4x2/6x2 CAN 2 This group includes the following variants:
- ECAS + ESAC (with and without CAN) - 446 055 005 0 (DAF, RVI)
- 446 055 009 0 (DAF)
6.2.1 ECAS 1st generation without pressure
sensor These electronic systems can be diagnosed using the
WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 532 0 (Ø 8. Diagnosis).
This ECU represents the first generation of ECAS and is

!
used for controlling 4x2 or 6x2 vehicles with partial or full Only listed for information; production has ceased at
air suspension. The lifting or trailing axle function for 6x2 the beginning of 2004.
vehicles can only be controlled using pressure switches
in this case. 6.2.3 ECAS 4x2 A
This ECU is specifically adapted to the requirements of
4x2 vehicles. It represents an advancement over the
ECU generation without a pressure sensor. The ECU is
more compact and is intended for connecting a 25-pin
connector. This ECU is used for controlling 4x2 vehicles
with partial or full air suspension.

An external characteristic feature is the aluminium


housing into which the printed circuit board with the 25-
Abb. 22 ECU 446 055 003 0 pin terminal strip is pushed from the connector side and
An external characteristic feature of an electronic control to which it is then crimped.
unit of this type is the aluminium housing into which the
printed circuit board with the 35-pin terminal strip is
pushed from the back and to which it is then crimped.
This group now only includes the variant 003 (the vehicle
manufacturer who uses this ECU is stated in brackets):
- 446 055 003 0 (DAF, Leyland DAF)

This electronic system can be diagnosed using the


WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 524 0 (↓ 8. Diagnosis). Abb. 23 ECAS 4x2A

6.2.2 ECAS 1st generation with pressure sensor This group includes the following variants:
- 446 055 020 0 (RVI, Scania)
These are electronic control units also intended for
- 446 055 021 0 (MAN)
connecting a 35-pin connector. This ECU is used for
- 446 055 022 0 (DaimlerChrysler)
controlling 6x2 vehicles with partial or full air suspension.
- 446 055 023 0 (DaimlerChrysler)
Every supporting bellows of the drive and lifting or trailing
- 446 055 024 0 (DaimlerChrysler)
axle is equipped with a pressure sensor in this variant. As
- 446 055 025 0 (MAN)
a result, the pressure value for each of these bellows is
- 446 055 026 0 (MAN)
continuously transmitted to the ECU; the lifting or trailing
- 446 055 027 0 (RVI, IVECO)
axle control is therefore implemented as traction control
- 446 055 028 0 (Scania)
(↑ 3. System functions).
- 446 055 029 0 (DAF)
- 446 055 030 0 (Nissan Diesel)

These electronic control units can be diagnosed using


the WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 520 0 and the PC
diagnostic program 446 301 529 0 (↓ 8. Diagnosis).

28
Components ECAS 6.

1 14
1 Terminal 15 (5A fuse) 14 Terminal 31 / RCU
2 CLOCK line RCU 15
3 L-line diagnosis 16
4 K-line diagnosis 17
5 18 Distance sensor ground
6 Distance sensor, front 19 Distance sensor, rear left
7 Distance sensor, rear right 20 Directional control valve 2/2 RA right
8 Directional control valve 2/2 RA left 21 Breather valve
9 22 Solenoid valve LSV function
10 Directional control valve 2/2 FA 23 NL I/II-switch (for RCU)
11 DATA line RCU or
or LOWER Vehicle switch
LIFT vehicle switch 24 Stop-light switch
12 C3/D3 signal (speedometer) 25 Warning lamp, level traction help
13 Fault lamp max. 2 W

13 25
Fig. 24 PIN assignment of the 25-pin ECU for 4x2 vehicles

ECU 446 055 … 0 when servicing addition to the remote control unit. The lifting axle is now
mainly controlled via pressure switches for instance. One
Order Number Design
pressure switch operates the automatic lifting axle
446 055 020 0 replaced by 446 055 027 system and one pressure switch the traction help on the
446 055 021 0 depending on system equipment and driving axle only; by these means, the lifting or trailing
vehicle manufacturer replaced by 446 axle control is implemented as pressure equalising
055 028; 446 055 026 and 446 055 025
control.
446 055 022 0 replaced by 446 055 024
446 055 023 0 replaced by 446 055 024 An external characteristic feature of this ECU is the
plastic housing into which the printed circuit board with
446 055 024 0 Successor is 446 055 046
the 35-pin terminal strip is pushed from the front and to
446 055 025 0 replaced by 446 055 301 which it is then screwed using Philips screws.
446 055 026 0 replaced by 446 055 302
446 055 027 0 replaced by 446 055 307; is replaced
(only applies to RVI!) by 446 055 303.
446 055 028 0 replaced by 446 055 025
446 055 029 0 Successor is 446 055 311
446 055 030 0 Successor is 446 055 311

! card may be required for diagnosis.


If the ECU is replaced, note that a different diagnostic

Abb. 25 ECAS 6x2A


6.2.4 ECAS 6x2 A
The electronic control systems have been redesigned for This group includes the following variants:
this generation and are now equipped with a 35-pin - 446 055 040 0 (DaimlerChrysler)
connecting plug. This ECU is used for controlling 6x2 - 446 055 041 0 (MAN, Scania)
vehicles with partial or full air suspension. Of course it is - 446 055 042 0 (DaimlerChrysler)
also possible to control 4x2 vehicles with partial or full air - 446 055 044 0 (DAF, RVI)
suspension. As a result, vehicle manufacturers have - 446 055 046 0 (DaimlerChrysler)
fitted electronic control units of this type to 4x2 and 6x2 - 446 055 047 0 (MAN)
vehicles in order to cut down parts expenditure. - 446 055 048 0 (Scania)

The striking feature in vehicles equipped with an ECU of These electronic control units can be diagnosed using
this type is the large number of switches that are the WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 526 0 and the PC
connected to the ECU for controlling the system in diagnostic program 446 301 529 0 (↓ 8. Diagnosis).).

29
6. ECAS Components

19
1 Terminal 30 (8A fuse) 1 19 Coding PIN traction help
2 L-line diagnosis 20 CLOCK line RCU
3 21 DATA line RCU
4 K-line diagnosis 22 C3/D3 signal (speedometer)
5 Pressure switch RA 11t signal 23 NL I/II-switch (with lamp)
Pressure sensor, support bellows right 24 Lifting axle switch / Unladen drive switch
6 Pressure switch RA 13t signal 25 Distance sensor, rear left
Pressure sensor, support bellows left 26 Distance sensor, front
7 Stop-light switch 27 Distance sensor ground + terminal 31
8 Distance sensor, rear right 28
9 Terminal 15 / RCU 29 Solenoid valve LSV function
10 30 Lifting axle lifting / TA Relief
11 Directional control valve 2/2 FA 31 Directional control valve 2/2 RA right
12 Lifting axle lowering / TA Load 32 Ground connection - DISTANCE
13 Directional control valve 2/2 RA left SENSOR and PRESSURE SENSOR
14 separate breather valve for LA 33 Fault lamp max. 10W
15 Breather valve 34 Warning lamp, level traction help
16 Coding PIN traction help 35 LA position lamp (sep. Breather valve for
17 Traction help switch LA)
18 Traction help / LA position lamp
18 35
Fig. 26 PIN assignment of the 35-pin ECU for 6x2 vehicles

ECU 446 055 … 0 when servicing


Order Number Design
446 055 040 0 replaced by 446 055 042, on the other
hand, is replaced by 446 055 046.
446 055 041 0 replaced by 446 055 047 (MAN)
replaced by 446 055 048 (Scania)
446 055 042 0 replaced by 446 055 046
446 055 044 0 is replaced according to system outfit and
vehicle manufacture by 446 055 403
(RVI) or 446 055 405 (DAF)
446 055 046 0 35-pin 2-3 DS, PS Abb. 27 ECAS 4x2 Ratio
446 055 047 0 replaced by 446 055 404 / 409 (MAN)
This group includes the following variants:
446 055 048 0
- 446 055 301 0 (MAN)
- 446 055 302 0 (MAN)
! card may be required for diagnosis.
If the ECU is replaced, note that a different diagnostic
- 446 055 307 0 (IVECO)

These electronic systems can be diagnosed using the


6.2.5 ECAS 4x2 Ratio WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 881 0 (↓ 8. Diagnosis).
This ECU is adapted to meet the needs of 4x2 vehicles
and represents an advancement over the 4x2 A 6.2.6 ECAS 4x2 (Ratio) KWP 2000
generation. This ECU is used for controlling 4x2 vehicles Is an advancement over the generation 4x2 A. The ECU
with partial or full air suspension. is still designed for connecting a 25-pin connector. This
ECU is used for controlling 4x2 vehicles with partial or full
Its PIN assignment corresponds to the illustrated pin
air suspension. It is very similar to the ECAS ECU 4x2
assignment of the ECAS ECU 4x2 A (↑ Fig. 24).
Ratio, the main difference being the diagnostic function
An external characteristic feature of an electronic control in accordance with the "Key Word Protocol 2000" (KWP
unit is the printed circuit board with the 25-pin terminal 2000). Another important difference here is that distance
strip rests on an aluminium plate. The housing top sensors can be connected without temperature
section is made of plastic and is clipped onto the bottom compensation.
section.
Its PIN assignment corresponds to the illustrated pin

30
Components ECAS 6.

assignment of the ECAS ECU 4x2 Ratio (↑ Fig. 24). On the whole, the assignment of pins corresponds to the
There are the following minor differences between this illustrated pin assignment of the ECAS ECU 6x2 A (↑ Fig.
system and the 4x2 Ratio: 26). There are the following minor differences between
– As an option, PIN 5 can be connected to the positive this system and 6x2 A:
terminal of a separate battery (was not previously – A lifting/trailing axle coding function is assigned to
occupied). PIN 3 (previously unassigned)
– PIN 22 is not assigned (used to be used for the load- – PIN 14 is not used (used to be assigned with the
sensing valve safety function – a typical MAN connection for a separate breather valve for the lifting
function). axle, because the function has been taken over by the
ECAS solenoid valve).
– PIN 3 is the flashing code activation lamp for fault
determination and for deleting the fault memory – PIN 32 is not occupied (used to be an earth
without using the Diagnostic Controller (used to be connection for the height or pressure sensor).
the L-line, but is no longer needed with KWP 2000). An external characteristic feature of an electronic control
Externally, the electronic control unit is identical to the unit of this type is the plastic housing into which the
ECU for ECAS 4x2 (Ratio). printed circuit board with the 35-pin terminal strip is
pushed from the front and screwed on with Philips
This group includes the following variants: screws.
- 446 055 303 0 (RVI)
- 446 055 304 0 (RVI) This group includes the following variants:
- 446 055 311 0 (DAF) - 446 055 403 0 (RVI)
- 446 055 312 0 (Leyland) - 446 055 404 0 (MAN)
- 446 055 405 0 (DAF)
These electronic control units can be diagnosed using - 446 055 409 0 (MAN)
the WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 880 0 and the PC
diagnostic program 446 301 524 0 (↓ 8. Diagnosis). The variant 403/405 can be diagnosed using the
WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 526 0 and using the PC
ECU 446 055 … 0 when servicing diagnostic program 446 301 529 0, the variant 404/409
can be diagnosed with the WABCO diagnostic card 446
Order Number Design
300 881 0 (↓ 8. Diagnosis).
446 055 303 0 replaces 446 055 027 (only for RVI); is
otherwise replaced by 446 055 311
6.2.8 ECAS 6x2 DV
446 055 304 0 does not have any housing attachment
lugs, is replaced by 446 055 312 This ECU generation has been newly developed.
446 055 311 0 Successors for 446 055 029 (DAF) Provided the system is equipped accordingly, this ECU
can be used to perform pressure ratio control or a
446 055 312 0 25-pin, 1-3 DS
permanent traction control (↑ 3. System functions). The
ECU is used for controlling 6x2 vehicles with partial or full
6.2.7 ECAS 6x2 Ratio air suspension which have a lifting or a trailing axle.
This ECU generation is a revised version of the
A conspicuous feature of vehicles equipped with this
electronic control units intended for connecting a 35-pin
ECU is the large number of switches connected to the
connector.
ECU in parallel to the remote control unit. The axle load
The same vehicles mentioned in the context of ECAS is sensed by pressure sensors on the support bellows of
6x2 A can be controlled with this ECU. drive and lifting axle. There are systems in which even
the lifting bellows is sensed.
Different manufacturers implement axle load sensing in
different ways, using pressure switches (MAN) or The pin assignment of the electronic control unit is
pressure sensors (RVI, DAF) on the driving axle only. significantly different from the pin assignment in the other
Lifting or trailing axle control is thus implemented as 6x2 vehicles; it is illustrated below (↓ Fig. 28).
pressure equalising control in the same manner as for
An external characteristic feature of an electronic control
ECAS 6x2 A (i. e., the pressure level is identical in all the
unit of this type is the plastic housing into which the
supporting bellows while the lifting or trailing axle is
printed circuit board with the 35-pin terminal strip is
active).
pushed from the front and screwed on with Philips
screws.

31
6. ECAS Components

1 Terminal 30 (8A fuse) 19 19 NL I/II switch


2 L-line diagnosis 1 20 CLOCK line RCU
3 Lifting axle lifting/lowering switch 21 DATA line RCU
4 K-line diagnosis 22 C3/D3 signal (speedometer)
5 Signal, pressure sensor 23 Signal, pressure sensor RA support
LA support bellows right bellows right
6 Signal, pressure sensor 24 Enable traction help or Signal, pressure
LA support bellows left sensor lifting bellows
7 Signal, pressure sensor 25 Distance sensor, rear left
RA support bellows left 26 Distance sensor, front
8 Distance sensor, rear right 27 Distance sensor ground + terminal 31
9 Terminal 15 / RCU 28 Axle load change-over
10 DV-/traction switch 29 Solenoid valve LSV function
11 Directional control valve 2/2 FA 30 Directional control valve 2/2 LA support
12 Directional control valve 2/2 LA support bellows right
bellows left 31 Directional control valve 2/2 RA right
13 Directional control valve 2/2 RA left 32
14 Directional control valve 2/2 lifting bellows 33 Fault lamp
15 Breather valve 34 Warning lamp, level traction help
16 Stop-light switch 35 LA position lamp
17 Traction help switch
18 Traction help lamp 18 35
Fig. 28 PIN assignment of the 35-pin ECU for 6x2 vehicles with pressure ratio control (6x2 DV)

ECU 446 055 … 0 when servicing


Order Number Design
446 055 043 0 is replaced by 446 055 401
446 055 049 0 is replaced by 446 055 402
446 055 401 0 replaces 446 055 043, is otherwise
replaced by 446 055 406
446 055 402 0 35-pin, 2-3 DS, max. 5 PS
446 055 406 0 35-pin, 1-2 DS, max. 3 PS
446 055 407 0
Fig 29 ECAS 6x2 DV 446 055 408 0

This group includes the following variants:


6.2.9 ECAS 4x2/6x2 24V CAN1
- 446 055 043 0 (Scania)
- 446 055 049 0 (IVECO) This ECU generation is a new development in electronic
- 446 055 401 0 (Scania) control units suitable for use in vehicles equipped with a
- 446 055 402 0 (IVECO) CAN bus. This ECAS electronic system uses the bus
- 446 055 406 0 (Scania) system and transmits information to the interconnected
- 446 055 407 0 (Nissan Diesel) electronic systems of the vehicle.
- 446 055 408 0 (Mitsubishi)
The information collected in other electronic systems of
These electronic control units can be diagnosed using the vehicle (e. g. speed, brake light, or bellows pressure/
the WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 623 0 and the PC axle load - only in the case of MAN) are used for
diagnostic program 446 301 529 0 (↓ 8. Diagnosis). adjustments.
These electronic control units are diagnosed either using
When servicing, it may happen that certain ECUs are no
the ECU's own K-line (MAN) or via a central K-line, in
longer available because they have been replaced by an
which case the ECAS ECU itself only has a CAN
improved variant.
interface (DaimlerChrysler).

32
Components ECAS 6.

This ECU is used for controlling 6x2 vehicles with partial electronic system and the bellows pressure information
or full air suspension. Of course it is also possible to collected by these sensors is also made available to
control 4x2 vehicles with partial or full air suspension. other electronic systems in the vehicle. It is now also
possible to sense the front axle as well; this was
The number and types of switches that can be connected previously not possible.
to the ECU was reduced; for this system, only buttons are
permitted. Fixed coding of different functions, e. g. The pin assignments of the electronic systems has been
traction help coding using pin assignments, is no longer changed completely. See (↑ Fig. 30) for an illustration.
provided. Almost all adjustments of the system by the
user are made using the remote control unit. An external characteristic feature of an electronic control
unit of this type is that the electrical connection consists
The axle load is sensed in different ways. Axle load data of two 15-pin connectors, or one 15-pin and one 18-pin
can be provided to other electronic systems via the CAN compact connector, instead of a 25 or 35-pin terminal
bus. Alternatively, pressure sensors are connected to the strip as was previously the case.

X1 X2
(AC-coding) (BC-coding)

1 4 7 10 13 1 4 7 10 13

2 5 8 11 14 2 5 8 11 14

3 6 9 12 15 3 6 9 12 15

X1 X2 SOLENOID VALVES
10 Driving axle left
+UB (terminal 15) 10
+UB (terminal 30) 11 Charge
7
Ground (terminal 31) 12 12 raise lifting axle
13 Driving axle right
CAN LOW 1 14 lower lifting axle
HF-GND CAN 2 15 Front axle
CAN HIGH 3
4 Supply solenoid valves
Diagnostic K-line 9

DISTANCE SENSORS
Lifting axle 5 Driving axle left
4
Raising/Lowering
8 Driving axle right
Normal level I / II 5
9 Front axle
Traction help 6
7 sensor ground
- not assigned - 14
1 - not assigned -
Supply
REMOTE CONTROL UNIT Pressure PRESSURE SENSORS
sensors /

+UB
Remote control unit
13 2 U Driving axle right
P
Ground 15
3 U Front axle
Clock 8 P
Data 11
6 U Driving axle left
P

Fig. 30 PIN assignment of the ECU 24V CAN 1

33
6. ECAS Components

The printed circuit board is pushed into the aluminium Order Number Design
housing from the connector side. The cooling ribs on the
446 170 021 0 is replaced by 446 170 023
rear of the housing are also striking features. The latest
housings are made of plastic and have 15/18-pin 446 170 022 0 is replaced by 446 170 024
connectors. 446 170 023 0 is replaced by 446 170 025
.
446 170 024 0 is replaced by 446 170 026
446 170 025 0 18/15-pin, 3 DS
446 170 026 0 18/15-pin, 2 DS
446 170 051 0 is replaced by 446 170 052
446 170 052 0 is replaced by 446 170 054
446 170 053 0 18/15-pin, 1-3 DS, max. 3 PS
446 170 054 0 is replaced by 446 170 055
446 170 055 0 18/15-pin, 1-3 DS, max. 3 PS
Abb. 31 ECAS 4x2 CAN and ECAS 6x2 CAN

!
If the ECU is replaced, note that a different diagnostic
This group includes the following variants:
card may be required for diagnosis.
- 446 170 001 0 (DaimlerChrysler)
- 446 170 002 0 (DaimlerChrysler) The 2nd generation of this group, i.e. CAN 2, is now on
- 446 170 003 0 (MAN TGA) the market. This caters for additional vehicle
- 446 170 004 0 (DaimlerChrysler) manufacturers. In detail, this group includes the following
- 446 170 005 0 (DaimlerChrysler) variants:
- 446 170 006 0 (MAN) - 446 170 201 0 (IVECO)
- 446 170 021 0 (DaimlerChrysler) - 446 170 202 0 (IVECO)
- 446 170 022 0 (DaimlerChrysler) - 446 170 206 0 (Scania)
- 446 170 023 0 (DaimlerChrysler) - 446 170 207 0 (MAN TG-A/TG-1(B)
- 446 170 024 0 (DaimlerChrysler) - 446 170 208 0 (MAN TG-A/TG-1(B)
- 446 170 025 0 (DC ACTROS / ATEGO) - 446 170 209 0 (MAN TG-A/TG-1(B)
- 446 170 026 0 (DC ACTROS / ATEGO) - 446 170 211 0 (IVECO)
- 446 170 051 0 (DaimlerChrysler) - 446 170 212 0 (IVECO)
- 446 170 052 0 (DaimlerChrysler) - 446 170 213 0 (DAF)
- 446 170 053 0 (MAN TG-A) - 446 170 214 0 (DAF)
- 446 170 054 0 (DaimlerChrysler) - 446 170 215 0 (Scania)
- 446 170 055 0 (DC ACTROS) - 446 170 216 0 (Scania)
The versions of the electronic control units for
DaimlerChrysler can be diagnosed using the WABCO
diagnostic card 446 300 635 0, while the versions of the
electronic control units for MAN can be diagnosed using
the WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 893 0 and the PC
diagnostic program 446 301 524 0 ↓ 8. Diagnosis).

When servicing, it may happen that certain ECUs are no


longer available because they have been replaced by an
improved variant.
Abb. 32 ECAS 4x2 CAN 2
ECU 446 170 … 0 when servicing
ECU 446 170 … 0 when servicing
Order Number Design
446 170 001 0 is replaced by 446 170 004 Order Number Design
446 170 002 0 is replaced by 446 170 005 446 170 201 0
446 170 003 0 18/15-pin, 1-3 DS 446 170 202 0
446 170 004 0 is replaced by 446 170 023 446 170 205 0 is replaced by 446 170 215
446 170 005 0 is replaced by 446 170 024 446 170 206 0 is replaced by 446 170 216
446 170 006 0

34
Components ECAS 6.

1 Terminal 30 (8A fuse) 1 19 Coding PIN traction help


2 L-line diagnosis 19
20 CLOCK line RCU
3 Accelerator pedal sensor 21 DATA line RCU
4 K-line diagnosis 22 C3/D3 signal (speedometer)
5 Signal, pressure sensor RA right 23 NL I/II
6 Signal, pressure sensor RA left 24 Lifting axle switch
7 Brake signal 25 Distance sensor, rear left
8 Distance sensor, rear right 26 Distance sensor, front
9 Pin 15 27 Distance sensor ground + terminal 31
10 Braking pressure switch ESAC 28 external safety relay
11 Directional control valve 2/2 FA 29 Solenoid valve LSV function
12 3/3 directional control valve Lifting 30 3/3 directional control valve Lifting axle
axle lowering lifting
13 Directional control valve 2/2 RA left 31 Directional control valve 2/2 RA right
14 ESAC soft 32 ESAC medium
15 Breather valve 33 Fault lamp
16 Coding PIN traction help 34 Warning lamp traction help
17 Traction help switch 35 LA position lamp
18 Traction help lamp 35
18
Fig. 33 PIN assignment of the 35-pin ECU for ECAS/ESAC (446 155 … 0)

Diagnosis of these electronic control units is only be feature of an electronic control unit of this type – as with
possible using a PC. The reasons for this are the the electronic control units for 6x2 vehicles – is the plastic
increased functional range and the completely revised housing into which the printed circuit board with the 35-
design of the electronic control unit, including a structure pin terminal strip is pushed from the front and screwed on
of parameter sets. For this purpose, the PC program 446 with Philips screws.
301 524 0 is used. No provision is made for use of a
Diagnostic-Controller card here. This group has included the following variants so far (the
vehicle type using that ECU type is put in brackets):
6.2.10 ECAS/ESAC
- 446 155 000 0 (MAN F2000)
This generation of ECUs comprises electronic control - 446 155 001 0 (MAN F2000)
units with an integrated ESAC function. Basically, there
are 2 different ECU groups: The only differences between the two electronic systems
were the traction help parameters and that 446 155 000
- 446 155 … 0 (MAN – 3-stage damping) was replaced by 446 155 001.
- 446 171 … 0 (DaimlerChrysler;
(MAN - continuously The electronic systems can be diagnosed using the
adjustable damping) WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 569 0 (Ø 8. Diagnosis).

In 4x2 vehicles the axle load is also sensed by pressure ECU 446 171 … 0
sensors on all supporting bellows of the driving axle as Electronic control units in this group are used in vehicles
well as on the front axle. The shock absorbers can be set with a CAN network (i. e. DaimlerChrysler ACTROS or
to three different levels (i. e. soft, medium and hard), or MAN TGA). They are integrated into the vehicle's CAN
be continuously adjustable. The damper setting that is bus system and are intended for connecting a 15-pin and
applied depends on the ECU generation used. an 18-pin connector. This ECU can be used for
controlling 4x2 and 6x2 vehicles with full air suspension
The ESAC functions in these electronic control units will and a lifting axle. The printed circuit board is pushed into
not be dealt with any further at this point since they are the aluminium housing from the connector side. The
not directly linked to the subject matter of this booklet. cooling ribs on the rear of the housing are also striking
features.
ECU 446 155 … 0
These electronic control units can be used to implement This group includes the following variants:
a 3-stage damper setting. They are intended for - 446 171 001 0 (DaimlerChrysler ACTROS)
connecting a 35-pin connector. An external characteristic - 446 171 002 0 (MAN TGA)

35
6. ECAS Components

DAMPER MAGNET
- not assigned -
- not assigned -
. - not assigned -
.
. Front axle
.
- not assigned - Driving axle
Brake signal ECAS Lifting axle

Supply, damper magnets

+UB (terminal 15)


SOLENOID VALVES
+UB (terminal 30)
Driving axle left
Ground (terminal 31)
Charge

CAN LOW raise lifting axle

HF-GND CAN Driving axle right

CAN HIGH lower lifting axle

Front axle
DIAGNOSIS
K-line

REMOTE CONTROL UNIT Supply solenoid valves

+UB DISTANCE SENSORS


Ground Driving axle left

Clock
Driving axle right
Data
Front axle
Lifting/Lowering lifting axle
sensor ground
Normal level I / II

+UB PRESSURE SENSORS


Traction help Driving axle right

reserved for SAS-1 Front axle

reserved for SAS-2


Driving axle left

- not assigned -
- not assigned - +UB pressure sensors

Fig. 34 PIN assignment of the ECU ECAS/ESAC CAN 446 171 … 0

36
Components ECAS 6.

- 446 171 003 0 (DaimlerChrysler ACTROS) • LOW (i. e. 0 V; the solenoid is de-energised and the
- 446 171 004 0 (DaimlerChrysler AXOR) solenoid spring opens the pneumatic valve seat).
The combination of control signals on the individual
The electronic system 446 171 002 is diagnosed using solenoids ensures that the corresponding pneumatic
the WABCO diagnostic card 446 300 893 0 and the PC valves are opened/closed or that the corresponding
diagnostic program 446 301 524 0. The other ECUs can slides are moved.
be diagnosed using the WABCO diagnostic card 446 300
635 0 and the PC diagnosis. Three different types of individual solenoid valves may
be used in the ECAS solenoid valve:

6.3 ECAS solenoid valve • Directional control valve 3/2 (i. e. 3 pneumatic
ports: supply, consumer and vent - and two switching
For the purposes of controlling the system, the ECAS positions - in this case: ON or OFF depending on the
solenoid valve is the interface between the electronic solenoid's current supply level). It is used as a
output signals from the electronic control unit and the breather valve. When the solenoid is de-energised,
pneumatic actuating signals for the air suspension the air suspension supply is shut off and the
bellows. downstream consumers are connected to the
atmosphere. When the solenoid is energised, the air
Several individual solenoid valves are combined in a
suspension supply is connected to the downstream
block in the ECAS solenoid valve. This is because the
consumers.
individual solenoid valves cannot generate part-load
pressures on the air suspension bellows. • Directional control valve 2/2 (i. e. 2 pneumatic
ports: supply and consumer - and two switching
The three functions: positions - in this case: ON or OFF depending on the
• Pressure build-up solenoid's current supply level). It is used as a bellows
• Pressure retention pressure control valve. When the solenoid is de-
energised, the air suspension bellows are blocked off.
• Pressure reduction
When the solenoid is energised, the port to the air
are obtained only by combining individual valve suspension bellows with the output of the directional
functions. Each of these individual solenoid valves control valve 3/2 is connected either to the air
represents a unit of an individual solenoid with one or two suspension supply or to atmospheric pressure.
pneumatic relay valves or control slides.
• 3/3 directional control valve (i. e. 3 pneumatic
ports: supply, consumer and vent - and three
switching positions - in this case: TOP, CENTRE and
DOWN, depending on the position of the control slide
in the valve). It is used for controlling the connection
between the trailing axle or lifting axle supporting
bellows and the driving axle supporting bellows in
vehicles with pressure ratio control. In vehicles with a
lifting axle, the pressure in the lifting axle bellows is
controlled at the same time as the bellows connection
is made.
Two solenoids are used in the 3/3 directional control
valve. These solenoids make it possible to apply
Abb. 35 ECAS solenoid valve for implementing 2-point control pressure to one or more control sliders from two
on the driving axle (solenoid block - ECAS - II - sides. By these means, the control slider is brought
solenoid valve) into the 3 switching positions TOP, BOTTOM, and
CENTRE. The solenoids in this valve are only
The electrical control signal for activation of the individual energised for about 5 seconds. A stand-by time is
solenoids reaches the individual solenoid to be controlled required when the ignition is switched OFF to allow
by means of the electrical connectors on the individual the lifting axle to be lowered or to relieve the trailing
solenoids or solenoid valve blocks. The control signal axle. As a result, pressure is only applied to the
can only have 2 voltage conditions: corresponding surface while the control slide is
energised. Following this current pulse, the control
• HIGH (i. e. as a rule, this means 24 V; the solenoid is space in the control slide is vented once again and the
energised and opens a pneumatic valve seat against control slide is then only held in its position by the
the force of a spring). pressure of the O-rings.

37
6. ECAS Components

Depending on the solenoid control of air valves, When the solenoid is no longer energised:
there are two types of valves:
3. Valve seat (1) is closed, and the top of the control
piston (3) is exhausted.
6.3.1 Spring-returned valve
4. The valve spring closes valve seat (6) and, with the
The pneumatic control system is an indirect control
help of the piston return spring, returns the control
system (↓ Fig. 36) because it comprises a pilot control
piston (3) to its original position.
section and a main control section. The solenoid
controlled by the ECU opens a relatively small valve 5. Channel 5 and any downstream consumers are
seat, which causes pressure to build up (pilot control). exhausted by means of the hollow control piston (3).
Operation of the directional control valves 2/2 follows the
• In the case of ECAS solenoid valves with a control
same principle.
piston, this pressure opens a plate valve with a large
flow cross-section, and the air then flows through this
cross-section. Directional control valve
3/2 2/2 2/2
• In the case of ECAS solenoid valves with a control
slide, this pressure moves the slide piston into the
required position. This causes the pneumatic
connections in the ECAS solenoid valve to connected
or disconnected from one another.

Directional control valve


3/2 2/2 2/2

Abb. 37 Cross-section view of an ECAS solenoid valve with


spring-returned sliding valves for the main axle or the
main axle section (solenoid block)

In more recent ECAS solenoid valves, the seat valves


are progressively being replaced by sliding valves. The
spring-returned sliding valve (↑ Fig. 37) works in a similar
fashion. The essential difference is that the seat valves
Abb. 36 Cross-section view of an ECAS solenoid valve with have been replaced by slides; these, however, are also
spring-returned seat valves for the driving axle controlled by a return spring.
(solenoid block ECAS-II solenoid valve)

A directional control valve 3/2 designed as a seat valve 6.3.2 Pulse-controlled slide valve
functions in according to the following principle: The pulse-controlled slide valve is a 3/3 directional
control valve within the ECAS solenoid valve. It is mainly
1. The permanently energised solenoid 6.1 opens a used to control the lifting axle bellows together with the
valve seat 1 and allows the supply pressure from supporting bellows of the lifting axle. Automatic lifting
channel 4 to the top side of control piston 3 (pilot axle operation can be implemented using pulse-
control) via channel 2. controlled valves. Usually the group of solenoid valve for
2. The piston (3) now opens the valve seat (6) against controlling the lifting bellows are flanged onto the group
the force of a return spring. of solenoid valves for controlling the main axle.
This allows air to flow into the channel (5) and
downstream consumers (main control).

38
Components ECAS 6.

62.3 62.1 The slide positions in the ECAS solenoid valve remain
as they are until a subsequent control acts on them.

1. To lower the lifting axle, the solenoid (62.1) receives


a current pulse and opens its valve seat.
2 2. Air is let into the annular chamber (10) at control
piston (4) via a system of ducts.
11 11 10 3. This pushes the piston downwards and the annular
chamber (6) whose outlet is connected to the lifting
3 bellows is connected to the channel (12) .
9 9
4. The lifting axle bellows are therefore vented.
7 7 1
5. At the same time, the annular chambers (7), where
8 8 6 the supporting bellows pressure is generated, are
connected to the annular chambers (8) to which the
12 12
support bellows of the lifting axle are connected.
6. The same pressure is therefore applied to the
supporting bellows of the main axle and the lifting
5 4 axle.
Abb. 38 Cross-section view of an ECAS solenoid valve with 7. These processes cause the lifting axle to be lowered.
pulse-controlled slide valves for the lifting axle portion
8. When there is no longer any current pulse on the
in the "hold pressure" position
solenoid, chambers (9) and (10) are exhausted by
The 3/3 directional control valves (↑ Fig. 38) operate as means of the solenoid vent.
follows: The valve position (↑ Fig. 38) represents a special case
and causes the pressure in all bellows to be held. This
1. In annular chamber (1), the supply pressure acts on will occur, for instance, when the pressure in the
control solenoid (62.3 'raise' lifting axle) and (62.1 supporting bellows for the main axle and the lifting axle
'lower' lifting axle) via channel (2). vary while traction help is active. This means the
pressure in the supporting bellows of the main axle is at
2. For raising, control solenoid (62.3) receives a current
its maximum and the pressure in the supporting bellows
pulse - hence pulse-controlled - and opens its valve
of the lifting axle is lower. This condition is achieved by
seat.
control solenoids (62.1) and (62.3) being continuously
3. Air is let into the annular chamber (3) at control piston switched on simultaneously.
(4) via the system of ducts.
6.3.3 Distinguishing ECAS solenoid valves
4. This forces the control piston upwards and the
annular chamber (1) is connected with the annular Essentially, there are three groups of ECAS solenoid
chamber (6) at whose outlet the lifting bellows are valves, distinguished according to their application:
connected. • Front axle valve (FA valve)
• Rear axle valve (RA valve)
5. This causes the lifting bellows to be charged.
• Rear axle/lifting axle valve (RA/LA valve)
6. At the same time, pressure acts on the top of the two The outgoing bellows lines should be symmetrical, i. e.
control piston (5) as the pressure in chambers (11) is they should have identical line lengths and the same line
increased, and the control pistons are forced diameter. Take care to assign the electrical and
downwards. pneumatic connections correctly in accordance with the
numbering system.
7. The annular chambers (8) connected to the
supporting bellows of the lifting axle are connected to Front axle valve (FA valve)
channel (12) and exhausted via vent (32). The FA valve is located near the front axle and controls
the supporting bellows for the front axle. The FA valve
8. These processes cause the lifting axle to be raised. usually has only one directional control valve 2/2 for the
When there is no longer any current pulse on the front axle (steering axle), i.e. it can only perform the
solenoid, chambers (3) and (11) are exhausted via the opening/blocking function.
solenoid vent.

39
6. ECAS Components

The process of ventilation (i.e., increasing and axle section. It controls the support bellows of the driving
decreasing pressure by venting and exhausting) is axle in vehicles with partial and full air suspension, as
controlled by the directional control valve 3/2 of the rear well as the lifting bellows and the support bellows of the
axle valve. lifting axle. In systems with pressure ratio control /
optimum traction control it is even possible to operate a
vehicle with full air suspension (i. e. the supporting
bellows on the front axle as well) using one ECAS
solenoid valve.

Abb. 39 FA valve with DIN bayonet 472 900 058 0

Rear axle valve (RA valve)


The RA valve is the core valve of an ECAS system
without automatic lifting axle operation and is located in
the rear axle section. It controls the driving axle support
bellows in vehicles with partial or full air suspension but
without a lifting or trailing axle. Ventilation of the FA valve
(i.e., increasing and decreasing pressure by venting and Abb. 41 RA/LA valve with DIN bayonet 472 905 114 0
exhausting) in vehicles with full air suspension is
The valve consists of a rear axle block and a lifting axle
implemented by means of a pneumatic output, this
block. Its functions is similar to that of the rear axle valve.
output being closed in vehicles with partial air
An additional pneumatic output in the rear axle block
suspension.
enables ventilation of the FA valve. The valves fitted in
Depending on the type of ECAS system used, the RA the lifting axle block depend on whether it is an ECAS
valve for controlling the supporting bellows is equipped system with pressure equalising control or with pressure
with the following respectively: ratio control/optimum traction control.
• One directional control valve 2/2 if the axle has a 1- There are three 3/3 directional control valves in the lifting
point control axle valve block for ECAS systems with pressure
• Two directional control valves 2/2 if the axle has a 2- equalising control. These are actuated by two valve
point control solenoids and are responsible for controlling the lifting
bellows and the supporting bellows of the lifting axle.

The lifting axle valve block for ECAS systems with


pressure ratio control/optimum traction control contains
up to three directional control valves 2/2 which are
responsible for controlling the lifting bellows and the
supporting bellows of the lifting axle.

! a circuit diagram (↓ 7. Brief system description ).


Clear assignments can only be made by referring to

Whilst the assignment of the electrical connections is not


standardised, the following guideline applies to the
assignment of pneumatic ports for ECAS in the vehicle:
Abb. 40 RA valve with DIN bayonet 472 900 055 0
Port 1
Rear axle/lifting axle valve (RA/LA valve) Only in the case of RA/LA valves: Supply pressure from
The RA/LA valve is the core valve of a system with reservoir for downstream consumers.
automatic lifting axle operation and is located in the rear

40
Components ECAS 6.

Port 11 Port 32
Only in the case of FA valves and RA valves: Supply Only in the case of RA/LA valves: Exhausting for
pressure from reservoir for downstream consumers. downstream consumers in lifting axle block.

Port 12
6.3.4 Interchangeability of the ECAS solenoid
Only in the case of FA valves and RA valves: Actuating valves
pressure from reservoir to actuate the control element in
the ECAS solenoid valve. It is possible to distinguish one generation of ECAS
solenoid valve from another on the basis of the valve
Port 13 solenoids' design. There are more than 60 different types
Not relevant for operation. of ECAS solenoid valve. The product group 472 900 … 0
comprises the FA, RA valves and RA/LA valves for
Port 14 systems with basic control and pressure ratio control/
Only in the case of FA valves: Supply port from RA valve. traction control. The product group 472 905 … 0 includes
the RA/LA valves for pressure equalising control.
Port 21
• In the case of dedicated RA valves: Output for Port 14 The new generation of ECAS solenoid valve (ECAS III)
of FA valve. was introduced in the year 2000. This solenoid valve
• In the case of RA/LA valves: Output for (left-hand) generation is grouped in the product group 472 880 … 0
supporting bellows of the axle(s) which is (are) on the and is meant to replace the ECAS solenoid valves of the
ground (pressure equalising control only). product group 472 900 … 0 in future.
Port 22
Output for (right-hand) supporting bellows of the axle(s)
which is (are) on the ground.

Port 23
• In the case of dedicated FA or RA valves: Output for
(left-hand) supporting bellows of the axle(s) which is
(are) on the ground.
• In the case of RA/LA valves: Output to the (left-hand)
supporting bellows of the lifting axle for fully automatic
lifting axle operation.
Port 24
Output to (right-hand) support bellows of the lifting axle
in the case of fully automatic lifting axle operation.

Port 25 Abb. 41 RA valve with DIN bayonet 472 880 030 0


Output to lifting bellows on the lifting axle for fully
automatic lifting axle operation. As a general rule, it is possible to subdivide the various
versions into groups with the same function. The main
Port 26 differences between devices in the same group concern
• In the case of RA/LA valves: Output to port 14 of the the electrical and pneumatic interface.
FA valve (pressure equalising control only).
• On buses also output to supporting bellows on the Devices with specially shaped connection threads -
front axle for the 'kneeling' function. these being required by special pipe connection systems
- do not represent a particular problem should the
Port 27
corresponding pipe couplings not be on hand. If need be
• Not relevant for operation.
(i.e. repair is required), pipe couplings according to DIN
• On buses also output to supporting bellows on the may still be used.
front axle for the 'kneeling' function.
Port 3 However, problems of a different magnitude arise if the
Only on RA valves: Exhausting for downstream electrical connections to the valve solenoids are
consumers. configured differently. For example, solenoid control can
be implemented as an individual control with a thread or
Port 31 as a valve block control with a connection bayonet. The
Only in the case of RA/LA valves: Exhausting for connection bayonet may vary from one type to another
downstream consumers in rear axle block. (KOSTAL or DIN bayonet). There can be different

41
6. ECAS Components

contact arrangements even within the same bayonet The following applies to the pneumatic connections (P-
type, and this may rule out interchangeability. In this conn.):
case, the only thing to do is to replace the corresponding JED-152 = Threaded holes for metric connection thread
cable at the same time. according to DIN.
The following tables present a brief list of the most JED-388 = Threaded holes for VOSS plug-in connection
important ECAS solenoid valves with equivalent system (can be used for pipe unions according to DIN).
functions and provide some information about
interchangeability. The following table first displays the symbol diagram for
The following applies to the designation of the electrical the various groups, followed by a brief description. Some
connection (E-conn.) as a DIN bayonet: variants can only be distinguished by the presence/
absence of a silencer (GD).
Connector DIN 72 585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 (example)
This and the following groups deal with solenoid valves
A1= = fixed connector (A) with coding strip assignment
which are used for ECAS basic control on the rear (or
1 in the connector plug (4 different arrangements
driven) axle.
are possible).
4.1 = DIN coding of the contact assignment (here: 4 The first group listed in the table consists of RA valves
contacts assigned according to variant 1). for 1-point control (1 distance sensor). These valves
Sn = tin-plated contacts. have a throttle (diameter 0.6 mm) between the
pneumatic outputs to the left and right side of the
K1 = Duty class (K2 can be subjected to higher loads bellows.
than K1).

Table 1: Solenoid valve


Symbol diagram Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment
472 900 030 0 2 individual VOSS Linchpins of the individual
42 41 solenoids M27x1 connection solenoid connections turned
M22x1.5 at 90° towards one another;
12 24
with silencer
472 900 032 0 2 individual M 22x1.5 Linchpins of the individual
solenoids M27x1 solenoid connections turned
at 90° towards one another;
without silencer
3
21 472 900 033 0 2 individual M 22x1.5 (JED- Linchpins of the individual
solenoids M27x1 388)connection solenoid connections turned
s with access at 90° towards one another;
23 22 11 from top with silencer
472 900 034 0 2 individual M 22x1.5 Linchpins of the individual
solenoids M27x1 (JED-388) solenoid connections
pointing in the same
direction; without silencer
472 900 055 0 2 solenoids M 22x1.5
6.3 6.4 6.1 6.2 1x bayonet DIN (JED-388)
72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K1
472 900 061 0 2 solenoids M 22x1.5 Special solenoid seal for
1x bayonet DIN (JED-388) SCANIA; with silencer
72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K1 (6.3 not assigned)
472 900 065 0 2 solenoids M 22x1.5 IVECO; with silencer
3 1x bayonet DIN (JED-152)
21 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K1
472 880 030 0 2 solenoids M 22x1.5 ECAS III
23 22 11 1x bayonet DIN (JED-388) with silencer; replaces 472
72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K1 900 055 0
472 880 031 0 2 solenoids M 22x1.5 ECAS III special solenoid
1x bayonet DIN (JED-388) seal for SCANIA; with
72585-A1-3.2-Sn/K2 silencer replaces 472 900
061 0 (6.3 not assigned)

42
Components ECAS 6.

RA valves for 2-point control (2 distance sensors)


These valves enable the pneumatic outputs to the air suspension bellows to be
controlled separately.
Variants:
Symbol diagram Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment
472 900 000 0 3 individual VOSS Replaced by variant 001;
43 42 41 solenoids M27x1 connection with silencer
12 24 M22x1.5
472 900 001 0 3 individual VOSS Linchpins of the individual
solenoids M27x1 connection solenoid connections left,
M22x1.5 front, and right;
replacement for variant
000; with silencer
3
21 472 900 002 0 3 individual M 22x1.5 Individual solenoid
solenoids M27x1 (DIN thread) connections as in variant
001; with silencer
23 22 11
472 900 006 0 3 individual M 22x1.5 Linchpins of the individual
solenoids M27x1 (DIN thread) solenoid connections 2x
front and right; replaced by
variant 012; w/o silencer
472 900 008 0 3 individual M 22x1.5 Individual solenoid
solenoids M27x1 (JED-388) connections as in variant
001; P-connections with
access from top; with
silencer
472 900 009 0 3 individual M 22x1.5 Linchpins of the solenoid
solenoids M27x1 (JED-388) connections 2x rear and
right; without silencer
472 900 012 0 3 individual M 22x1.5 Individual solenoid
solenoids M27x1 (DIN thread) connections as in variant
006; replacement for
variant 006; w/o silencer
472 900 014 0 3 individual M 22x1.5 Individual solenoid
solenoids M27x1 (JED-388) connections as in variant
001; P-connections with
access from top; without
silencer
472 900 053 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 with silencer
72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 (JED-388)
6.3 6.2 6.1 6.4
472 900 060 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 Port 21 open; with silencer
72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388)
472 900 062 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 special solenoid seal for
72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 (JED-388) SCANIA; without silencer
472 900 063 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 with silencer
3 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 (JED-152)
21
472 900 073 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 12V supply voltage: with
72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 (JED-388) silencer
23 22 11
472 880 000 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 ECAS III
72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388) Port 21 open; with silencer
supersedes 472 880 060 0
472 880 001 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 ECAS III
72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388) with silencer; supersedes
472 880 053 0
472 880 002 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 ECAS III
72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388) special solenoid seal for
SCANIA; with silencer;
472 880 070 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 ECAS III
72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388) 12V voltage supply; with
silencer; supersedes 472
880 073 0

43
6. ECAS Components

Solenoid valves for basic ECAS control on the front axle.


Group 1: FA valves for 1-point control (1 distance sensor)
These valves have a throttle (diameter 0.6 mm) between the pneumatic outputs to the
left and right side of the bellows. These valves are ventilated (vented and exhausted)
via the RA valve connected upstream; this means it is necessary to connect a separate
supply line for the pilot control, port 12 (as of ECAS III, port 11).
Variants:
Symbol diagram Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment
472 900 020 0 1 individual VOSS connection additional port 13 next to
42 solenoid M27x1 3x M22x1.5 port 14 (closed)
14 12 1x M16x1.5
472 900 021 0 1 individual VOSS connection
solenoid M27x1 3x M22x1.5
1x M16x1.5
472 900 022 0 1 individual 3x M22x1.5
solenoid M27x1 1x M16x1.5
(DIN thread)
472 900 054 0 1x bayonet DIN 3x M22x1.5
72585-A1-3.6- 1x M16x1.5
23 22 Sn/K1 (JED-388)
472 900 064 0 1x bayonet DIN 3x M22x1.5
72585-A1-3.6- 1x M16x1.5
Sn/K1 (JED-152)
472 900 074 0 1x bayonet DIN 3x M22x1.5 Solenoid turned by 90°
72585-A1-3.6- 1x M16x1.5 when compared to 054
Sn/K1 (JED-388)
472 900 058 0 1x bayonet DIN 3x M22x1.5 Special model: if required,
6.2 6.1 72585-A1-2.1- 1x M16x1.5 to be replaced by 472 880
14 12 Sn/K2 (JED-388) 021 0, in which case port 25
can be picked off from port
22 (T-piece); note the
difference in thread size!

25

22 23

472 880 020 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 ECAS III


6.1
72585-A1-3.6- (JED-388) phases out 472 900 054 0
21 6.2 6.4 Sn/K2

472 880 021 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 ECAS III


72585-A1-2.1- (JED-388) phases out 472 900 058 0
Sn/K2 (6.4 not assigned)
472 880 024 0 1x bayonet DIN M 22x1.5 ECAS III
72585-A1-3.6- (JED-388)
Sn/K2

22 23 11

44
Components ECAS 6.

Symbol diagram
61.1 61.4 62.1 62.4 61.3 Solenoid valves for basic ECAS control on the
61.2
62.2 front axle.
Group 2: FA valves used in buses.
Apart from the function as a front axle valve,
this valve group has an additional directional
12 control valve 2/2 for the kneeling function.

Variants:

14

26 27

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 900 066 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K1 3x M22x1.5 Replaced by 472 880 061 0
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 1x M16x1.5
(JED-388)
472 900 076 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.2-Sn/K1 3x M22x1.5 12V supply voltage; replaced by 472 880 071 0
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 1x M16x1.5
(JED-388)
472 880 061 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2 4x M22x1.5 ECAS III
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388) supersedes 472 900 066 0; note changed
pneumatic ports; with silencer

472 880 071 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2 4x M22x1.5 ECAS III


1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388) 12V supply voltage;
supersedes 472 900 066 0; note the
modified pneumatic ports

Symbol diagram FA valve for use in buses. As well as the


62.4 directional control valve 2/2 for kneeling,
61.3 62.1 62.2 61.1
61.2 61.4 these valves also have an independently
functioning breather valve.

21

23 22 11

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 880 062 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2 4x M22x1.5 ECAS III
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388) SCANIA design; venting function integrated in
the valve; with silencer
472 880 064 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2 4x M22x1.5 ECAS III
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388) Ventilation function (venting and exhausting)
integrated in the valve; with silencer

45
6. ECAS Components

Solenoid valves used for the traction control / pressure equalising control in complete
vehicles or for multi-axle combinations.
Symbol diagram
FA/RA valves for 1-point control / 2-point
62.1
control (3 distance sensors).
62.2 62.4 61.3 61.2 61.1 61.4
These valves have a throttle (diameter 0.6
mm) between the pneumatic outputs to the
left and right side of the bellows. They are
used in 4x2 vehicles. The advantage is that a
single valve can be used to coordinate the
bellows control for a vehicle with full air
suspension.
3
Variants:

27 26 23 22 21 11

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 900 052 0 4 individual solenoids M27x1 5x M22x1.5 for information only, no longer available
(JED-388)

472 900 057 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K1 5x M22x1.5 replaced by 472 880 050 0; with silencer
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 (JED-388)
472 900 067 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K1 5x 1/2-14 NPTF replaced by 472 880 051 0; with silencer
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 DRYSEAL
472 880 050 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2 5x M22x1.5 ECAS III
supersedes 472 900 057 0; with silencer
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388)
472 880 051 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2 5x 1/2-14 NPTF ECAS III
supersedes 472 900 067 0; with silencer
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 DRYSEAL
472 880 052 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2 5x 1/2-14 NPTF ECAS III
SCANIA design; RA + FA/LA; with silencer
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 DRYSEAL

Symbol diagram RA/LA (or RA/TA) valve for 1-point control


(1 distance).
62.2 62.1 62.4 61.2 61.1 61.4 There is one output on the lifting axle block for
the lifting bellows and one output for the
support bellows of the lifting axle.

23 22 23 22 21 11

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 900 113 0 2x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 5x M22x1.5 RA/TA valve (rear axle / trailing axle valve)
(JED-388)

46
Components ECAS 6.

Symbol diagram
RA/LA (or RA/TA) valve for 2-point control
62.3 62.4 62.1 62.2 61.3 61.2 61.1 61.4 (2 distance sensors).
There are two pneumatic outputs on the valve
block for the supporting bellows of the lifting/
trailing axle.

Variants:

27 26 23 22 21 11

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 900 102 0 5 individual solenoids M27x1 VOSS connection Replaced by 472 900 105 0
5x M22x1.5
472 900 103 0 5 individual solenoids M27x1 5x M22x1.5 electrical connections 41 to 43 (also refer to
(DIN thread) page 43); with silencer
472 900 105 0 5 individual solenoids M27x1 5x M22x1.5 Replacement for 472 900 102 0; electrical
(JED-388) connections 41 to 43; P-connections with
access from top; with silencer
472 900 110 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 5x M22x1.5 RA/TA valve;
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K1 (JED-388) Replacement for 472 900 105 0; with silencer

472 900 112 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 5x M22x1.5 RA/LA valve; without silencer
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K1 (JED-388) changed connector coding on the
electrical connection 62.3
472 880 100 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A2-4.1-Sn/K2 5x M22x1.5 ECAS III
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388) RA/TA valve; supersedes 472 900 110 0; but
changed connector coding on the
electrical connections; with silencer
472 880 101 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 5x M22x1.5 ECAS III
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.1-Sn/K1 (JED-388) RA/LA valve; supersedes 472 900 112 0;
without silencer

Symbol diagram
RA/LA valves for 2-point control
62.1 62.2 62.3 62.4 61.3 61.2 61.1 61.4 (2 distance sensors).
There is one output on the lifting axle block for
the lifting bellows and two outputs for the
supporting bellows of the lifting axle.

Variants:

25 26 27 23 22 21 11

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 900 101 0 6 individual solenoids M27x1 VOSS connection Replaced by 472 900 111 0
6x M22x1.5
472 900 104 0 6 individual solenoids M27x1 6x M22x1.5 electrical connections 41 to 43 (also refer to
(JED-388) page 43); P-connection with access from top;
with silencer
472 900 111 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 6x M22x1.5 Replacement for 472 900 101 0
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K1 (JED-152)

47
6. ECAS Components

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 900 114 0 2x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K1 6x M22x1.5 Replacement for 472 900 104 0; with silencer
(JED-388)
472 880 103 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A2-4.1-Sn/K2 6x M22x1.5 ECAS III
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388) supersedes 472 900 114 0; with silencer
472 880 104 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A2-4.1-Sn/K2 6x M22x1.5 ECAS III
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 (JED-388) with silencer

Symbol diagram
63.4
FA/RA valves for 3-point control
62.1 62.4 61.3 61.2 61.1 61.4
(3 distance sensors).
63.1 63.2 62.3 62.2
Special form for buses - these valves have a
throttle (diameter 1 mm) between the
pneumatic outputs to the left and right side of
the bellows.
Special feature: Valve solenoid, required for
the kneeling function, in FA section.
3 Variants:

26 27 23 22 21 11

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 900 050 0 6 individual solenoids M27x1 M 22x1.5 electrical connections 41 to 43 (also refer to
(DIN thread) page 43); with silencer

472 900 051 0 6 individual solenoids M27x1 M 22x1.5 for information only, no longer
(DIN thread) availableelectrical connections 41 to 43 (also
refer to page 43); P-connection with access
from top; with silencer
472 900 056 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 M 22x1.5 with silencer
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388)
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2
472 900 059 0 6 individual solenoids M27x1 M 22x1.5 electrical connections 41 to 43 (also refer to
(JED-388) page 43); P-connection with access from top;
without silencer
472 900 068 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 M 22x1.5 12V design: with silencer
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388)
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2
472 880 060 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 M 22x1.5 ECAS III
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388) supersedes 472 900 056 0; with silencer
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-3.6-Sn/K2
Symbol diagram
12
ECAS solenoid valvesthat perform special
41 42 43 control functions.
Special feature: directional control valve 2/2
upstream of port 21/14; the valve is open
when de-energised.

3 21/14

11/25 22 23

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 900 013 0 3 individual solenoids M27x1 M22x1.5/M16x1.5 w/o silencer
(DIN thread)

48
Components ECAS 6.

Symbol diagram
24 12
ECAS solenoid group with added port 24/
41 42 43 13. They do not play any role as far as use in
the vehicle is concerned, although they are
encountered in the CTU (conformity
measuring instrument for the ECE-R13) as a
pneumatic actuator.
3 21/14 Variants:

11/25 22 23

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 900 005 0 3 individual solenoids M27x1 M22x1.5/M16x1.5 replaced by 472 900 007 0; without silencer
(DIN thread)
472 900 007 0 3 individual solenoids M27x1 M22x1.5/M16x1.5 Replacement for 472 900 005 0; may also
(DIN thread) replace 472 900 013 0; without silencer

Solenoid valves used for pressure equalising control.


Symbol diagram
32 23 1 21 RA/LA (or RA/TA) valve for 2-point control
(2 distance sensors).
The bellows pressure on the left-hand and
right-hand side of the vehicle can be
controlled separately.
26
Variants:
31
25

44 42 44 43 42
43 24 22 41

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 905 105 0 2x KOSTAL bayonet M 22x1.5 replaced by 472 905 107 0; with 1x silencer
(JED-388) (old version)

472 905 107 0 2x KOSTAL bayonet M 22x1.5 Replacement for 472 905 105 0; replaced by
(JED-388) 472 905 111 0; with 1x silencer (old version)

472 905 111 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 M 22x1.5 Replacement for 472 905 107 0; with 1x
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388) silencer

472 905 112 0 2x KOSTAL bayonet M 22x1.5 Replacement for 472 905 108 0; with 1x;
(JED-152) fording ability

472 905 118 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 M 22x1.5 SCANIA design; bus, 6x2; with 2x silencers
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388)

49
6. ECAS Components

Symbol diagram
32 23 1 21 RA/LA (or RA/TA) valve for 2-point control
(2 distance sensors).
The bellows pressure on the left-hand and
right-hand side of the vehicle can be
controlled separately.
26 Special feature: Lifting axle is lifted/lowered
inversely (i. e. opposite). Replacing the
31 following valves with the previously
25 mentioned valves is not permissible.

Variants:
62.4
62.2 62.3 62.4 62.3 62.2
62.1 24 22 62.1

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 905 110 0 2 solenoid blocks M27x1 M 22x1.5 replaced by 472 905 116 0; housing identified
(JED-152) by a blue paint dot on the cover; 1 silencer

472 905 116 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 M 22x1.5 Replacement for 472 905 110 0; housing
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388) identified by a blue paint dot on the cover; with
1x silencer.

Symbol diagram
23 1 21 RA/LA (or RA/TA) valves for 1-point
32
control (1 distance sensor).
These valves have a throttle (diameter 0.6
mm) between the pneumatic outputs to the
left and right side of the bellows. The bellows
26 pressure on the left-hand and right-hand side
of the vehicle cannot be controlled separately.
31
25 Variants:

62.3 62.4 61.4 61.3


62.1 24 22 61.1

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 905 109 0 2x KOSTAL bayonet M 22x1.5 replaced by 472 905 114 0; with 2x silencers
(JED-388)
472 905 114 0 1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.1-Sn/K2 M 22x1.5 Replacement for 472 905 109 0; with 2x
1x bayonet DIN 72585-A1-4.2-Sn/K2 (JED-388) silencers
Solenoid valves with special tasks for particular users.
Symbol diagram
32 24 22 FA/RA valves for 1-point control / 1-point
control with integrated lifting bellows
control (2 distance sensors).
Such a valve can carry out all the ECAS
functions in a 6x2 vehicle with full air
26 suspension and a lifting axle. There is one
31 output available in each case for the front,
rear and lifting axle supporting bellows. The
lifting bellows has a separate output on the
valve and does not have constrained control.

62.4 62.3
61.3
61.1
61.2
61.4

62.2 62.1 25 1 21

Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment


472 905 070 0 2 solenoid blocks M27x1 M22x1.5 (JED- w/o silencer
388) 1X (JED-
152)

50
Components ECAS 6.

RA valve for 1-point control (1 distance sensor)


Symbol diagram Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment
472 905 010 0 1x KOSTAL 1/2-14 DRYSEAL 12 V design: with silencer
6.3 6.4 6.2 bayonet NPTF

22
1

31

RA/TA valve for 1-point control (1 distance sensor)


Symbol diagram Order Number E-connection P-connection Comment
472 905 060 0 1x KOSTAL 1/2-14 DRYSEAL 12 V design: with silencer
6.4 bayonet NPTF
6.3
6.2
6.1

1
26

31
22

6.4 The remote control unit • Lowering and raising of the vehicle body
simultaneously above all axles; separately above the
Using the remote-control, you have the following front or rear axle, or multi-axle combination, and, if the
options: system is designed accordingly, separately on the
• to change the desired level, axle's right and left side.
• to adjust the position of the lifting axle, • Raising and lowering the lifting axle and thereby
switching off or on any fully automatic lifting axle
• to activate traction help,
operation, and reducing or increasing the load on the
• to preselect the desired normal level. trailing axle.
The ride height can be adjusted only while at a standstill • Storing up to two preference (i.e. memory) levels and
or moving no faster than a limit speed vOPER. adjusting these levels by briefly pushing the
appropriate button.
– The ECU is informed of this limit speed when you set
the parameters. • Setting the vehicle to STAND-BY operation during
which the power supply for ECAS is provided by
Ideally, the remote control unit should be accommodated terminal 30.
in a housing. The remote control unit is linked to the ECU
• pressing the STOP button will cancel any lifting and
using a flexible 4-core helix cable and a socket on the
lowering processes immediately.
vehicle.
Systems with less comprehensive configurations will not
The 4-core cable is assigned as follows: react to button commands that are not consistent with the
• Terminal 15 for the voltage supply actual system. For example: selection of a front axle in a
vehicle with partial air suspension, because these
• Terminal 31
vehicles do not have a front axle with air suspension.
• CLOCK line (also: pulse line) With a remote control unit for vehicles with full air
• Data line (also: data line) suspension, on the other hand, it is perfectly possible to
operate a vehicle with partial air suspension.
Fig. 42 shows the remote control unit 446 056 117 0 for a
vehicle with full air suspension and a lifting axle. The Layout of the remote control unit
functions of this RCU are: The top row of the operating panel contains three
• Adjusting to normal level. indicator lamps. They indicate which axle has been
preselected for an adjustment.

51
6. ECAS Components

preselect button 'front Indicator lamp


axle' or left side of the Front axle
vehicle if right/left control
is available
Indicator lamp
Rear axle

Indicator lamp
Memory level 2 Lifting axle
button M 2

Preselect button 'rear axle'


Memory level 1 or right side of the vehicle if
button M 1 right/left control is available

Preselect button 'lifting axle'


LIFT button
Normal level button
LOWER button
Stop button
Abb. 42 Remote control unit 446 056 117 0 and its components

The second row of the control panel contains three Lifting and lowering the vehicle body
preselect buttons: front axle (left side of vehicle), rear
– Press and hold the LIFT or LOWER button.
axle (right side of vehicle), lifting axle. Each of these
buttons is located below the corresponding indicator A modified desired level for the vehicle body section
lamp. located above the preselected axles is preset for the
ECU. The vehicle body now immediately adjusts its
– Press the desired preselect button. distance to the vehicle axle for as long as the button is
pressed and held.
The corresponding lamp will light up, indicating that it is
now possible to perform an action on the preselected – Release the button or press the STOP button.
axle.
The procedure for changing the nominal value is
– Press the same preselect button again. terminated. The nominal value detected the moment that
the button was released is used as the new nominal
The corresponding indicator lamp goes out, indicating
value, and levels are adjusted accordingly.
that input mode for the remote control unit has been
terminated.
Lifting and lowering the lifting axle

! It is no longer possible to make changes using the


remote control unit.
– Press the preselect button 'lifting axle' and then briefly
tap the LIFT or LOWER button.

Desired level changes relating to the entire vehicle are The lifting axle is raised or lowered, or the trailing axle is
desired: loaded or relieved. Lifting or loading action is only
possible if the defined permitted maximum pressure in
– Press and hold the preselect buttons 'front axle' and
the main axle's support bellows is not exceeded.
'rear axle'.
Lowering the lifting axle, or relieving the trailing axle,
Both indicator lamps (for the front and the rear axle) must triggers deactivation of automatic lifting/trailing axle
light up to indicate that the axles are ready for actuation. operation.

! initiated
Generally, any input using the remote control unit is Deactivation of automatic lifting/trailing axle
by preselecting the desired axle(s) and ends operation
by cancelling the input mode.
The automatic lifting/trailing axle operation can be
switched off, provided that at least one lifting/trailing axle
was automatically lifted/relieved owing to a light load.

52
Components ECAS 6.

– Press the LOWER button. Speed dependency


The "Raising and lowering of the vehicle body" and
Deactivating automatic lifting axle operation means that
"Memory level" functions can be used only when the
the previously (automatically) raised lifting axle is
vehicle is either stationary or has not exceeded a
lowered, or that load is placed on the previously relieved
preselected speed vOPER. Any control processes which
trailing axle.
were started below that speed will be completed even at
greater speed.
Switching on automatic lifting/trailing axle operation
– Press the preselect button 'lifting axle' and then press Pressing several buttons simultaneously
the LIFT button. If several buttons are pressed simultaneously and these
do not represent a plausible combination, no command
– by switching the ignition on and off.
will be accepted when a targeted level change is
Normal levels initiated. The STOP function is executed.
A brief tap on the 'normal level' button is sufficient for
adjustment to the current normal level. In some systems Disconnecting the remote control unit
there is no need to deactivate the axle preselection as – Disengage the remote control unit.
this is done automatically.
The STOP function is triggered immediately.
Memory levels
Using several remote control units
A specific ride height setting is frequently required during
A second remote control unit (on the loading platform,
loading or unloading operation.
for example, or outside the vehicle) may be provided for
You have the option to save this level and to apply it as controlling ECAS.
often as required, simply by pressing a button.
To ensure that only one of these remote control units
– Press the STOP button and simultaneously press communicates with the electronic system, a selection
switch must be installed on the DATA line leading to the
either the M1 or the M2 button.
ECU for selecting one of the two remote control units.
This saves an existing desired level as a memory (or This also applies if more than two remote control units
'preferential') level. are used.

The stored values are not lost when the ignition is Do not connect two concurrent remote control
switched off. These values apply to the entire vehicle, so units to the ECU in parallel. Such a procedure is
you only need to preselect an axle and retrieve the impermissible and will cause malfunctions.
setting.
Priority
– Tap the corresponding button M1 or M2. The remote control unit has a high priority within the
The vehicle body is immediately adjusted to the stored system. If the unloading level function has been activated
level. and a LIFT/LOWER command is also entered via the
remote control unit, it is the command from the remote
Stop control unit will be executed.

– Press the STOP button. In the event that the LIFT/LOWER function fails, the
All levelling control processes are stopped immediately, vehicle body can still be adjusted to a reasonable level as
and the present level is recognised as the desired level. a makeshift solution for the vehicle to be driven to the
workshop.
The Stop function is designed, above all, to permit
cancelling any level changes currently under way – ECAS needs to be aware of the existence of a remote
(memory, driving level) should you consider control unit. For this reason, the remote control unit
continuation of the process hazardous. must be connected to the ECU before the system can
be put into operation.
In some systems, pressing the STOP button is obligatory Service issues for remote control units
to terminate the LIFT and LOWER functions. Depending on the system configuration, there are
approximately 60 different remote control unit variants
– Switch off ignition while you press and hold the STOP
available. These differ with regard to development stage,
button.
functional range, connector layout, and vehicle
The vehicle is in STAND-BY mode. manufacturer's logo. This wide variety, however, can be

53
6. ECAS Components

reduced to a few basic variants. Should the unit need to 6.4.1 Remote control unit for vehicle combination
be replaced, the procedure is therefore straightforward. 446 056 25 . 0
The remote control unit for the vehicle combination is
Remote control unit Replacement used for manual levelling control, as well as lifting axle
446 056 000 0, 446 056 007 0, 446 056 117 0 control, for vehicles equipped with ECAS. These units
446 056 011 0, 446 056 014 0, 446 056 202 0 also include ECUs with integrated ECAS functionality,
446 056 016 0, 446 056 017 0, such as TCE system for example.
446 056 018 0, 446 056 021 0, • With this device it is possible to control the level of the
446 056 024 0, 446 056 027 0, towing vehicle and trailer vehicle body, provided that
446 056 028 0, 446 056 029 0, the ECAS systems in the vehicle sections support this
446 056 032 0, 446 056 035 0, function.
446 056 116 0, 446 056 124 0,
446 056 127 0, 446 056 128 0, • The device can be installed in any vehicle type.
446 056 129 0, 446 056 132 0, Drawbar trailer as well as semitrailer vehicles/units
446 056 135 0, 446 056 136 0, are supported.
446 056 137 0, 446 056 140 0, • The remote control unit may be used equally in
446 056 141 0, 446 056 142 0, conjunction with the ECAS system of the trailer and/or
446 056 143 0 the towing vehicle.
446 056 002 0, 446 056 005 0, 446 056 102 0 The user thus has the option to control the level of the
446 056 009 0 entire vehicle using only a single operating device that is
446 056 012 0, 446 056 013 0 446 056 113 0 easily managed and robust.

446 056 015 0 446 056 115 0 Separate axle preselection buttons are provided for
targeted selection of all vehicle axles, or groups of axles,
446 056 019 0, 446 056 020 0, 446 446 056 120 0 in any combination. Selected axles are indicated by a
056 119 0 corresponding indicator lamp. Easily understood
446 056 008 0, 446 056 025 0 446 056 125 0 symbols and colours for special buttons facilitate intuitive
446 056 030 0 446 056 130 0 operation.

446 056 033 0, 446 056 034 0, 446 446 056 134 0 A tough, flexible four-core helix cable, which is securely
056 133 0 fixed on the device, is used to establish a connection to
the ECU. A mounting bracket is available under the
446 056 138 0 446 056 139 0 WABCO no. 446 056 010 4. It is recommended that the
446 056 026 0, 446 056 031 0, 446 056 146 0 device is placed back into the holder if it is not used.
446 056 126 0, 446 056 131 0

Button assignment (for functions refer to 6.4)


1 Indicator lamp, front axle towing vehicle
2 Indicator lamp, rear axle towing vehicle
3 Indicator lamp, front axle trailer
4 Indicator lamp, rear axle trailer

2 5 Preselect button, lifting axle trailer


1 3
4 6 Preselect button, lifting axle towing vehicle
7 Normal level button
16 12 8 Stop button STOP
15 5
11 9 LOWER button
14 6
10 10 Memory level 2 - button M 2
7
13 9 11 Preselect button, rear axle towing vehicle
8
12 Preselect button, rear axle trailer
13 LIFT button
14 Memory level 1 - button M 1
15 Preselect button, towing vehicle
Abb. 43 Remote control unit 446 056 250 0 16 Preselect button, front axle trailer

54
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

7. Brief description of the individual systems


7.1 ECAS 1st generation without pressure sensor There are 2 lamps in the instrument panel for monitoring
Sample circuit diagram: 841 801 208 0 the system:
1. The fault lamp indicates faults in the system.
This system is used for automatic levelling control in 4x2
and 6x2 commercial vehicles with air-sprung axles. Up to 2. The warning lamp indicates situations in which ECAS
3 distance sensors continuously sense the actual level, is not in normal mode (e. g. vehicle body not at normal
i. e. the distance between the vehicle body and the axle. level or traction help active), but is operating without
Deviations from the desired level are corrected by the any faults. Vehicle parameters, actual values, faults,
control system when a specified tolerance range is and other information are stored in the electronic
exceeded. control unit.

It is possible to connect a remote control unit or an The control function is suppressed for a certain time after
operating switch. Complete bellow evacuation can be the brake is released – ECAS detects the opening of the
avoided using a pressure limiting valve. The following brake lamp switch. This makes allowance for the
functions can be implemented using switches or buttons: dynamic axle load changes during braking and avoids
unnecessary adjustments.
• Forced lowering of the lifting axle with switch
An "LSV Output" on the ECU, an output that is energised
• Activation of the traction help with button
during normal operation, triggers a solenoid valve after
• Normal level selection with switch to choose the ECU has detected the lowering of the vehicle body
between 2 parameterised normal levels. body below a specified level as a failure of the bellows

Fig. 44 ECAS 1st generation without pressure sensor

55
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

pressure information to reach the LSV controller (port 41/ A bi-directional serial port permits diagnosis, functional
42). As a result, it is the air-suspension supply pressure, tests, system calibration, parameter setting, and reading
and not the bellows pressure, that reaches the inputs 41/ out the diagnostic memory.
42 of the LSV controller as a control signal. The controller
interprets this signal as an indication that the vehicle is
fully laden. This, in turn, is designed to prevent the 7.2 ECAS 1st generation with pressure sensor
vehicle from underbraking. Sample circuit diagram: 841 801 242 0

In 6x2 vehicles, the bellows pressure can be monitored This system is primarily used for automatic level control
by 2 pressure switches if required (Switching threshold: in 6x2 commercial vehicles with air-suspended axles,
13 t or 11 t, for example). The lifting axle can only be although it can also be used in 4x2 vehicles. Up to 3
raised when the 11 t switch is closed. It would also be distance sensors continuously sense the actual level.
lowered again if this switch were to open during the lifting Deviations from the desired level are corrected by the
procedure. Activation of the traction help only results in control system when a specified tolerance range is
the lifting axle being raised for a sustained period if the 13 exceeded.
t switch does not open. A desired level increase can be
set in the parameters for activated traction help or while It is possible to connect a remote control unit. The traction
the lifting axle is raised. Speeds set in the parameters help function can be implemented with a button or a
define limits for traction help activation and automatic switch.
deactivation. The duration of the traction help, and the
interval between activations of the traction help, can be There are 2 lamps in the instrument panel for monitoring
set in the parameters in line with the relevant provisions. the system: (↑ 7.1 generation without pressure sensor)

Fig. 45: ECAS 1st generation with pressure controller

56
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.
The system operates with various control strategies - The control process is suppressed for a certain time after
depending on the respective speed: the brake is released. This makes allowance for the
• At v > 0 km/h, ECAS categorises level changes as dynamic axle load changes during braking and avoids
dynamic changes (driving) and only corrects the unnecessary adjustments.
nominal value if the distance sensor values
persistently remain outside the permissible range for In 6x2 vehicles, the pressures between the driving axle
a 60 second period. and the non-driving axle (e. g.lifting axle) are adjusted in
the case of optimum traction (ECU 446 055 009) or in the
• At v = 0 km/h, ECAS categorises level changes as
case of a parameterised pressure ratio (ECU 446 055
static (stationary) and corrects the nominal value if the
009), depending on the system version. For this, it is
distance sensor values sensed within a
necessary to sense the supporting bellows of the driving
parameterised, and very brief, period (1s for
axle and the non-driven rear axle using pressure
example), persistently remain outside the permissible
sensors.
range .
• For up to 3 seconds after the transition from v >0 km/ It is possible to activate a traction help. Because the
h to v = 0 km/h (end of driving), ECAS still categorises supporting bellows are sensed by pressure sensors, the
level changes as dynamic (dynamic run-on). traction help is implemented as an infinitely variable load
• 7 7 seconds after the start of the drive, ECAS checks shift from the non-driven rear axle to the driving axle for
whether a nominal value differential set in the as long as the traction help button is pressed down. The
parameters regarding the desired level at the start of type of traction help, as well as the corresponding
a drive was exceeded. If this was the case, it corrects benchmark data (e. g. max. permitted driving axle load;
the desired level accordingly. limit speed before traction help takes effect, etc.) are set
in the parameters.
A level referred to as "reference level" was introduced to
number of systems (with electronic control unit 446 055 Tyre impression compensation is possible if pressure
009 0) in this group. It forms the basis for all other sensors are installed (ECU variant 446 055 009).
parameterised levels and is a parameterised differential
value below the calibrated normal level I. The ECU A bi-directional serial port permits diagnosis, functional
calculates the reference level value subsequent to tests, system calibration, parameter setting, and reading
calibration. It must be greater than 5 counts in order to out the diagnostic memory. In order for the desired level
avoid fault messages. to be stored correctly, the electronic control unit has to
remain energised for longer than 6.6 seconds after the
The "Safe level above buffer" can be set in the ignition is switched off. If this cannot be ensured, the
parameters. It has been introduced to avoid complete actual levels which were set before the supply voltage
evacuation of the supporting bellows when the vehicle was interrupted are taken as new desired levels after the
body is lowered. This level represents the smallest ignition is switched on.
possible distance differential to the reference level; it
should always be above the bottom stops and to must be 7.3 ECAS 4x2A
possible to adjust to this level using the remote control Sample circuit diagrams: 841 801 390 0 /
unit. During lowering of the vehicle body, the ECAS 841 801 214 0 / 841 801 490 0
solenoid valve stops evacuation if the electronic control
unit detects that the vehicle body is below this level and This system is used for automatic levelling control in 4x2
that the distance no longer changes over a period 6 times commercial vehicles with air-suspended axles. Up to 3
the pulse repetition period (also referred to in some distance sensors continuously sense the actual level.
systems as "measuring time"). Deviations from the desired level are corrected by the
control system when a specified tolerance range is
The upper level is set in the parameters as a differential exceeded.
from the reference level. The sum total of both values is
not allowed to exceed 254. The control characteristics of the desired level controller
must be set in the parameters. To do this, a proportional
In some versions, it is possible to change between 2 and a differential coefficient for the front and rear axles
normal levels in relation to a speed threshold that can be are programmed into the electronic control unit via the
set in the parameters. Both normal levels are set in the parameter settings. The control behaviour of the system
parameters as a level differential relative to the reference during desired level control is determined on the basis of
level. The level is adjusted to normal level II at speeds these coefficients.
below the parameterised threshold speed; the level is
adjusted to normal level I at speeds above the threshold It is possible to connect a remote control unit or an
speed. operating switch.

57
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

There are 2 lamps in the instrument panel for monitoring permitted nominal value range set in the parameters
the system: persistently for a 60 second period.
1. The fault lamp indicates faults in the system. In this • Below this limit speed, ECAS categorises level
case, minor faults, plausibility errors, or undervoltage changes as static (stationary) and corrects the
faults 7.5 … 18 V are indicated by a steady light while nominal value if the distance sensor values
severe faults and "System in diagnostic mode" are determined within a very short period (e. g. 1 s),
indicated by a flashing light (flashing frequency: which can be defined in the parameter settings,
approx.1 Hz). frequency approx.1 Hz). remain persistently outside the permitted range.
2. The warning lamp indicates situations in which ECAS • For up to 3 seconds after the transition from v >0 km/
is not in normal mode (e. g. vehicle body outside h to v = 0 km/h (end of driving), ECAS still categorises
normal level, minor plausibility errors, or conducting level changes as dynamic (dynamic run-on).
manual calibration), but is operating without any • 7 seconds after the start of the drive, ECAS checks
faults. Vehicle parameters, actual values, faults, and whether a nominal value differential set in the
other information are stored in the electronic control parameters regarding the desired level at the start of
unit. a drive was exceeded. If this was the case, it corrects
the desired level accordingly.
The system operates with various control strategies Specific parameter settings (only ECU 446 055 027; i. e.
relative to a limit speed set in the parameters: RVI, IVECO, DAF) permit a control mode whereby a
• At speeds faster than this speed parameter, ECAS greater vehicle body tilt is permitted above the axle in
categorises level changes as dynamic changes favour of a uniform bellows pressure distribution in
(driving operation) and only corrects the nominal vehicles with 2 distance sensors on the driving axle. After
value if the distance sensor values remain outside the failing to adjust to the desired level twice within the

Fig. 46: ECAS 4x2A; circuit diagram 841 801 390 0

58
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

permissible tolerance range, ECAS detects an uneven start-up of the system, NL II can be parameterised and is
loading condition in the course of lifting the vehicle body entered as a differential value to the lower level. They
and adjusts the left side of the vehicle correctly to the can be created in the following manner:
desired level. It briefly (300 ms) pressurises the
• actuating the normal level (NL) I/III switch, effects a
supporting bellows of the vehicle side that is in the higher
change between the two levels. In order to set NL II,
position to balance the bellows pressures of the driving
ECU pin 23 is connected to earth and this connection
axle.
is interrupted to return to NL I. Pressing the NL button
on the control unit moves the vehicle body to the
The control function is suppressed after the brake is normal level in accordance with the position of the
applied – ECAS detects this by the presence of UBATT at NL I/II switch.
pin 24 of the ECU. This makes allowance for the dynamic
axle load changes during braking and avoids • The vehicle body moves to the normal level (if it is not
unnecessary adjustments. already there) if a speed limit set in the parameters is
exceeded; given appropriate parameter settings, it is
Adjustment in response to failure of the LSV signal can be possible to change between a set NL I and NL II by
performed via a solenoid valve if parameters have been set exceeding another speed limit and then decelerating
accordingly. (not in the case of ECU 446 055 024 and 446 to below a second, somewhat slower, speed limit.
055 027) • it is possible to move to any level by pressing the LIFT
or LOWER button on the remote control unit. It
Level changes between the two normal levels (NL I and depends on the particular system whether the lifting/
NL II), however, are possible, as well as level lowering function is activated by briefly tapping the
adjustments to any level between upper and lower level. corresponding switch on the remote control and not to
The NL I is made known to the electronic system during be deactivated until the STOP button is pressed (ECU

Fig. 47: ECAS 4x2A; circuit diagram 841 801 214 0

59
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

446 055 024; i. e. DC vehicles) or whether the lifting/ 3. Actual level on the front axle
lowering function only remains active for as long as
4. Desired level on the left of the rear axle
the corresponding button on the remote control unit is
pressed (all other variants). 5. Desired level on the front axle
• LIFT and LOWER functions can also be performed by 6. Speed
actuating a coded operating switch within the system 7. Controller status (only ECU variant 027) otherwise
instead of the remote control unit. without significance
If the system is not fitted with either a remote control unit
8. Status of remote control unit / operating switch:
or an operating switch, jumpering pins 2 and 11 on the
electronic control unit causes ECAS to adjust to the 1 = Preselection, front axle
normal level as soon as the ignition is switched on. 2 = Preselection, rear axle
A bi-directional serial port permits diagnosis, functional 4 = STOP
tests, system calibration, parameter setting, and reading 8 = Normal level
out the diagnostic memory.
16 = Memory I
A measured value output can be organised during 32 = Memory II
normal ECAS operation by setting the parameters
accordingly (not for ECU 446 055 024). 64 = Lift
128 = Lower
The individual operating values are:
This measured value output mode is only permitted for
1. Actual level on the left of the rear axle service operation; the system must be returned to normal
2. Actual level on the right of the rear axle mode at the end of measured value output.

Fig. 48: ECAS 4x2A; circuit diagram 841 801 490 0

60
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

7.4 ECAS 6x2A It is possible to connect a remote control unit.


Sample circuit diagrams: 841 801 353 0 /
841 801 268 0 / 841 801 379 0 There are up to 5 lamps in the instrument panel for
monitoring the system:
This system is primarily used for automatic level control
in 6x2 commercial vehicles (4x2 commercial vehicles are • The fault lamp (also known as "malfunction indication
possible) with air-suspended axles. Up to 3 distance lamp") indicates faults in the system. In this case,
sensors continuously sense the actual level. Deviations minor faults, plausibility errors, or undervoltage faults
from the desired level are corrected by the control 7.5 … 18 V are indicated by a steady light while
system when a specified tolerance range is exceeded. A severe faults and "System in diagnostic mode" are
supporting bellows limit pressure of the driving axle is indicated by a flashing light (flashing frequency:
signalled to the electronic control unit by the position of approx. 1 Hz).
pressure switches. This is the limit pressure which, if
• The level warning lamp indicates situations in which
exceeded, causes a lifting axle to be lowered or load
ECAS is not in normal mode (e. g. vehicle body
transferred to a trailing axle.
outside normal level, minor plausibility errors, or
conducting manual calibration), but is operating
The control characteristics of the desired level controller without any faults.
must be set in the parameters. To do this, a proportional
and a differential coefficient for the front and rear axles • The traction help indication shows whether the
are programmed into the electronic control unit via the traction help is activated.
parameter settings. The control behaviour of the system • The lifting axle position lamp (also: unladen/lifting
during desired level control is determined on the basis of axle lamp) lights up when the lifting axle is raised or
these coefficients. the load is transferred from the trailing axle (TA relief).

Fig. 49: ECAS 6x2A; circuit diagram 841 801 353 0

61
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

• The normal level lamp indicates whether normal level • 7 seconds after the start of the drive, ECAS checks
(NL) II was preselected for the vehicle. whether a nominal value differential set in the
parameters regarding the desired level at the start of
Vehicle parameters, actual values, faults, and other
a drive was exceeded. If this was the case, it corrects
information are stored in the electronic control unit.
the desired level accordingly.
The system operates with various control strategies - After brake actuation, ECAS detects this actuation by the
depending on the respective speed: presence of UBATT on pin 7 of the electronic control unit.
This makes allowance for the dynamic axle load changes
• If the speed exceeds a specified limit value, ECAS during braking and avoids unnecessary adjustments.
categorises level changes as dynamic changes
(driving operation) and only corrects the nominal Adjustment in response to failure of the LSV signal can
value if the distance sensor values persistently remain be performed via a solenoid valve if parameters have
outside the permitted nominal value range set in the been set accordingly.
parameters for a 60 second period.
Level changes between the two normal levels (NLI and
• If the speed remains below the defined limit value, NLII), however, are possible, as well as level adjustments
ECAS categorises level changes as static (stationary) to any level between upper and lower level. They can be
and corrects the nominal value if the distance sensor created in the following manner:
values determined within a very short period (e. g. • actuating the normal level (NL) I/II switch will cause a
1 s), which can be defined in the parameter settings, switchover between the two levels. In order to set
remain persistently outside the permitted range. NL II, ECU pin 23 is connected to ground and this
• Up to 3 seconds after the speed falls below the speed connection is interrupted for a reset NL I. Pressing the
limit value, ECAS still categorises level changes as NL button on the control unit moves the vehicle body
dynamic (dynamic run-on). to the normal level in accordance with the position of

Fig. 50: ECAS 6x2A; circuit diagram 841 801 268 0

62
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

the NL I/II switch. Traction help must not be active 1. Lifting axle or Unladen switch:
during this procedure. Ground switched to pin 24 of the ECU.
• The vehicle body moves to the normal level (if it is not open switch = Lifting axle LOWERING
already there) if a speed limit set in the parameters is closed switch = Lifting axle LIFTING.
exceeded; given appropriate parameter settings, it is 2. Lifting axle or Unladen button:
possible to change between a set NL I and NL II by switched to pin24 of the ECU.
exceeding another speed limit and then decelerating Button open = No activation
to below a second, somewhat slower, speed limit. Button switched to ground = Lift lifting axle
• it is possible to move to any level by pressing the LIFT Button switched to UBATT = Lower lifting axle.
or LOWER button on the remote control unit.
3. Combination switch for lifting axle control and
If the system is not fitted with a remote control unit, traction help: Lifting axle control switched to pin24 /
jumpering pins 20 and 21 on the electronic control unit traction help switched to pin17 of the ECU.
causes ECAS to adjust to normal level as soon as the Pin 24 and pin 17 open = LOWER lifting axle
ignition is switched on. Pin 24 closed and pin 17 open = LIFT lifting axle
Apart from the basic ECAS function (adjusting the The following applies to the switches: ECAS only
distance vehicle body - axle), ECAS also performs responds to switching actions performed when the
control of the lifting/trailing axle LOAD and RELIEF ignition is ON.
function. It is possible to organise manual lifting/trailing
axle control or fully automatic lifting/trailing axle control. The lifting bellows themselves are predominantly
When discussing functions regarding "lifting axle" in the controlled positively, i.e. the ECAS solenoid valve
remaining document, these explanations will also simultaneously performs the functions "Lifting axle lifting"
include, as far as possible, trailing axle functions. (pressurise lifting bellows, ECU pin 30 = UBATT) or "Lifting
axle lowering" (exhaust lifting bellows, ECU pin 12 =
The lifting axle switching point on the driving axle can be UBATT) via internal pneumatic connections.
obtained using up to 2 pressure switches or pressure
sensors. If there is one pressure switch or one pressure In vehicles with ECU 446 055 048 (Scania), separate
sensor on the driving axle, the higher of the supporting lifting bellows control can be implemented, provided the
bellows pressures is determined by means of a 2/2 corresponding parameters have been set. In order to do
proportional relay valve. Two pressure switches on the this, it is necessary to have the corresponding ECAS
driving axle are connected in series, so that the switch to solenoid valve with a 3rd pilot solenoid for the lifting
open first will transmit the signal to the ECU. When there bellows, which is switched to UBATT via ECU pin 14 if
are two pressure sensors on the driving axle, the required. The periods for which a current is applied to the
supporting bellows pressure values measured on the left ECAS solenoid valve depend on which mechanism is
and right-hand side are averaged in the ECU. because used for lifting the lifting axle.
only the driving axle is sensed, control is only possible An important point in this regard is the configuration of
according to the "pressure equalising control" principle. the traction help. The required type of traction help can
be defined, on the one hand, via the hardware by means
Pressure switch:
of the switching combination on pins 16 and 19 of the
The switching point of the lifting/trailing axle normally lies ECU (i. e. pin switched to earth or not) and, on the other
within range 11 t … 11.5 t. It is determined by a pressure hand, via the software by setting the parameters. Pins 16
switch connected to pin 5. If the pressure switch is and 19 must be connected to ground if the traction help
defective, the lifting/trailing axle is lowered or load is type is to be set in the parameters. The traction help itself
transferred onto the trailing axle. is then activated by switching ECU pin 17 to earth.
Pressure sensor: The traction help limit on the driving axle can be
The switching point of the lifting/trailing axle is set in the determined using up to 2 pressure switches or pressure
parameters. It is determined by a pressure sensor sensors. The signal is obtained in the same way as the
connected to pin 5/6. If the pressure sensor is defective, signal for the lifting axle switching point.
the lifting axle is lowered or the load is transferred onto
the trailing axle. Pressure switch:
The limit for the traction help is normally approx. 13 t. The
However, separate switches for controlling the lifting axle limit is obtained by a pressure switch connected to pin 6.
can also be provided on the instrument panel. Depending The axle load on the driving axle is exceeded by
on the parameter settings, it is possible to use 3 different gradually relieving the load on the lifting axle. This
switch variants for controlling the lifting axle: process continues until the traction help pressure switch

63
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

is triggered, after which the bellows pressure in the A bi-directional serial port permits diagnosis, functional
supporting bellows is maintained. tests, system calibration, parameter setting, and reading
out the diagnostic memory.
Pressure sensor:
A measured value output can be organised during
The limit for the traction help is set in the parameters. It normal ECAS operation by setting the parameters
is determined by the pressure sensor connected to pin 5/ accordingly.
6. If the pressure sensor is defective, the lifting axle is
The individual operating values are:
lowered or the load is transferred onto the trailing axle.
1. Actual level on the left of the rear axle
"Traction help with overload" can be organised by using 2. Actual level on the right of the rear axle
pressure sensors. This means that when the driving axle 3. Actual level on the front axle
is still subjected to a load below the permissible axle load 4. Desired level on the left of the rear axle
but has exceeded the switching point for the lifting axle 5. Desired level on the front axle
control (e. g. switching point for lifting axle control = 75 %
6. Status of the 13 t switch or averaged pressure on the
of the permissible axle load), the limit for traction help is driving axle
increased by this pressure differential.
7. Speed or offset tyre impression compensation
When the traction help is activated – irrespective of the 8. Status of remote control unit: / or speed:
current desired level – the desired level is always 1 = Preselection, front axle
increased by the value set in the "Desired level increase 2 = Preselection, rear axle
when traction help activated" parameter. 4 = STOP

Fig. 51: ECAS 6x2A; circuit diagram 841 801 379 0

64
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

8 = Normal level It is no longer necessary to set parameters for the


characteristics of the desired level controller. The system
16 = Memory I
is self-learning, i. e. there is no longer any need to enter
32 = Memory II the proportional and differential coefficients.
64 = Lift
It is possible to connect a remote control unit or an
128 = Lower operating switch.
The measured values output on the individual channels
depend on which electronic control unit is used. There are 2 lamps in the instrument panel for monitoring
the system:
This measured value output mode is only permitted for
service operation; the system must be returned to normal
1. The fault lamp indicates faults in the system. In this
mode at the end of measured value output.
case, minor faults, plausibility errors, or undervoltage
7.5 ECAS 4x2 Ratio faults 7.5 … 18V are indicated by a steady light while
Sample circuit diagrams: 841 801 641 0 / severe faults and "System in diagnostic mode" are
841 801 635 0 indicated by a flashing light (flashing frequency:
approx. 1 Hz).
This system is used for automatic levelling control in 4x2
commercial vehicles with air-suspended axles. Up to 3 2. The warning lamp indicates situations in which ECAS
distance sensors continuously sense the actual level. is not in normal operating mode (e.g. vehicle body not
Deviations from the desired level are corrected by the at normal level or traction help active, minor errors or
control system when a specified tolerance range is plausibility errors, or manual calibration is performed),
exceeded. The pin assignment is almost identical to the but is operating without any faults. Vehicle
ECAS 4x2A version; this Ratio variant represents a parameters, actual values, faults, and other
further development of that version. information are stored in the electronic control unit.

Fig. 52: ECAS 4x2 Ratio; circuit diagram 841 801 641 0

65
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

This system also operates with various control strategies • The vehicle body moves to the normal level (if it is not
- depending on the respective speed: already there) if a speed limit set in the parameters is
(↑ 7.4 ECAS 6x2A) exceeded; given appropriate parameter settings, it is
possible to change between a set NL I and NL II by
After brake actuation, ECAS detects this actuation by the exceeding another speed limit and then decelerating
presence of UBATT on pin 24 of the electronic control unit. to below a second, somewhat slower, speed limit.
This makes allowance for the dynamic axle load changes
during braking and avoids unnecessary adjustments. • it is possible to move to any level by pressing the LIFT
or LOWER button on the remote control unit.
Adjustment in response to failure of the LSV signal can
• LIFT and LOWER functions can also be performed by
be performed via a solenoid valve if parameters have
actuating a coded operating switch within the system
been set accordingly.
instead of the remote control unit.

Level changes between the two normal levels (NL I and If the system is not fitted with either a remote control unit
NL II), however, are possible, as well as level or an operating switch, jumpering pins 2 and 11 on the
adjustments to any level between upper and lower level. electronic control unit causes ECAS to adjust to the
They can be created in the following manner: normal level as soon as the ignition is switched on.
• actuating the NL I/II switch will alternate between the
two levels. In order to set NL II, ECU pin 23 is The special "Crane operation" function can be set in the
connected to ground and this connection is parameters for these electronic control units.
interrupted for a reset NL I. Pressing the NL button on
the control unit moves the vehicle body to the normal A bi-directional serial port permits diagnosis, functional
level in accordance with the position of the NL I/II tests, system calibration, parameter setting, and reading
switch. out the diagnostic memory.

Fig. 53: ECAS 4x2 Ratio; circuit diagram 841 801 635 0

66
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

A measured value output can be organised during control system when a specified tolerance range is
normal ECAS operation by setting the parameters exceeded. The pin assignment is based on the ECAS
accordingly. The individual operating values are: 4x2A version. This Ratio variant is a further development
1 Actual level on the front axle of that version.
2 Actual level on the left of the rear axle
3 Actual level on the right of the rear axle The electronic control unit contains a diagnostic interface
4 Desired level on the front axle according to ISO/WD 14 230 ("Keyword Protocol 2000")
which distinguishes it from previous 4x2 electronic
5 Desired level on the left of the rear axle
control units that have a diagnostic interface according to
6 Controller status at front
DIN ISO 9141. As a result, it is possible to dispense with
7 Controller status at rear left the L-line, and the data transfer rate is also a little higher.
8 Controller status at rear right
This measured value output mode is only permitted for It is no longer necessary to set parameters for the
service operation; the system must be returned to normal characteristics of the desired level controller. The system
mode at the end of measured value output. is self-learning, i. e. there is no longer any need to enter
the proportional and differential coefficients. The teach-in
7.6 ECAS 4x2 KWP 2000 process only takes place under certain boundary
Sample circuit diagrams: 841 801 647 0 / conditions and involves optimising specified theoretical
841 801 663 0 control processes. It is based on the lifting and lowering
This system is used for automatic levelling control in 4x2 speeds of the vehicle body, which are determined
commercial vehicles with air-suspended axles. Up to 3 individually on each distance sensor. The characteristic
distance sensors continuously sense the actual level. curves obtained during the teach-in process are stored in
Deviations from the desired level are corrected by the the ECU when the ignition is switched off.

Fig. 54: ECAS 4x2 KWP 2000; circuit diagram 841 801 647 0

67
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

It is possible to connect a remote control unit or an parameters regarding the desired level at the start of
operating switch. a drive was exceeded. If this was the case, it corrects
the desired level accordingly.
There are 2 lamps in the instrument panel for monitoring
the system: (↑ 7.5 ECAS 4x2 Ratio) • Specific parameter settings permit a control mode
whereby a greater vehicle body tilt is permitted above
The system operates with various control strategies the axle in favour of a uniform bellows pressure
relative to a limit speed set in the parameters: distribution in vehicles with 2 distance sensors on the
• At speeds faster than this limit speed, ECAS driving axle. After two unsuccessful attempts at
categorises level changes as dynamic changes adjusting to the desired level within the permissible
(driving operation) and only corrects the nominal tolerance range, ECAS detects an uneven loading
value if the distance sensor values remain outside the condition during the process of lifting the vehicle
permitted nominal value value range set in the body. It adjusts the left side of the vehicle to the
parameters persistently for a 60 second period. correct desired level and briefly (300 ms) pressurises
the supporting bellows of the vehicle side that is in the
• Below the limit speed, ECAS categorises level
higher position to balance the bellows pressures of
changes as static (stationary) and corrects the
the driving axle.
nominal value if the distance sensor values
determined within a very short period (e. g. 1 s), • After brake actuation, ECAS detects this actuation by
which can be defined in the parameter settings, the presence of UBATT on pin 24 of the electronic
remain persistently outside the permitted range. control unit. This makes allowance for the dynamic
• For up to 3 seconds after the transition from v > 0 km/ axle load changes during braking and avoids
h to v = 0 km/h (end of driving), ECAS still categorises unnecessary adjustments.
level changes as dynamic ones (dynamic run-on). • Adjustment in response to failure of the LSV signal
• 7 7 seconds after the start of the drive, ECAS checks can be performed via a solenoid valve if parameters
whether a nominal value differential set in the have been set accordingly.

Fig. 55: ECAS 4x2 KWP 2000; circuit diagram 841 801 663 0

68
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

Level changes between NLI and NLII, as well as level switches. This is the limit pressure which, if exceeded,
adjustments to any level between upper and lower level causes a lifting axle to be lowered or load transferred to
are generated in the same manner as described to 4x3 a trailing axle.
Ratio (↑ 7.5).
The control characteristics of the desired level controller
If the system is not fitted with either a remote control unit no longer have to be set in the parameters. The system
or an operating switch, jumpering pins 2 and 11 on the is self-learning, i.e. there is no longer any need to enter
electronic control unit causes ECAS to adjust to the the proportional and differential coefficients. The teach-in
normal level as soon as the ignition is switched on. process only takes place under certain boundary
conditions and involves optimising specified theoretical
The special "Crane operation" function can be set in the control processes. It is based on the lifting and lowering
parameters for these electronic control units. speeds of the superstructure which are determined
individually on each distance sensor. The characteristic
Three types of distance sensor can be used as sensing curves obtained during the teach-in process are stored in
elements for the distance between the axle and the the ECU when the ignition is switched off. It is possible to
vehicle body: connect a remote control unit.
• Distance sensors without temperature compensation. There are up to 5 lamps in the instrument panel for
• Distance sensors with temperature compensation. monitoring the system. They must come on and remain
• Angle-of-rotation sensors. lit for 2 seconds as a check when the ignition is switched
However, only one type may be installed in a particular ON. Then they work in normal mode, which means:
vehicle e, i .e. mixed installation is not permissible. Make • The fault lamp indicates faults in the system. In this
sure the installed type of distance sensor matches the case, minor faults, plausibility errors, or undervoltage
parameter settings. faults 7.5 … 18 V are indicated by a steady light while
severe faults and "System in diagnostic mode" are
The bi-directional serial port permits diagnosis, functional indicated by a flashing light (flashing frequency:
tests, system calibration, parameter setting, and reading approx.1 Hz).
out the diagnostic memory.
• The level warning lamp indicates situations in which
A measured value output can be organised during ECAS is not in normal mode (e. g. vehicle body
normal ECAS operation by setting the parameters outside normal level, minor plausibility errors, or
accordingly. The individual operating values are: conducting manual calibration), but is operating
without any faults.
1. Actual level on the front axle.
2. Actual level on the left of the rear axle. • The traction help indication shows whether the
traction help is activated.
3. Actual level on the right of the rear axle.
4. Desired level on the front axle. • The lifting axle position lamp (also: unladen/lifting
axle lamp) indicates whether the lifting axle is raised
5. Desired level on the left of the rear axle.
or the load is transferred from the trailing axle (TA
6. Right/left deviation. relief).
7. Valve status.
• The normal level lamp indicates whether normal level
8. Driving speed. (NL) II is preselected for the vehicle.
This measured value output mode is only permitted for Vehicle parameters, actual values, faults, and other
service operation; the system must be returned to normal information are stored in the electronic control unit.
mode at the end of measured value output.
The system operates with various control strategies
7.7 ECAS 6x2 Ratio relative to a limit speed set in the parameters:
Sample circuit diagram: 841 801 681 0 • At speeds faster than this speed, ECAS categorises
This system is primarily used for automatic level control level changes as dynamic changes (driving) and only
in 6x2 commercial vehicles (4x2 vehicles are possible) corrects the nominal value if the distance sensor
with air-suspended axles. Up to 3 distance sensors values persistently remain outside the permitted
continuously sense the actual level. Deviations from the nominal value range set in the parameters for a 60
desired level are corrected by the control system when a second period.
specified tolerance range is exceeded. A supporting • Below the limit speed, ECAS categorises level
bellows limit pressure of the driving axle is signalled to changes as static (stationary) and corrects the
the electronic control unit by the position of pressure nominal value if the distance sensor values

69
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

determined within a very short period (e. g. 1 s), generated in the same manner as described for
which can be defined in the parameter settings, ECAS 6x2A (↑ 7.4).
remain persistently outside the permitted range.
• For up to 3 seconds after the transition from v > 0 km/ The lifting bellows themselves are predominantly
h to v = 0 km/h (end of driving), ECAS still categorises controlled positively, i.e. the ECAS solenoid valve
level changes as dynamic ones (dynamic run-on). simultaneously performs the functions "Lifting axle lifting"
(pressurise lifting bellows, ECU pin 30 = UBATT) or "Lifting
• 7 seconds after the start of the drive, ECAS checks
axle lowering" (exhaust lifting bellows, ECU pin 12 =
whether a nominal value differential set in the
UBATT) via internal pneumatic connections.
parameters regarding the desired level at the start of
a drive was exceeded. If this was the case, it corrects An important point in this regard is the configuration of
the desired level accordingly. the traction help. The required type of traction help can
• After brake actuation, ECAS detects this actuation by be defined, on the one hand, via the hardware by means
the presence of UBATT on pin 7 of the electronic of the switching combination on pins 16 and 19 of the
control unit. This makes allowance for the dynamic ECU (i. e. pin switched to earth or not switched) and, on
axle load changes during braking and avoids the other hand, via the software by setting the
unnecessary adjustments. parameters. Pins 16 and 19 must be connected to earth
Adjustment in response to failure of the LSV signal can if the traction help type is to be set in the parameters. The
be performed via a solenoid valve if parameters have traction help itself is then activated by switching ECU pin
been set accordingly. 17 to earth.

Level changes between NLI and NLII, as well as level The traction help switching point on the driving axle can
determination of the lifting axle switching point, are be determined using up to two pressure switches or

Fig. 56: ECAS 6x2 Ratio; circuit diagram 841 801 681 0

70
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

pressure sensors. The signal is obtained in the same way 5. Desired level on the front axle.
as the signal for the lifting axle switching point.
6. averaged pressure on the driving axle.
Pressure switch: 7. Offset tyre impression compensation at rear.
The limit for the traction help is normally approx. 13 t. It is
8. Speed.
determined by the pressure sensor connected to pin 6.
The axle load on the driving axle is exceeded by This measured value output mode is only permitted for
gradually relieving the load on the lifting axle. This service mode. After measured value output has been
process continues until the traction help pressure switch completed, operation must be set to normal mode .
is triggered, after which the bellows pressure in the
supporting bellows is maintained.
7.8 ECAS 6x2DV
Pressure sensor: Sample circuit diagrams: 841 800 423 0 /
The limit for the traction help is set in the parameters. It is 841 801 487 0 / 841 801 295 0
determined by the pressure sensor connected to pin 5/6.
If the pressure sensor is defective, the lifting/trailing axle This system is primarily used for automatic level control
is lowered or loaded. A "traction help for overload" can be in 6x2 commercial vehicles (4x2 vehicles are possible)
organised using pressure sensors (e. g. 446 055 405 for with air-suspended axles. Up to 3 distance sensors
DAF). This means that when the driving axle is still continuously sense the actual level, i. e. the distance
subjected to a load below the permissible axle load but between the vehicle body and the axle. Deviations from
has exceeded the switching point for the lifting axle the desired level are corrected by the control system
control (e. g. switching point for lifting axle control = 75 % when a specified tolerance range is exceeded. A
of the permissible axle load), the limit for traction help is supporting bellows limit pressure of the driving axle is
increased by this pressure differential. specified for the electronic control unit. This is the limit
pressure which, if exceeded, causes a lifting axle to be
Desired level increase with activated traction help. lowered or load transferred to a trailing axle. The actual
The desired level is always increased by the value set in pressure of the supporting bellows is continuously
the parameters when traction help is activated, monitored via pressure sensors. In order to implement
irrespective of the current desired level. pressure proportional control or traction control, all
supporting bellows pressures – and in some cases even
A bi-directional serial port permits diagnosis, functional the lifting bellows pressure – are sensed by pressure
tests, system calibration, parameter setting, and reading sensors fitted in the vehicle.
out the diagnostic memory.
The control characteristics of the desired level controller
A measured value output can be organised during normal must be set in the parameters. To do this, a proportional
ECAS operation by setting the parameters accordingly. It and a differential coefficient for the front and rear axles
is then possible to view individual operating values. are programmed into the electronic control unit via the
parameter settings. The control behaviour of the system
For ECU variants 404 and 409, these are: during desired level control is determined on the basis of
1. Actual level on the front axle. these coefficients.
2. Actual level on the left of the rear axle.
It is possible to connect a remote control unit.
3. Actual level on the right of the rear axle.
There are up to 4 lamps in the instrument panel for
4. Desired level on the front axle.
monitoring the system.
5. Desired level on the left of the rear axle.
• The fault lamp indicates faults in the system. In this
6. Controller status at front.
case, minor faults, plausibility errors, or undervoltage
7. Controller status at rear left. faults 7.5 … 18 V are indicated by a steady light
while severe faults and "System in diagnostic mode"
8. Controller status at rear right.
are indicated by a flashing light (flashing frequency:
For ECU variants 405, these are: approx.1 Hz).
1. Actual level on the left of the rear axle. • The level warning lamp displays situations in which
2. Actual level on the right of the rear axle. ECAS is not in normal operational mode but operates
fault-free. For example,vehicle body outside normal
3. Actual level on the front axle.
level, minor errors or plausibility errors, or performing
4. Desired level on the left of the rear axle. manual calibration.

71
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

• The traction help indication shows whether the • Up to 3 seconds after the end of the drive, ECAS still
traction help is activated. categorises level changes as dynamic (dynamic run-
• The lifting axle position lamp (unladen/lifting axle on).
lamp) indicates whether the lifting axle is lifted or the • 7 seconds after the start of the drive, ECAS checks
load is transferred from the trailing axle (TA relief). whether a nominal value differential set in the
Vehicle parameters, actual values, faults, and other parameters regarding the desired level at the start of
information are stored in the electronic control unit. a drive was exceeded. If this was the case, it corrects
the desired level accordingly.
The system operates with various control strategies for • The control function is suppressed after the brake is
levelling control depending on a speed set in the applied – ECAS detects this by the presence of UBATT
parameters: at pin 16 of the ECU. This makes allowance for the
• At speeds above this limit speed, ECAS categorises dynamic axle load changes during braking and avoids
level changes as dynamic changes (driving unnecessary adjustments.
operation). It only corrects the nominal value if the Adjustment in response to failure of the LSV signal can
distance sensor values remain outside the permitted be performed via a solenoid valve if parameters have
nominal value range set in the parameters been set accordingly.
persistently for a 60 second period.
• At speeds below this limit speed, ECAS categorises The special function "Release parking brake on the front
level changes as static changes (stationary). It only axle" can also be set in the parameters. The background
corrects the nominal value if the distance sensor is that ECAS activity can lead to distortions in vehicles in
values determined within a very short period (e. g. which the parking brake acts on the front axle. For this
1 s), defined in the parameter settings, remain reason, a switching signal UBATT is output on pin 29 of the
persistently outside the permitted range. electronic control unit when manual LIFT and LOWER

Fig. 57: ECAS 6x2 DV; circuit diagram 841 800 423 0

72
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

procedures are triggered while the vehicle is stationary. settings. – Traction help must not be active while the
This signal can be used to reverse a solenoid valve in the normal level is being set.
line to the front axle parking brake, causing the brake to • if a parameterised limit speed is exceeded, the
be released. vehicle body is adjusted to the preselected normal
level I or III (unless it is already at that level). By
Parameters can be set for level changes between up to exceeding another limit speed and subsequently
3 normal levels (NL). The NL I is made known to the ECU dropping below a second, slightly lower limit speed, it
during initial start-up of the system, NL II and NL III can is possible, provided the corresponding parameters
be parameterised and are entered as the differential have been set, to change between a set NL I and NL
value to NL I. But any level between the upper and lower II. Parameters are set with regard to whether the
level is also possible. They can be created in the speed-dependent change between NL I and NL II, or
following manner: the switch-dependent change between NL I and NL
III, has priority.
• Actuating the normal level I/III switch will alternate
• it is possible to move to any level by pressing the LIFT
between the two levels. In order to set NL II, ECU
or LOWER button on the remote control unit.
pin 19 is connected to ground and this connection is
interrupted for a reset NL I. Pressing the NL button on • if a "Normal" operating switch is used, the LIFT
the control unit moves the vehicle body to the normal function is triggered when pin 21 is open and pin 10 is
level in accordance with the position of the NL I/III switched to ground; the LOWER function is triggered
switch. Instead of using the remote control unit, it is when pin 21 and pin 10 are switched to ground.
also possible to set the selected normal level using a If the system is not fitted with a remote control unit,
"Normal" operating switch on pin 21 by switching to jumpering pins 20 and 21 on the electronic control unit
earth. Whether a remote control unit or an operating causes ECAS to adjust to normal level as soon as the
switch will be used must be defined in the parameter ignition is switched on.

Fig. 58: ECAS 6x2 DV; circuit diagram 841 801 487 0

73
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

Apart from the basic ECAS function (adjusting the axle are sensed. There are also systems in which the
distance vehicle body - axle), ECAS also performs lifting bellows has been equipped with a pressure sensor.
control of the lifting/trailing axle LOAD and RELIEF
The fact that not only the driving axle supporting bellows,
function. It is possible to organise manual lifting/trailing
but also the supporting bellows of the lifting axle, are
axle control or fully automatic lifting/trailing axle control.
equipped with sensors means that it is possible to select
between "pressure ratio control" [in German abbreviated
By connecting an axle load switch to pin 28 of the ECU,
as DV control] principle and the "optimum traction
it is possible to select which mode applies: "Normal axle
control" principle. It depends on the parameter settings
load" mode (switch open) or "Increase axle load" (switch
which principle is applied. With regard to the control
closed). Thereby it is possible, for example, to open the
principle, it also depends on the position of the "pressure
switch when a carriageway axle load limit is encountered
proportional control/traction control" selector switch by
during "Optimum traction control" mode, in which the
means of which pin 10 of the electronic control unit is
driving axle operates under maximum load, causing the
switched to ground. When the selector switch is open,
load distribution between the driven and lifting axles to
the control principle set in the parameters is used. When
change in such a way as to comply with the limited axle
the selector switch is closed, the opposite control
load requirements.
principle is used.
Up to two pressure sensors on the driving axle bellows The switching point of the lifting/trailing axle is set in the
may be used to determine the switching point of the lifting parameters. The switching point is measured in systems
axle. It depends on whether the supporting bellows are with a pressure sensor on the driving axle connected to
controlled jointly by one ECAS solenoid valve outputs, or pin 7 of the ECU. In systems with two pressure sensors
are controlled separately by two ECAS solenoid valve connected to pin 7 and pin 23, it is calculated by
outputs. Additionally, the supporting bellows of the lifting averaging the values. If the pressure sensor fails

Fig. 59: ECAS 6x2 DV with hydraulic lifting axle device; circuit diagram 841 801 295 0

74
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

completely, the lifting axle is lowered or the load is The signal for the traction help is determined in the same
transferred onto the trailing axle. manner as the signal for the lifting axle switching point.
The limit for the traction help is set in the parameters. It is
However, separate switches for controlling the lifting axle obtained by the pressure sensor connected to pin 7.
can also be provided on the instrument panel. Depending Apart from the known traction help types:
on the parameter settings, it is possible to use the • Germany
following different switch variants for controlling the lifting • EC
axle:
• Northern…
1. 2-stage "Lifting axle" switch: … it is also possible to organise a manual traction help in
Ground switched to pin 3 of the ECU. vehicles with ECAS 6x2 DV. In this case, the driver can
open switch = "Lifting axle lowering" manually increase or decrease the pressure in the driving
closed switch = "Lifting axle lifting" axle bellows (increase subject to the specified maximum
ECAS only responds to switching actions performed pressure limit). Lifting is actuated by the traction help
when the ignition is ON. button and continues for as long as the button switches
electronic control unit pin 17 to ground. Lowering is
2. (3-position) "Lifting axle" button: actuated by the lifting axle switch and continues for as
switched to pin 3 of the ECU. long as the switch on electronic control unit pin 3 is open.
Button open = "No activation" If the corresponding parameters have been set, the last
Button switched to ground = "Lifting axle lifting" manually set traction help can be recalled when the
Button switched to UBATT = "Lifting axle lowering" traction help button is pressed for less than 2 seconds
The closing time of the button must be at least (memory function).
0.1 seconds.
When the traction help is activated, irrespective of the
The lifting bellows themselves are separately controlled, current desired level, the desired level is always
i.e. the lifting bellows solenoid of the ECAS solenoid increased by the value set in the "Desired level increase
valve is switched by pin 14 of the electronic control unit. when traction help activated" parameter.

It is possible to set the parameters for stand-by mode.


The LIFT and LOWER procedures of the lifting axle
This mode is activated if the ignition is switched OFF
themselves differ according to whether the lifting bellows
whilst the STOP button of the remote control unit is being
is sensed or not. Especially with regard to the LIFTING
pressed. It causes adjustment to the last level before
procedure, the electronic control unit has to perform
ignition OFF (assuming adequate pressure and voltage is
pressure calculations in advance. The result of these
available).
calculations is a criterion for correct implementation. The
boundary conditions required for this calculation need to A bi-directional serial port permits diagnosis, functional
be set in the parameters – just as the type of lifting axle tests, system calibration, parameter setting, and reading
lifting device needs to be parameterised. out the diagnostic memory.

Apart from controlling a lifting axle using lifting bellows, A measured value output can be organised during normal
there is also the option of controlling hydraulic lifting axle ECAS operation by changing the parameters. In this way,
lifting devices. In this case, the control signal is output at it is possible to view individual operating values:
electronic control unit pins 14 and 32.
1. Actual level (left – only ECU variant 402) on the rear
– Lifting axle lifting = Pin 14 open/Pin 32 to UBATT axle.
2. no function or actual level on the right of the rear axle
– Lifting axle lowering = Pin 32 open/Pin 14 to UBATT
(only ECU variant 402).

An important point in this regard is the configuration of the 3. Actual level on the front axle.
traction help. The required traction help type can now 4. Desired level (left – only ECU variant 402) on the rear
only be defined by the software applying parameter axle.
settings. Traction help is activated by switching ECU pin
17 to ground. A traction help enable function can also be 5. Desired level on the front axle.
installed in some systems as an additional function. This 6. Driving axle pressure.
is a contact that switches electronic control unit pin 24 to
7. Lifting axle pressure.
UBATT. Traction help can only be activated when the
contact is closed. 8. Speed.

75
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

The measured values output on the individual channels means of a CAN bus. On the one hand, this means it
depend on which electronic control unit is used. receives and uses CAN messages to ensure functional
safety, and, on the other hand, that it sends out CAN
This measured value output mode is only permitted for messages which could be relevant to other electronic
service operation; the system must be returned to normal systems or which are used for display purposes. The
mode at the end of measured value output.
basic control loop comprising the distance sensor/
electronic control unit/solenoid valve is retained. The
7.9 ECAS 4x2/6x2 CAN (1st and 2nd generation) previously connected switches and lamps, however,
Sample circuit diagrams: 841 801 694 0, have been simplified considerably – the required
841 801 545 0 (CAN I) / 841 801 909 0 (CAN II) information is now shown on a display.
This system is primarily used for automatic levelling
control in 6x2 and 4x2 commercial vehicles with air- Setting parameters for the control characteristics of the
suspended axles. Up to 3 distance sensors continuously desired level controller is no longer required. The system
sense the actual level. Deviations from the desired level is self-learning, i. e. there is no longer any need to enter
are corrected by the control system when a specified
the proportional and differential coefficients. The teach-in
tolerance range is exceeded. A supporting bellows limit
process only takes place under certain boundary
pressure of the driving axle is specified for the ECU. This
is the limit pressure which, if exceeded, causes a lifting conditions and involves optimising specified theoretical
axle to be lowered or load transferred to a trailing axle. control processes. It is based on the lifting and lowering
The actual pressure of the supporting bellows is speeds of the vehicle body, which are determined
continuously monitored via pressure sensors. The ECAS individually on each distance sensor. The characteristic
electronic control unit is connected to the overall curves obtained during the teach-in process are stored in
architecture of electronic systems in the vehicle by the ECU when the ignition is switched off.

Fig. 60: ECAS 6x2 CAN (Diagnosis KWP2000); circuit diagram 841 801 694 0

76
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

It is possible to connect a remote control unit. The system (driving operation) and only corrects the nominal
is not monitored by lamps; instead, the necessary value if the distance sensor values remain outside the
warnings are indicated via CAN messages. permitted nominal value range set in the parameters
persistently for a parameterised period (e. g. 60
In the event of faults being present in the system, fault seconds).
messages are output in a CAN message. Fault
messages contain information on: • Below the limit speed, ECAS categorises level
…the faulty component changes as static (stationary) and corrects the
nominal value if the distance sensor values
… the fault type, location and quantity
determined within a very short period (e. g. 1 s), which
…fault severity (normal or minor)
can be defined in the parameter settings, remain
…fault lamp to trigger ("RED" or "YELLOW") persistently outside the permitted range.
The normal level lamp indicates whether the vehicle is at • 7 7 seconds after the start of the drive, ECAS checks
normal level (NL) I or II. whether a nominal value differential set in the
parameters regarding the desired level at the start of
Vehicle parameters, actual values, faults, and other a drive was exceeded. If this was the case, it corrects
information are stored in the electronic control unit. the desired level accordingly.
The system operates with various control strategies for • The control function is suppressed if the brake is
levelling control depending on a speed set in the applied. ECAS detects such an actuation by receiving
parameters: the corresponding CAN message. This makes
• At speeds faster than this limit speed, ECAS allowance for the dynamic axle load changes during
categorises level changes as dynamic changes braking and avoids unnecessary adjustments.

Fig. 61: ECAS 6x2 CAN (diagnosis via CAN); circuit diagram 841 801 545 0

77
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

Level changes between the two normal levels (NL), • by requesting a CAN message for a level change.
however, are possible, as well as level adjustments to Requests for a level change via CAN have priority
any level between upper and lower level. The NL I is over the remote control unit.
made known to the ECU during initial start-up of the If there is no remote control unit installed in the system,
system; NL II can be parameterised and is entered either ECAS adjusts to normal level immediately after the
as a differential value to the lower level or as a differential ignition is switched on.
value to NL I (input value = NL II - NL I or lower level +
125). Level changes can be effected in the following
It is possible to adjust to an unloading level (UL) if the
manner:
vehicle is at a standstill. This unloading level is
programmed into the electronic unit when the parameters
• actuating the normal level(NL) I/II switch will cause a are set; it is entered as a differential from NL I.
switchover between the two levels. In order to set NL (Input value = UL - NL I + 125)
II, ECU pin X1/5 is switched to ground and this
connection is interrupted for a return to NL I. ECAS transmits information on the selected NL in a CAN
• The vehicle body moves to the normal level (if it is not message.
already there) if a speed limit set in the parameters is
exceeded; given appropriate parameter settings, it is For these electronic control units it is possible to
possible to change between a set NL I and NL II by parameterise the special "Crane operation" function.
exceeding another speed limit and then decelerating
to below a second, somewhat slower, speed limit. Three types of sensor can be used as sensing elements
for the distance between the axle and the vehicle body:
• it is possible to move to any level by pressing the LIFT
or LOWER button on the remote control unit. – Distance sensors without temperature compensation.

Fig. 62: ECAS 6x2 CAN II (diagnosis via CAN); circuit diagram 841 801 909 0

78
Brief description of the system ECAS 7.

– Distance sensors with temperature compensation. An important point in this regard is the configuration of
the traction help. The required traction help type is
– Angle-of-rotation sensors.
defined by setting parameters in the software. Traction
help is activated by switching ECU pin X1/6 to ground.
However, only one type may be installed in a particular
vehicle, i .e. mixed installation is not permissible. Make
The signal is obtained in the same way as the signal for
sure the installed type of distance sensor matches the
the lifting axle switching point. The limit for the traction
parameter settings.
help is set in the parameters. It is determined by the
Apart from the basic ECAS function (adjusting the pressure sensors connected to pins X2/2 and X2/6.
distance vehicle body - axle), ECAS also performs
control of the lifting/trailing axle LOAD and RELIEF In CAN II electronic systems, parameters are set for the
function. It is possible to organise manual lifting/trailing times (period and forced pause) and the remote control
axle control or fully automatic lifting/trailing axle control. unit (switches or buttons). The ECU uses this information
to generate the corresponding traction help type. Up to 5
The switching point of the lifting/trailing axle is set in the different types of traction help are possible:
parameters. The lifting axle switching point can either be
determined by up to 2 pressure sensors on the driving • Germany
axle supporting bellows or the ECAS electronic control • EU99
unit uses the information about the driving axle load • Outside Germany
provided in a CAN message from the EBS. The principle
to be used must be set in the parameters. • Northern
• manual traction help
The lifting axle itself is controlled according to the
When the parameters have been set for the NORTHERN
principle of pressure equalising control.
traction help, the driver can manually increase or
decrease the pressure in the driving axle bellows, the
If pressure sensors are used, the switching point is
increase being subject to the specified maximum
measured on the driving axle by one pressure sensor
pressure limit. Increases are performed using a 3-
respectively connected to pin X2/6 and pin X2/2. If the
position latched switch.
pressure sensor is defective, the lifting axle is lowered or
the load is transferred onto the trailing axle.
Starting the traction help can be triggered by a variety of
Depending on the parameter settings, it is possible to means:
use the following actuation variants for controlling the
• By pressing a button in the case of type "Germany"
lifting axle:
(German road traffic regulations), "Outside Germany"
• via CAN message and "EU 99" (optional parameter 3.1 = 1 and 7.1 = 0)
• via button • By actuating a 2-position switch in the case of type
"Northern" (optional parameter 3.1 = 1 and 7.1 = 0).
The lifting axle position can be changed if the
• By actuating a 3-position button in the case of type
corresponding CAN message is sent to the electronic
"Germany" (German road traffic regulations),
control unit requesting control of the lifting axle.
"Outside Germany", "EU 99", and "infinitely variable
load transfer" (optional parameter 3.1 = 1 and 7.1 =
However, a separate button can also be provided on the
1).
instrument panel for controlling the lifting axle. This is a
lifting axle button by means of which pin X1/4 on the ECU • By requesting "Traction help (load transfer)" via SAE-
is switched to ground. Pressing the button sends a CAN identifier ASC2_…, byte 3, bit 1…4, (optional
switching pulse to the ECU, causing a change in the parameter 3.1 = 0).
lifting axle position, provided permissible boundary When the traction help is operating, the electronic
conditions exist. Lifting axle control only responds to system sends corresponding information ("Traction help
switching actions performed when the ignition is ON. – load transfer", "Traction help – load reduce", "Load
fixing") in the SAE-CAN-identifier ASC1_…, byte 4, bit
The lifting bellows themselves are under controlled 5…8.
positively, i. e. the ECAS solenoid valve simultaneously
performs the functions "Lifting axle lifting"/"Pressurise When the traction help is activated – irrespective of the
lifting bellows" functions (ECU pin X2/12 = GND) or current desired level – the desired level is always
"Lifting axle lowering"/"Exhaust lifting bellows" (ECU pin increased by the value set in the "Desired level increase
X2/14 = GND) via internal pneumatic connections. when traction help activated" parameter.

79
7. ECAS Brief description of the system

The crane operation function can be set in the following information to be displayed on a suitable
parameters. diagnostic instrument:
"Measured value output …"
The load-sensing valve controller cannot function
correctly if the vehicle body is lowered onto the buffers … Actual and desired levels of all distance sensors
while driving, because no load information is available. … Solenoid valve settings
The electronic control unit detects this and outputs a … Characteristic values for levelling control
CAN signal so the brake system also detects this … Driving speed
situation.
… Status of the remote control unit
It is possible to set the parameters for stand-by … Pressure sensor values
operation. It is activated with ignition OFF (PIN X1/10 of … Ignition (ON/OFF)
the ECU de-energised) and STOP button of the remote …Standby operation active
control unit pressed. It causes adjustment to the last level … detected faults
before ignition OFF, assuming adequate pressure and
voltage is available. The bi-directional serial port permits diagnosis, functional
tests, system calibration, parameter setting, and reading
There are electronic control units which contain a out the diagnostic memory. After exiting the diagnosis, it
diagnostic interface according to ISO/WD 14 230 is necessary to switch the ignition OFF and then ON
("Keyword Protocol 2000"). Other electronic control units again.
can only communicated via the IES CAN bus; diagnosis
is performed from a central interface. ECAS/ESAC systems will not be described at this at this
point because there are no new functions for the ECAS
During parameter settings, the K-line or the CAN data part of theses systems. Contact the vehicle manufacturer
bus can be used for output, via CAN messages, of the or WABCO for advice in the event of any problems.

80
System start-up and diagnosis ECAS 8.

8. System start-up and diagnosis

8.1 General The diagnostic memory and current measuring data can
be obtained using the diagnostic program. In the event of
The set values stored in the electronic control unit – a malfunction, the fault is described.
referred to as the parameters – are already already
designed to match the vehicle. When the system is The connection to the diagnostic PC requires a
serviced, however, it may be desirable or even Diagnostic Interface; here it is possible to use either the
necessary to alter certain parameters. serial or the USB version.

Only trained personnel may change the parameters Diagnostic Interface


however. If WABCO test equipment is to be used for
setting the parameters, this is only possible by
entering a code number (also referred to as the PIN
or personal identification number). Trained persons
are then in a position to change the parameters
because the PIN permits access to the
corresponding program parts of the diagnostic
equipment.
446 301 022 0 (USB) 446 301 021 0 (serial)
After an ECAS electronic control unit has been replaced,
Abb. 63
the system must be put into service by calibrating it.
Calibrating sensors means that the sensors are brought Start-up of ECAS 1st Generation can also be carried out
into relation with the electronic system – they are using the WABCO Diagnostic Controller (DC) with
"introduced to the electronic control unit". This is associated hard- and software. The following
necessary to allow the measured values picked up by the accessories are required for this:
sensors to be transmitted and processed. If a remote
control unit is to be used for the ECAS system, it must be Connection adapter
connected to the system during the calibration process.

Calibration of the sensors is required for new


systems, after replacing sensors, and after replacing
the electronic control unit. The sensors are
calibrated using diagnostic equipment.

Initial start-up of the ECAS system requires the use of


diagnostic equipment. It should be mentioned that the
35-pin 446 300 327 0 25-pin 446 300 317 0
extent of available parameter settings and calibration
only for 4x2 vehicles
options varies widely from one vehicle manufacturer to
another. Some vehicle manufacturers make reference to Abb. 64
our diagnostic equipment when changes to the
parameter settings are requested. Others do not allow Diagnostic cable, multimeter cable, adapter plug
any access to the parameter and calibration values.

The diagnosis is carried out using a PC or notebook that


is connected to the vehicle electronics. WABCO
diagnostics software must be installed on the notebook.
The software is available in different languages and for
different ECAS system versions. You will find up-to-date Diagnostic cable Multimeter cable Adapter plug
information on the Internet (www.wabco-auto.com) via 894 604 303 2 894 604 30. 2 446 300 31. 0
the "Download" menu. All available language versions of
the WABCO diagnostic program are shown on the Abb. 65
diagnostics software subscription pages.
and the corresponding program card. (↑ Brochure "Test
Equipment Overview" 815 010 037 3)

81
8. ECAS System start-up and diagnosis

This diagnostic device is of course not only used for the 8.2 Diagnostic card overview
start-up procedure but can also be used for locating
faults, for actuating solenoid valves, lamp testing, Apart from the manufacturers' own diagnostic systems,
checking test values and measured values, manipulating diagnostic cards or a PC diagnosis are available for all
the control unit's data, and for functional testing. ECAS towing vehicle systems. In conjunctions with the
specified diagnostic hardware, these can be used for
The software uses a menu structure for the Diagnostic detecting faults, reading out data from the electronic
Controller card and the PC program and and designed in control unit, setting the parameters of the electronic
according to a similar structure. Beyond the principle control unit, and calibrating distance and pressure
functions, the PC program also includes features such as sensors.
system illustrations in colour, help files, information on
the diagnostic program, on the ECAS system, on setting It should be mentioned that the diagnostic card is used
the parameters, on the calibration procedure, and on less and less frequently. On the one hand, an increasing
locating any errors or faults for the user convenience. emphasis is being placed on PC-based diagnosis and, on
the other hand, it will become increasingly difficult to
accommodate the data required by the new ECAS
systems on the chip of the diagnostic card. Table 3 is thus
for information only so a complete overview is provided.

Table 3: Diagnostic cards


System for ECU Diagnostic Card
without pressure sensor 446 055 00 . 0 / 446 055 01 . 0 446 300 524 0
4x2A 446 055 02 . 0 446 300 520 0
4 x 2 Ratio 446 055 301 0 / 446 055 302 0 446 300 881 0
4 x 2 KMP 446 055 303 0 / 446 055 304 0 / 446 055 311 0 / 446 055 312 0 446 300 880 0
with pressure sensor 446 055 00 . 0 446 300 532 0
6x2A 446 055 04 . 0 446 300 526 0
6 x 2 Ratio 446 055 403 0 / 446 055 405 0 446 300 526 0
446 055 404 0 446 300 881 0
6 x 2 DV 446 055 043 0 / 446 055 049 0 446 300 623 0
6 x 2 DV Ratio 446 055 401 0/ 446 055 402 0 / 446 055 406 0 / 446 055 407 0 446 300 623 0
446 055 408 0
4 x 2 / 6 x 2 24V CAN (for DC ACTROS) 446 170 001 0 / 446 170 002 0 / 446 170 004 0 / 446 170 005 0 446 300 635 0
446 170 021 0 / 446 170 022 0 / 446 170 023 0 / 446 170 024 0
446 170 051 0 / 446 170 054 0
4 x 2 / 6 x 2 24V CAN (for MAN NFG) 446 170 003 0 / 446 170 006 0 / 446 170 053 0 446 300 893 0

8.3 Diagnostic Software Both types of diagnostic device indicate, in plain text,
faults, the frequency of their occurrence, and their current
The ECAS system is maintenance-free. The system status. In addition, the PC software offers help functions
monitors itself by means of the fault routines in the ECU for eliminating faults and on for the general description of
program. No further system checks are required, apart the system and its components. The required
from inspecting those parts of the system which the ECU configurations have already been presented in section
is unable to check. (sensor linkage, signal lamp, etc.). 8.1 "General Information".

If the ECU detects a fault, the signal lamp will flash; it is


only then that the system needs to be checked in the 8.3.1 Diagnosis using the Diagnostic
workshop. Controller
Diagnosis by means of the Diagnostic Controller has
The diagnostic device used most frequently is the PC
been largely replaced by PC diagnosis, and should be
diagnosis. Because it offers a number of convenient considered as a second option for diagnosis with regard
functions, starting from a clearer program organisation
to ECAS (with the exception of ECAS 1st generation). It
and structure down to permanent accessibility to the is menu-driven, i.e., it requires no special know-how. The
latest diagnostic software on the Internet, it has
menu item "Fault finding" should be used for the actual
superseded the Diagnostic Controller to a large extent.

82
System start-up and diagnosis ECAS 8.

fault finding. A number of menu items in this regard can or following appropriate training given by someone
only be activated if the PIN was previously entered in authorised or recognised by the WABCO Customer
menu item 4 "Special functions". All faults are shown in Service Department (trainer, field service employee,
plain text and the fault memory can be printed out on a etc. – the WABCO Customer Service Department
printer which is connected to the Diagnostic Controller. can provide an up-to-date list of correspondingly
authorised persons). Once the trained person has
8.3.2 Diagnosis with the PC been registered with the WABCO Customer Service
Department, he or she can obtain a PIN (personal
The diagnosis via PC, however, is the more comfortable identification number) for your program. This
method and has therefore replaced the DC diagnosis. All enables access to the options for use listed under
faults are shown in plain text, and additional information point 1, as well as the option to calibrate distance
is provided on faults and system. The diagnostic memory and pressure sensors.
contents and a vehicle data log can be printed out on a
connected printer for the purpose of documentation. The 3. The right to set parameters can be obtained by
diagnostic program is controlled via the command bar or taking part in an ECAS training course (min. 2 days)
via buttons and icons. or following appropriate training given by someone
authorised or recognised by the WABCO Customer
The program structure closely follows that of the program Service Department (this may very well include
card in order to make it easier for former users of other training given by another vehicle manufacturer).
diagnostic equipment to handle the diagnostic program. Once the trained person has been registered with
For actual fault finding, the item. "Fault finding" should be the WABCO Customer Service Department, he or
selected from the menu. she can obtain a PIN for your program. This enables
access to the options for use listed under point 2, as
The PC program is available on disk or can be well as the option to change parameters in the
downloaded from the Internet. One advantage of electronic control unit.
downloading diagnostic programs from the Internet, and
this advantage should not be underestimated, is that it is Since July 2005, WABCO offers the option to obtain PINs
no longer required to obtain updates as is the case with via the Internet. Having completed a system training
disks and program cards. course, you can use the licence letter you received during
training to log in via the Internet and retrieve the PIN.
As part of an annual subscription, the latest versions of all
available WABCO PC diagnostic programs can be When a PIN is requested via the Internet, the Internet
downloaded from the Internet. For ECAS, these are application requires a subscriber's's login. The login
currently the following programs: indicates to WABCO whether the requester, whom
WABCO recognise by means of the licensing date he or
ECAS- Bus A 246 301 851 0 she enters, belongs to the company and is the owner of
ECAS- 4 x 2 S2000246 301 860 0 the subscription.
ECAS- CAN 2246 301 866 0
ECAS- (ENR) Actros246 301 521 0
ECAS- Bus Citaro246 301 523 0
ECAS- Truck KWP K246 301 524 0
ECAS- Truck JED 677246 301 529 0
ECAS- Bus 246 301 558 0

Within the diagnostic program it is possible to access 3


program levels, which, when access is required, must be
activated with a PIN (i. e. personal identification number).

1. Diagnosis and reading out the parameter set can be


performed immediately with this program.

2. The right to change the calibration can be obtained


Abb. 66 PIN request via the Internet
by taking part in an ECAS information course (1 day)

83
9. ECAS Setting parameters

9. Setting parameters
The electronic control units are supplied with parameters Eight option parameters make one value parameter.
already set. The only thing that is required for initial start-
up is the calibration of the electronic system. In order to 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
understand ECAS, however, it is important to know and
evaluate the various parameters.
20 + 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 + 27 =

9.1 Option parameters 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 + 128 = 255

Option parameters are parameters in which 8 bits ( also 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


referred to as "option bits") can be respectively set or not
set. These are options that are precisely defined by
means of YES or NO, or by means of "1" or "0" in terms
of computer language. Option parameters are non- 20 + 0 + 22 + 0 + 0 + 25 + 0 + 27
dimensional.
1 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 0 + 32 + 0 + 128 = 165
One byte comprises 8 bits, i.e. 8 option parameters. They Abb. 67 Model representation of numbers 255 and 165 in
are uniquely represented as a number between 0 and digitalised form (example)
255. The binary system of numbers is the basis for this
representation. One byte can be imagined as follows:
Eight lamps are placed on a strip with terminals 0 to 7,
Option parameters represent details regarding functional symbolically representing 8 bits. If one lamp is on, this
scope and desired operating mode of the system. These corresponds to the number "2 raised to the power of the
include, for example: terminal number".
• Distance sensor calibration of the system, For example:
configuration detection The lamp on terminal 3 is on. This equals 23 = 8.
• calibration procedure to perform, plausibility checking
If the lamp is off, this is equal to the figure 0. There are a
procedure, switch configuration
total of 256 different combinations for illuminating the
• presence of a lifting axle, type of lifting axle control lamps.
• presence of a pressure sensor, traction help
configuration Since an option bit only needs to be described by means
of the condition YES or NO (lamp ON or OFF), 8 option
• presence of an LSV solenoid valve, type of normal
parameters can be said to represent one value
level selection, etc.
parameter. Adding up the values of these 8 option bits
produces a number between 0 and 255, by means of
which the parameter is uniquely described.
9.2 Value parameters
The parameters can be set using the appropriate
Value parameters are numerical values defining the software.
nominal, limit, and tolerance values of the system. These
values are numbers between 0 and 255. They are In this step, parameter sets can, for example:
proportional values for actual physical dimensions such • be read in, displayed, and stored in a PC from an
as: distance, pressure, time, speed. existing ECU;
• be written into an ECU from a PC;
• be manually created, modified, and stored in the PC,
i.e., transferred to an ECU.

– Prior to setting parameters, save the parameter set


stored in the ECU to the PC.
This provides a back-up copy which can be used to
restore the previous set of parameters in the electronic
control unit at any time. This is particularly important if
existing sets of parameters are to be modified.

84
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

Parameter changes require the approval of the vehicle It is important to observe the difference between the
manufacturer. counts of previous ECAS electronic systems and the
timer ticks when performing calibration.
9.2.1 Counts
Counts are count values of the ECU. Binary numbers 9.3 Explanation of the parameters
form the basis of these counts. The counts range from 0
to 255. This section explains the significance of the parameters.
The large number of different parameter sets, which also
When the parameters – i.e. the nominal values for control have different structures, makes it almost impossible to
– are being set, they are set as counts. To allow the ECU explain every single parameter. Many parameters –
to compare nominal values and actual values, the actual especially option parameters – do not need an extensive
values also need to be provided as counts. explanation. In many cases , they are simple YES/NO
queries by means of which the system structure is
The values picked up by the sensors are based on defined.
distances or pressures. They are transmitted to the ECU

! specific
as voltages or current pulses. The ECU then converts The parameters explained here do not form part of a
these signals into digital values, the so-called counts electronic control unit; rather, this
(digitisation of the signals). explanation is intended to provide a general overview
of all parameters occurring in ECAS electronic
The band width of the voltages and pulse times within the control units.
measuring range is divided into equal parts for this
purpose. Depending on the electronic control unit used, it may very
well be that parameters with the same function have a
The maximum possible measuring range is divided into different parameter number or bit number. As a result, the
256 steps. parameters are not numbered here; instead, the text is
divided up into topics. Refer to the diagnostic device or
The smaller these steps are, the: the documentation for the assignment of parameter
• more accurate are the measured values provided for numbers in a specific electronic control unit; alternatively,
computation. you can ask the vehicle manufacturer or WABCO.
• smaller the band width of the measuring range that
can be covered. It is also possible that parameters with the same function
differ slightly in terms of the wording used to represent
The bigger these steps are, the: them. This point is referred to in the explanation of the
parameters.
• less accurate are the measured values provided for
computation. These are the parameter sets that form the basis for the
• wider the band width of the measuring range that can parameters below:
be covered. 446 055 046 0 (6x2 A – MB)
446 055 405 0 (6x2 Ratio – DAF)
The above information must be taken into account, for 446 055 406 0 (6x2 DV – Scania)
example, when choosing the lever length for the 446 170 053 0 (4x2/6x2 CAN I – MAN)
distance sensor.
(↑ 6.1.1 Distance sensor - instruction for installation) These cover the majority of parameters to be described
(these parameters are also found in other electronic
9.2.2 Timer ticks control units).
In more recent ECAS electronic systems, 8-bit The explanation is divided into three headings:
processing has been changed to 16-bit processing. This 1. Device address parameter
opens a wider range of data processing options and thus
2. Option parameter
a much higher resolution for calculating measured 3. Value parameter
values.

The electrical signal transmitted by the distance sensors 9.3.1 Device address parameter
is now converted into timer ticks by the ECU. The values
Parameter 0 sets the device address which allows the
range from 256 to 65.536.
diagnostic device to address the electronic control unit.

85
9. ECAS Setting parameters

The standard address for towing vehicle ECAS electronic valves (↑ 8.3). The ECAS solenoid valve is made in such
control units is "16". a way that the functions of pressurising the lifting axle
bellows/depressurising the lifting axle supporting bellows
Exceptions are only permissible if, for example, there is (= lifting axle lifting) and depressurising the lifting axle
more than one ECU installed in a vehicle and these ECUs bellows/pressurising the lifting axle supporting bellows (=
share a common diagnosis interface. Consequently, the lifting axle lowering) are internally coupled.
separate ECAS electronic control unit in a bus dolly may
have the ISO address "17" should the ECAS electronic There are ECAS systems in which the lifting axle
control unit in the main vehicle already have the address supporting bellows and the lifting bellows are each
"16". controlled by a separate solenoid valve. In this case,
separate control of the lifting bellows valve must be
Vehicles with 1st generation ECAS (i. e. ECAS with/ assigned to the electronic control unit.
without pressure sensor) may have different addresses
(e.g. ECU 446 005 003 0 for DAF = address 85). If in Bit = 0: Positive control
doubt, contact the vehicle manufacturer or the WABCO Bit = 1: separate control
Customer Service Department.
air suspension only on rear axle or air suspension on
Vehicles with CAN-enabled electronic control units do not
rear and front axles)
have a device address because in this case a slightly
different method is used for accessing the diagnostic For vehicles with full air suspension, rear axle(s), front
information. axle(s), and a separate lifting axle function can be
controlled independently from one another. In vehicles
9.3.2 Option parameters with partial air suspension, it is possible to control rear
axle(s) and a separate lifting axle function – front axle
As described above, an option parameter is made up of components are not accepted and trigger a fault
up to 8 option bits respectively. The option named first message.
corresponds to bit status "0" and the second to bit status
"1". Bit = 0: Vehicle with full air suspension

Option bits 4x2 (also 6x2) Bit = 1: Vehicle with partial air suspension
Remote control unit or operating switch
6x2 vehicle or 4x2 vehicle
This specifies to the electronic control unit whether
manual intervention in the system (e.g. LIFT or LOWER This parameter is used for defining the vehicle
command) is accomplished by using operating switches configuration, in particular for electronic control units
or the remote control unit. The functions of the remote used in 4x2 and 6x2 vehicles.
control unit or the operating switch are tested in the
Bit = 0: 6x2 vehicle
diagnostic functions "Activation – Measured Values –
Remote Control Unit". Bit = 1: 4x2 vehicle

Bit = 0: ECAS system with remote control unit Vehicle with lifting/trailing axle or vehicle without
Bit = 1: ECAS system with operating switch lifting/trailing axle (6x2- or 6x4-vehicle)
Electronic control units in vehicles with the drive formula
Remote control unit 6xn can be used in vehicles with a lifting/trailing axle
This specifies to the electronic control unit whether a (6x2), as well as in vehicles without a lifting/trailing axle
remote control unit is connected or not, since it is unable (6x4).
to detect this on its own:
The corresponding system configuration must be made
Bit = 0: ECAS system with remote control unit known to the electronic control unit so it can decide
Bit = 1: ECAS system without remote control unit whether components specific to the lifting/trailing axle are
not connected or defective.
Positive control of the lifting bellows valve
or separate lifting bellows control For 4x2 vehicles, without lifting/trailing axle is of course
always applicable in this context.
In the majority of ECAS system with a lifting axle, the
lifting bellows are controlled positively. Positive control is Bit = 0: Lifting axle or trailing axle vehicle
used in the case of pulse-controlled ECAS solenoid
Bit = 1: Vehicle without lifting/trailing axle

86
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

In conjunction with the previous option bit right". Make sure the directional control valve 2/2 of the
(i.e. if bit = 0), lifting axle vehicle or trailing vehicle corresponding ECAS solenoid valve is assigned to the
same side of the vehicle. The electronic control unit must
The difference between a lifting axle and a trailing axle is
be informed that the control circuit has been defined in
that the trailing axle can only have the load transferred
this way.
from it, whereas the lifting axle can also be lifted and
lowered. (↑ 3.2 Fundamental definitions). Bit = 0: Control loop for the left-hand side of the vehicle
is active
The appropriate system configuration must be made
known to the electronic control unit so it can decide Bit = 1: Control loop for the right-hand side of the
whether components specific to the lifting/trailing axle vehicle is active
(e. g. ECAS solenoid valve with lifting axle function) are
not connected or are defective (e. g. cable discontinuity). Without measured value output or with measured
value output
Bit = 0: Lifting axle vehicle
When measured value output is active, the ECU that is
Bit = 1: Trailing axle vehicle or vehicle without not CAN-enabled continuously transmits eight measured
additional axle (i.e. 4x2 vehicle) values calculated from the sensor values during regular
operation. The transmitted values can be displayed
2 distance sensors on the rear axle during PC diagnosis. The assignment of measuring
or 1 distance sensor on the rear axle points depends on the electronic control unit used. The
This parameter informs the electronic control unit output of measured values displays the ACTUAL and
whether the vehicle body above the rear axle is controlled NOMINAL values of the distance sensors, current speed
on a per side or per axle basis. information, pressure sensor values, offset values for tyre
impression compensation, controller status, etc. Ask the
If side-to-side control is implemented, the system expects vehicle manufacturer or WABCO to find out which
2-point control (i.e. 2 control loops) on the rear axle for measured values are output in the electronic control unit
controlling the height of the vehicle body. With two in question.
distance sensors, and an ECAS solenoid valve equipped
with two directional control valves 2/2, the level can be The measured values are output in counts. The value 0
kept in parallel to the axle even though the load on either or 255 is output if a measuring point is missing.
side of the vehicle may vary. However, note that in this
case the wheel loads on the axle may differ widely from The measured value output must only be used for
one another and the axle will then be subject to distortion. diagnostic purposes. Since the ECU continuously
transmits data, diagnosis is not possible without a PIN. If
For control on a per axle basis, the system expects 1- the Diagnostic Controller is being used and initialisation
point control (1 control loop) on the rear axle. At the is done using the service card, a message which reads
distance sensor, which is usually located at the centre of "Data received on K-line, please re-initialise" will be
the axle, the supporting bellows are actuated by an ECAS displayed.
solenoid valve with a 2/2 directional control valve 2/2
valve. A transverse throttle between the two pneumatic Bit = 0: Normal mode
outlets of the directional control valve 2/2 permits the
Bit = 1: Diagnostic mode
pressure of the supporting bellows on both sides of the
vehicle to be balanced slowly. This avoids axle distortion.
! the
ATTENTION! To complete the process of setting
However, a one-sided load can have the unwanted effect
parameters, bit 7 must be set to "0";
tilting the vehicle body. otherwise fault finding will not be possible
without a PIN.
Bit = 0: 2 distance sensors on the rear axle
Bit = 1: 1 distance sensor on the rear axle Calibrate three calibration levels or one normal level

In conjunction with the previous option bit The standard value to be entered here is ZERO. For the
(Bit = 1) distance sensor rear left or rear right calibration process, the ECU expects adjustment to three
different levels. Taking normal level I as the starting point,
In vehicles in which there is only 1 distance sensor on the the level must then be moved to the upper and the lower
driving axle, there are 2 possible ways of connecting this level and respectively calibrated.
distance sensor to the electronic control unit. It can either
be assigned to the electronic control unit slot "distance If the upper/lower levels are known, and for exceptional
sensor on rear axle left" or "Distance sensor on rear axle cases, this bit can be set to 1. Prior to the calibration

87
9. ECAS Setting parameters

process, the upper/lower levels must be made known to LIFT has been given, the electronic control unit expects a
the ECAS electronic control unit as count numbers. rising number of distance sensor value counts.
During the calibration process, only normal level I is The LIFT command does not necessarily come from the
initiated and calibrated. remote control unit; it may have been triggered, for
example, automatically because the limit speed for
Bit = 0: Calibration of the normal level, the upper moving the vehicle body into normal level from a lower
level, and the lower levels is required level was exceeded.
(standard)
If the distance sensor values remain constant, or if they
Bit = 1: Calibration of the normal level is required fall, the ECU considers this to be implausible and detects
what is referred to as a plausibility error. The electronic
Setting according to option parameters control unit also detects a plausibility error if the count
or automatic periphery detection values are not reduced after a certain period of time has
If this bit is set to 0, the electronic control unit must be elapsed since the LOWER command was received. As a
informed of the entire system configuration in the option consequence of such an implausible response, the
parameters. warning lamp is switched on, indicating a plausibility
warning to the driver, i. e. that a plausibility error has
If this bit is set to 1, the ECU checks the electrical occurred.
connections prior to calibration and deduces the applied Standard for this bit is 0. Plausibility errors are detected
system configuration from this information. Accordingly, when they occur, written into the diagnostic memory of
the parameters of the system configuration description the ECU, the warning lamp is switched on, and the ECAS
are then set automatically if a parameter is changed and/ solenoid valves are switched off. The ACTUAL levels in
or in the event of a recalibration. The advantage being effect at this point are taken as new desired levels and
that the configuration requires less thought. However, applied accordingly.
there is the disadvantage that a component failure is not
always detected as such because every time the ignition Example: The intention is to lift a vehicle body from 60
is switched ON, the existing sensors are used for drawing counts to the normal level range (taking tolerances into
a conclusion on what the configuration is. account) at 75 to 85 counts. After the time limit
subsequent to command input has elapsed, the ECU still
Even though the bit has been set to "1", parameter detects a desired level of 60 counts . This means 60
settings are still required. For example, the ECU cannot counts is taken as the new desired level and is applied
detect whether a pressure switch has been connected, accordingly. Consequently, subsequent distance
how traction help is meant to operate, etc. changes of vehicle body above the axle due to changes
in loading conditions would be adjusted to 60 counts.
Without LSV valve or with LSV valve If this bit is set to 1, any plausibility errors are written into
This is used to define whether the system has a the diagnostic memory of the electronic control unit, the
directional valve 3/2 for controlling the LSV bellows warning lamp is switched on, and (in contrast to the
control connection. If this bit is set to 0, no safety function variant with bit = "0") the ECAS solenoid valves remain
is provided for the LSV controller. If this bit is set to 1, a energised (!) in order to raise the vehicle body to the
separate directional control solenoid valve 3/2 is desired level. The valve activation time must be taken
energised as long as the system is working properly and into account here.
the level is above the buffers. In the event of a
malfunction, the vehicle level is lowered below the Without crane operation or with crane operation
distance sensor value. If the electronic control unit Bit = 0: is the standard setting.
detects this behaviour, the solenoid valve is deenergised
and sends the full supply pressure to control connection Bit = 1: is the preferred setting for vehicles with cranes in
41 or 42 of the LSV controller. order to prevent complete depressurisation of
the supporting bellows during crane operation (↑
Indicate plausibility warning via warning lamp, 3.12 "Crane operation"). This function only
switch off valves or valves remain activated operates at v = 0 km/h.
Plausibility errors are distance sensor reactions that, When crane operation is started, the vehicle's outriggers
over a specific period of time, do not match the electronic
raise the vehicle body so the axles are suspended above
control unit's expectations. After a certain period of time, the ground. In this case, the distance between the vehicle
the electronic control unit checks the way ECAS reacts to
body and the axles will be large. ECAS would then
any commands given. For example, after a command to unsuccessfully attempt to re-establish the previous

88
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

desired level by exhausting the supporting bellows electronic control unit (in this case, via pin 5) must be
(LOWER command). When this bit is set, ECAS detects powered from terminal 30 ("steady positive voltage"). The
crane operation after a certain specified time period and electronic control unit must be informed of this situation.
cancels exhausting the bellow. If pin 5 does not get power from terminal 30 although this
has been defined, this situation is indicated to the driver
This function can also be used for vehicles that are by the fault lamp lighting up with a steady light. ECAS
hoisted onto a ferry for example. Here, it may be basic functions continue to be ensured; stand-by
desirable to avoid completely exhausting the supporting operation is no longer possible however.
bellows to prevent damage to the bellows when the
vehicle is lowered back down. Bit = 0: No ECU power supply via terminal 30.

Increased vehicle inclination to reduce bellows Bit = 1: ECU power supply via terminal 30 is possible,
pressure differences permissible or not permissible stand-by operation can be organised.

When ECAS moves the vehicle body to a desired level, Distance sensor selection
its foremost aim is to adjust to this level until all distance
sensor deliver distance signals within the tolerance range Some electronic control units permit connection of
of the desired level. In vehicles with 2 distance sensors different distance sensor types (↑ also 6.1.1 "Distance
on the driving axle, uneven loading over the driving axle sensor"):
may lead to great pressure differences in the supporting • Distance sensor without temperature compensation
bellows as a result of this control strategy. The • Distance sensor with internal temperature
consequence would be insufficient grip utilisation (ASR compensation
intervention).
• Angle-of-rotation sensor
In order to improve the utilisation of available tractive
Only distance sensors of one type are allowed to be
force, a greater vehicle inclination is permitted over the
connected to the ECU.
driving axle with a simultaneous gain in grip utilisation on
the road surface. After the second attempt to bring both Distance sensor selection involves setting or not setting
distance sensors to within the permitted nominal value bits to inform the electronic control unit which type of
range, the current misalignment is accepted if the distance sensor is present in the system. By means of a
distance sensor on the left-hand side of the vehicle is defined bit coding scheme, the ECU is aware of which
within the permitted nominal value tolerance range distance sensor type is being used .
(irrespective of where the right-hand side distance sensor
is located). The control process is stopped at this point. With fault monitoring of the connected sensor type
Following this, the higher side – the side with the lower or without fault monitoring
supporting bellows pressure – is additionally pressurised
for 0.3 seconds in order to reduce further the pressure This option bit is closely related to the previously
difference between the right-hand and left-hand described bit. Here, it is possible to decide whether the
supporting bellows. electronic control unit should check what type of distance
sensor is connected. If this bit is set for fault monitoring,
This control function only takes place if the vehicle is the electronic control unit indicates a distance sensor that
driving. The original calibration values of the distance does not match the code setting and detects a severe
sensors are unaffected by this control process, i. e. fault.
during the next control process ECAS will initially attempt
to align the vehicle body horizontally. 9.3.2.1 Option bits 6x2 (additional)
Bit = 0: permits a greater vehicle inclination. It is quite possible for option bits used in 4x2 vehicles to
be used in 6x2 vehicles as well. If they have been
Bit = 1: does not permit a greater vehicle inclination.
described in section 8.5.2.1 "Option bits 4x2", they will
not be explained again in this section. Typical option bits
Without terminal 30 supply on pin 5 or with terminal
which are exclusively seen in 6x2 vehicles are related to
30 supply on pin 5
the topics of lifting axle/trailing axle control, traction help,
This bit defines the electrical power supply for the tyre impression compensation, etc.
electronic system. Normally, ECAS only functions when
the ignition (terminal 15) is switched ON. However, it is Not applicable or lifting/trailing axle control using
also possible to organise stand-by operation during pressure switches
which ECAS maintains a desired level despite the fact
If the bit is set to 0, a fully automatic lifting axle control can
that the ignition has been switched off. To do this, the
be implemented. This setting allows automatic lowering

89
9. ECAS Setting parameters

of the lifting axle, or increasing the load on the trailing Pulse-controlled lifting axle raising device or
axle, when a defined maximum pressure in the Permanently energised lifting axle raising device
supporting bellows is reached and lifting of the lifting axle,
Some electronic control units have a separate pin for
or reducing the load on the trailing axle, when the
raising the lifting axle. This option bit defines the output
pressure in the supporting bellows falls below a defined
signal.
minimum value. This requires a pressure sensor to be
fitted in order to control the lifting axle. This bit must also Bit = 0: the lifting axle raising device receives, over a
be set to 0 in vehicles without a lifting axle. period of about 5 seconds, a control pulse (e. g.
Bit = 1: absolutely requires the connection of pressure ECAS solenoid valve with slide-controlled lifting
switches for controlling the lifting axle. axle unit).

Traction help "Germany" or traction help "Outside Bit = 1: the lifting axle raising device is permanently
Germany" (also: Traction help Domestic or traction energised (e. g. separate lifting axle raising
help Abroad) valve).

As well as defining the type of traction help via the pin Manual lifting/trailing axle control using switch or
assignments on the ECU, it is also possible to define the using a 3-position switch
type of traction help by setting parameters. The option
bits only determine the traction help type, the precise System intervention into the lifting/trailing axle control
definition of the traction help parameters is performed in using switches is a widespread feature in ECAS systems
a later section of the parameter set. in the towing vehicle. There are various actuation
variants for manual lifting/trailing axle control.
Bit = 0: sets the traction help in accordance with the
criteria of the German Motor Vehicle Bit = 0: the lifting axle is controlled with a 2-position
Construction and Use Regulations (StVZO). This switch that signals the command for lifting or
means that – in addition to the requirements lowering the lifting axle to the ECU depending on
relating to permitted load and limit speed – there the respective switch position. In this case, the
is a mandatory pause (minimum duration: 50 electronic control unit responds solely to
seconds) following an activation time (maximum changes in the switch setting, not to changes in
permitted value: 5090 seconds). the load or the ignition being switched ON/OFF.
Bit = 1: sets a traction help type in which a time limit is Bit = 1: which means the lifting axle is controlled with a
possible but is no longer mandatory. The traction spring-returned 3-position button that is in a
help is essentially only limited by load and neutral position when not actuated. Depending
speed. on the position of the button, a command pulse
A button is generally used for activating of the traction is sent to the ECU to raise or lower the lifting
help types described here. axle. The button then automatically returns to the
neutral position.
Regarding 6x2 DV vehicles, there may be a second
switch input provided - referred to as the Traction help Combination switch for lifting/trailing axle control
enable - in vehicles which have a lifting axle that is not and traction help
sensed with regard to pressure. In this case, the switch
must be actuated when the traction help is activated. This option bit is closely related to the option bit
described previously.
Traction help Northern
Bit = 0: activates manual lifting/trailing axle control,
This option bit is closely related to the option bit which has already been explained in the
described previously. explanatory text for the previous option bit.
Bit = 0: activates the traction help as described in the
explanatory text for the previous option bit. Bit = 1: which means the lifting axle is controlled by
means of a combination switch. This switch
Bit = 1: activates a traction help type that operates combines the functions of a switch for manual
without limits that can be set in the parameters. lifting/trailing axle control (↑ Option bits, bit = 0)
Activation and deactivation is controlled by the and a spring-returned traction help switch.
driver using a switch.

90
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

2. normal level via switch/button or 2nd normal level limit parameters for the pressure sensor) below which it
via limit speed is possible for the driver to use a switch or the remote
control unit to raise and lower the lifting axle or transfer
The level can be adjusted to normal level II by using
the load onto/off the trailing axle within a specified limit
either a switch/button or in relation to speed.
speed. The lifting axle is automatically lowered or the
Bit = 0: which means normal level II is initiated by means load transferred onto the trailing axle if the set supporting
of a switch/button input. bellows pressure on the driving axle is exceeded.
Traction help cannot be organised in this mode.
Bit = 1: assumes that normal level I will be applied as the
nominal value. If a specified speed is exceeded, If bit = 1 is set, fully automatic lifting/trailing axle control is
the ECU applies normal level II as the new preselected. This setting allows automatic lowering of the
nominal value during driving. If the speed drops lifting axle/increasing the weight on the trailing axle when
below another specified speed, which must be a defined maximum pressure in the supporting bellows
slower than the one mentioned above, normal on the driving axle is reached, and raising of the lifting
level I is once again taken as the nominal value axle/reducing the weight on the trailing axle when the
and applied accordingly. pressure in the supporting bellows falls below a defined
minimum value. A pressure sensor in the system is
2. Normal level via switch or essential in this case. Traction help can only be
2nd normal level via 3-position switch organised if fully automatic lifting/trailing axle control was
selected. Provided the maximum supporting bellows
This option bit is closely related to the previously pressure (which, if exceeded, causes the lifting axle to be
described option bit and takes effect when the previously lowered automatically or the load to be automatically
described bit = 0. transferred to the trailing axle) has not yet been
exceeded, the fully automatic function can be switched
Bit = 0: expects the connection of a switch; in this case, OFF using the "Lower lifting axle/Load trailing axle"
the level is adjusted to normal level in command and switched back ON again using the "Raise
accordance with the switch position. lifting axle/Relieve trailing axle" command.
Bit = 1: expects a 3-position switch to be connected, in
STOP button without effect on lifting axle movement
which case the normal level is applied in
or STOP button reverses lifting axle movement
accordance with the previously selected normal
level. The 3-position switch is in a neutral Bit = 0: the STOP button on the remote control unit
position when not actuated. interrupts all control processes regarding level
adjustment. The STOP button does not normally
Permanently activate fault lamp on minor faults or have any effect on ongoing control processes of
briefly activate fault lamp in the event of minor faults the lifting/trailing axle.
ECAS acknowledges minor faults (faults which permit Bit = 1: it is possible to intervene in an ongoing lifting/
ECAS to operate with restrictions without shutting down trailing axle control function provided that no
the system) by the fault lamp lighting up with a steady speed is detected and that this function does not
light. lead to overloads. By pressing the STOP button
Bit = 0: the fault lamp comes on permanently if a minor within 5 seconds of a lifting/trailing axle
fault occurs. movement initiation, this movement can be
reversed.
Bit = 1: the fault lamp comes on if a minor fault occurs;
the lamp remains on for only a few seconds and Pressure sensors with an output voltage of 4.5 V at
then goes out. This function is selected so the 10 bar or pressure sensors with an output voltage of
driver is not irritated by a permanently lit fault 5.5 V at 10 bar
lamp.
There are different generations of pressure sensor, the
major difference between them being their digital
Manual lifting/trailing axle control or fully automatic
resolution (↑ 6.1.3 "Pressure sensor"). Although the
lifting/trailing axle control
pressure parameters are entered as count values in the
If bit = 0: it is possible to perform a manual (also semi- following parameters if required, this distinction is still
automatic) lifting axle control. In this case, ECAS can be made. The reason is that the pressure values are output
equipped with pressure switches or pressure sensors to to diagnostic tools (Diagnostic Controller or PC) as real
detect the axle load. A limit pressure is specified for the pressure values. It is necessary to state the ECU
system i. e., the switch point of the pressure switch or

91
9. ECAS Setting parameters

resolution for conversion of the count values used for • Lifting axle with pressure sensing in the lifting bellows
output of pressures as real pressure values. • Lifting axle without pressure sensing in the lifting
bellows
Bit = 0: for pressure sensors which, at 10 bar, have a
• Hydraulic lifting axle device
voltage output of 5.5 volt to the signal line. 1
count then corresponds to 1/20 bar ( = 0.05 bar).
The statements made here and in the two following
Pressure sensors with this resolution have
option bits permit a definitive assignment.
Schlemmer (KOSTAL) bayonet connections.
Bit = 0: means this system either has a lifting axle
Bit = 1: for pressure sensors which, at 10 bar, have a
without a pressure sensor, or a lifting axle with a
voltage output of 4,5 volt to the signal line.
hydraulic lifting axle device, or a trailing axle.
1 count then corresponds to 1/16 bar (=
0.0625 bar). Pressure sensors with this
Bit = 1: means this system has lifting bellows with a
resolution have DIN bayonet connections and pressure sensor.
are the current standard version which is also
used in EBS systems. Lifting axle with pressure sensing in the air bellows.
Lifting axle without pressure sensing in the air
4x2 vehicle without pressure sensors or bellows. Trailing axle or hydraulic lifting device
4x2 vehicles with pressure sensors (tyre impression
compensation) This option bit is closely related to the previous and next
option bits.
In vehicles without a lifting axle, it may be desirable to use
tyre impression compensation. In this case, pressure Bit = 0: means this system either has a trailing axle or a
sensors are connected to the electronic control unit. The lifting axle with or without a pressure sensor.
ECU connections for controlling the lifting/trailing axle are
not assigned/wired in this case. This parameter prevents Bit = 1: means this system has a hydraulic lifting device.
faults being detected without reason (e. g. interruption of
the directional control valve 2/2 for the lifting axle). Lifting axle with pressure sensing in the air bellows.
Hydraulic lifting device. Trailing axle or lifting axle
Bit = 0: means that no tyre impression compensation is with pressure sensing in the air bellows
desired for the vehicle.
This option bit is closely related to the two previous option
Bit = 1: means that tyre impression compensation is bits.
possible – parameters for the required
benchmark data are set later. Bit = 0: means this system either has a lifting axle with a
pressure sensor, or a lifting axle with a hydraulic
9.3.2.2 Option bits 6x2 DV (additional) lifting axle device, or a trailing axle.
For 6x2 vehicles (i.e. 6x2 vehicles with pressure ratio
Bit = 1: means this system has lifting bellows without a
control), some option bits are used which are very
pressure sensor.
specific to pressure ratio/traction control. Next to these,
there are still option bits as used in 4x2 and 6x2 vehicles;
Manual traction help
these will not be explained again at this point. Typical
option bits used exclusively in 6x2DV vehicles, concern This option bit is closely related to the option bit for
topics such as of pressure ratio control, traction control, defining the traction help type described in section
bellow sensors, etc. 8.5.2.2 "Option Bits 6x2 (additional)".

Lifting axle without pressure sensing in the air Manual traction help is a special type of traction help
bellows. Hydraulic lifting device. Trailing axle or which can only be implemented in 6x2 DV vehicles
lifting axle with pressure sensing elements in air because in this case the supporting bellows of the driving
bellows axle and the lifting axle are equipped with pressure
sensors. The supporting bellows pressure on the driving
This informs the system whether the system includes a axle can be infinitely varied, in contrast to the traction
trailing or a lifting axle. Furthermore, ECAS is informed
help types described above which always have a fixed
how raising/lowering of the lifting axle should be maximum permitted limit pressure setting on the driving
organised. On the basis of this definition, ECAS activates
axle – when the lifting axle is not completely raised or
one of the three modes for lifting or lowering the lifting does not have the complete load transferred off it – and
axle:
the remaining load is carried by the lifting axle. A traction

92
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

help button and a lifting axle switch (LIFT/LOWER lifting once again taken as the nominal value and applied
axle) are required in order to perform manual traction accordingly. The switch can also be used to determine
help control. The traction help is activated using the whether normal level I or III will be adopted as the desired
traction help button. The load on the driving axle is level and applied accordingly. These two functions can
increased in this case by pressing the traction help button lead to the following conflicting situations:
again. Reduction is effected by bringing the lifting axle
switch into the position "Lifting axle LOWERING". In – the switch is in the "Control normal level III" position
order to stop the change in position, the traction help and the vehicle exceeds the limit speed at which
button must be released and the lifting axle switch must ECAS should control normal level II
be in the neutral position. – the vehicle is moving with a speed at which ECAS
adjusts the level to normal level II as the desired level,
Another parameter can be used to define whether the and the driver moves the switch to the "Normal level
pressures set manually here for the traction help should III" position.
be saved and for possible retrieval when the traction help
is next used. In order to resolve this conflict, the electronic control unit
is informed which desired level control should be given
Bit = 0: activates the traction help as described in the priority.
explanatory text for the previous option bits.
Traction help type Germany, Outside Germany, Bit = 0: if the switch is in the "Normal level III" position or
or Northern. it is moved to this position, the level is always
adjusted to normal level III regardless of the
Bit = 1: activates the manual traction help. speed at which the vehicle is moving. If the
switch is in the "Normal level I" position, the level
Do not raise lifting axle while traction help is active or is adjusted to either normal level I or II,
lift lifting axle while traction help is active depending on the speed at which the vehicle is
travelling.
Normally, ECAS attempts to raise the lifting axle when
the traction help is activated, provided the upper load limit Bit = 1: if the vehicle exceeds the speed at which the
on the driving axle is not exceeded. It may be a good level should be adjusted to normal level II, the
idea, in vehicles used on construction sites for example, level is always adjusted to normal level II
to leave the lifting axle on the ground at all times when regardless of the switch position. If the vehicle
traction help is activated (in order to improve traction) speed drops below the speed at which the level
since this gives the vehicle greater stability. should be adjusted back to normal level I, the
level is adjusted to either normal level I or III,
Bit = 0: the lifting axle is lifted when traction help is
depending on the switch position.
activated, subject to the load limit (standard).

Bit = 1: the lifting axle remains on the ground when


traction help is activated. Start of traction help via actuated switch to ground
and an actuated switch to +UB
3. Normal level via switch has priority over 2nd Normally, the traction help is activated when a switch/
normal level via limit speed. button is connected to ground. 6x2 DV vehicles without
2nd normal level via switch has priority over 3rd sensors on the lifting bellows represent an exception to
normal level via switch this rule (vehicles with a trailing axle, without lifting
It is possible to control other levels either via speed bellows sensing elements, or with a hydraulic lifting axle
(normal level II) or via switch (normal level III). raising device). In these vehicles, a switch (enable switch
for traction help) is connected to +UB on the ECU pin for
In this configuration, normal level II is exclusively the signal line of the lifting bellows pressure sensor. This
controlled via speed and normal level III (alternating with switch must be closed in addition to the traction help
normal level I) via a switch. It is assumed that the level button before the traction help can be activated.
will be adjusted to normal level I at speeds below a
specified speed limit. If this specified speed is exceeded, Bit = 0: activates traction help only by means of the
the electronic control unit adjusts to normal level II as the traction help button / switch (normal situation).
new nominal value during driving operation. If the speed Bit = 1: means the traction help enable switch must be
drops below another specified speed, which must be actuated first, before traction help can be
slower than the one mentioned above, normal level I is activated via the traction help button/switch.

93
9. ECAS Setting parameters

Enabling traction help without second switching connected to UBATT. (↑ 7.8 "System description ECAS
input or 6x2 DV")
via second switching input
The "Release parking brake on the front axle when
Some systems have an additional traction help enable raising/lowering" function is activated when the lift or
function switched on ECU pin 24. (↑ System description lower button on the remote control unit is pressed. It is of
6x2 DV) interest in vehicles in which the parking brake also acts
on the front axle. In this case, a solenoid valve in the front
Bit = 0: means there is no traction help enabling
axle parking brake circuit is controlled in order to release
function
the parking brake on the front axle. This avoids any frame
Bit = 1: means there is a switchable traction help enable distortion due to the raising or lower procedure and thus
function on UBATT the associated incorrect performance of the lifting /
lowering function.
Traction control or pressure ratio control
The "With LSV solenoid valve" function mentioned here
In 6x2 DV vehicles, the bellows pressure control on the causes a solenoid valve to be activated for securing the
driving axle can function as traction control or pressure "laden" information on LSV controller.
ratio control. A pressure ratio/traction switch, which is
connected to ground, can be used to select which of the Bit = 0: means the Release parking brake on the front
two control concepts should be in effect. This option bit axle when raising/lowering function is supported.
determines which of the two control concepts is in effect
when the switch is open. If the switch is closed, the other Bit = 1: means the the function With LSV valve is
control concept takes effect. supported.

Bit = 0: means traction control is operational when the Switch off the valve with "Release parking brake on
pressure ratio/traction switch is open. the front axle when raising/lowering" function at the
Bit = 1: means pressure ration control is operational end of lifting or lowering using the STOP button, or
when the pressure ratio/traction switch is open. switch off the valve with "Release parking brake on
the front axle when raising/lowering" function using
Without LSV valve / without valve Release parking on the STOP button.
the front axle when lifting/lowering, or with This parameter is closely related to the previous
corresponding valves parameter and describes how the release function of the
This parameter defines whether a switch signal that parking brake is deactivated again.
triggers a solenoid valve should be output on electronic
Bit = 0: means the release function is automatically
control unit pin 29 in specific circumstances. In this case,
switched off at the end of the lifting or lowering
electronic control unit pin 29 is assigned a double
procedure.
function. On the one hand, the "Release parking brake on
the front axle when raising/lowering" function is Bit = 1: means the STOP button on the remote control
supported,"With LSV" function on the other hand. unit must be pressed in order to terminate the
release function – only then would the front axle
Bit = 0: means no switch signal UBATT is output on
be braked again.
electronic control unit pin 29.

Bit = 1: means a switch signal UBATT is output on Without memory function for axle loads in the case of
electronic control unit pin 29. manual traction help, or with memory functions
This option bit is closely related to the option bit for
Valve with multifunction "Release parking brake manual traction help described above.
front axle when lifting/lowering", or
valve with multifunction "LSV" With manual traction help, the traction help button and
the "RAISE/LOWER lifting axle" lifting axle switch is used
The parameter is closely related to the previous
for setting an individual pressure ratio between the
parameter.
supporting bellows on the driving axle and the lifting axle.
This parameter defines the assignment of ECU pin 29 With this option bit, it is possible to decide whether it
with a double function. Depending on which bit has been should be possible to recall this pressure ratio indefinitely
set, the described function is covered by the pin via the traction help switch when traction help is activated
(press the button for < 2 seconds).

94
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

Bit = 0: means that a recall of the individual pressure control unit. Access via the CAN message
ratio last set between the supporting bellows on FFR_1 is not permitted.
the driven and the lifting axles in the event of
manual traction help function is desired. 4x2/6x4 vehicle without overload lowering, or
with overload lowering
Bit = 1: means that a recall of the individual pressure
ratio last set between the supporting bellows on This defines whether an overload shall be detected in
the driven and the lifting axles in the event of 4x2/6x4 vehicles (i.e., vehicles without a lifting or trailing
manual traction help function is not desired. axle), causing the vehicle body to be lowered onto the
buffers.
Automatic, load-dependent lowering of the lifting
Bit = 0: means that no lowering onto the buffers is
axle, or No automatic, load-dependent lowering of
initiated when an overload is detected.
the lifting axle
Bit = 0: a fully automatic lifting axle control can be Bit = 1: means that lowering onto the buffers is initiated
implemented. This setting allows automatic when an overload is detected. The driving axle
lowering of the lifting axle, or increasing the load must be equipped with pressure sensors in order
on the trailing axle, when a defined maximum for this function to be used. The ECAS electronic
pressure in the supporting bellows is reached control unit obtain information regarding the
and lifting of the lifting axle, or reducing the load loading condition via the CAN data bus, or from
on the trailing axle, when the pressure in the a pressure sensor directly connected to the
supporting bellows falls below a defined electronic control unit.
minimum value.
Front axle with pressure sensor, or
Bit = 1: deactivates the fully automatic lifting axle control without pressure sensor
and only permits the lifting axle to be controlled
Sensing the front axle is required if axle load data
using switches or the remote control unit.
acquisition, via pressure sensors, for the overall vehicle
has been set. In the case of this setting, ECAS expects a
9.3.2.3 Option bits 4x2/6x2 CAN (additional)
load on the pressure sensor port for the front axle.
In 4x2/6x2 CAN vehicles (i. e. vehicles with control via the
CAN bus), certain option bits with functions designed Bit = 0: means the front axle is equipped with a pressure
specifically for systems with CAN data bus connection sensor.
are used. Next to these, option bits as used in 4x2-/6x2
vehicles, as well as 6x2 DV vehicles are also present; Bit = 1: means that the front axle is not sensed with
these will not be explained again at this point. Typical regard to pressure.
option bits which are exclusively seen in 4x2/6x2 CAN
vehicles relate to the topics of intervention via CAN Trailing axle or leading axle
messages, load information via pressure sensor or as This bit must be viewed in relation to the Lifting axle/
CAN message, various fault and measured value outputs Trailing axle option bit and describes the position of the
via CAN data bus, etc. axle in more detail. It is only relevant in 6x2 vehicles.

Functions according to FFR_1 and remote control Bit = 0: means the lifting/trailing axle is located
unit, or Functions only via buttons/switches/remote downstream of the driving axle.
control unit
Bit = 1: means the lifting/trailing axle is located upstream
This defines how the user is allowed to intervene in the
of the driving axle.
system. In this case, FFR_1 is the name of the CAN
message containing the action commands for ECAS (e.g.
Reference level for normal level II - normal level I, or
lifting, lowering, etc.)
reference level for normal level II - lower calibration
Bit = 0: means the user can intervene in the system by position"
means of a CAN message or by means of the The normal level II (NL II) is always entered as a
remote control unit. differential value. This determines whether NL II should
be entered as a differential from normal level I or from the
Bit = 1: means that the user has the option, as was the lower calibration level (also: lower level or lowest level).
case in older systems, to intervene in the system
by means of buttons, switches, or the remote

95
9. ECAS Setting parameters

Bit = 0: means normal level II is entered as a differential signalled commands. If the "Lift vehicle body" command
relative to normal level I. is signalled, for example, then the electronic control unit
checks, after a specified time, whether the count values
Bit = 1: means normal level II is entered as a differential received from the distance sensor are increasing. If they
relative to the lowest level I. remain the same (e. g. insufficient supply pressure in the
system), or indeed drop (e. g. distance sensor lever has
ECAS with pressure sensors, or load info from EBS overturned), then the electronic control unit identifies this
This defines the origin of the loading condition as implausible behaviour.
information. It defines whether the electronic control unit
This detected fault would be indicated in identifier DM1,
obtains the information via hardware (pressure sensors
provided it is enabled in this option bit. The fault would
connected to the electronic control unit) or via software
also be stored in the diagnostic memory in this case.
(CAN message from the EBS electronic control unit).
Bit = 0: means plausibility error warning is possible.
Bit = 0: means that the electronic control unit obtains the
information from pressure sensors. Bit = 1: means no plausibility error warning is possible
and the fault is not stored in the diagnostic
Bit = 1: means the load condition information is memory.
transmitted from the EBS electronic control unit
to the ECAS ECU. All the most important option parameters have now been
discussed. An exact description of the parameters is only
Without measured value output via ID 889/890/891 possible if the part number of the electronic control unit is
or with measured value output known. Only then is it possible to describe accurately the
effect the parameters have in the specific system.
Measured values can be output in the identifiers (CAN
message) 889/890/891 during normal ECAS operation
and they can be displayed if a suitable diagnostic device 9.3.3 Value parameters
is available. The CAN message DM4, which contains The most important value parameters are described in
information about current and non-current faults and the following section. Whereas the option parameters
other information, cannot be sent in the measured value describe a qualitative condition, the value parameters
output status however. specify the quantitative value of a setting. For example,
the type of traction help is defined as an option
The measured value output mode should be reset if it is parameter, while setting this traction help type is done in
no longer required.
the value parameters.
Bit = 0: means normal mode The formulation of parameters with the same function
may vary in different electronic control units. This
Bit = 1: means measured value output mode is set situation is taken into consideration by alternative
formulations being listed in brackets after the parameter
With reception of identifier ECAM1, names.
or without reception
One section is devoted to explaining parameters that can
Identifier ECAM1 transmits information about the supply
be set separately on the front and rear axle.
pressure in the air suspension system to the ECAS ECU.
In conjunction with the information about the engine
Difference between normal level I and normal level II
speed (identifier EEC1), the electronic control unit is able
front or rear
to detect that there is a leak within a defined supply
pressure range of the air suspension system if a lifting This parameter describes the level which takes effect on
control function was not completed within a specified the front or driving axle when the NL II switch is actuated
time. or the normal level button on the remote control unit is
pressed when NL II is selected on the NL II switch.
Bit = 0: means leakage detection is possible
If the level meant to be higher than NL I, a value between
Bit = 1: means leakage detection is not possible 0 and 99 counts is entered. This value is then added to
the value for normal level I.
With plausibility error fault warning in DM1,
or without fault warning The parameter must be set greater than 100 if the level is
meant to be lower. The value above 100 is then
Plausibility errors are faults detected by the ECAS ECU
when distance sensor reactions do not match the

96
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

subtracted from the normal level I to give the new nominal lowered. If it is assumed that the calibration (including
value. Input is made in counts. the lower level) is performed when the vehicle is unladen,
it must also be ensured that the lowest possible level to
Difference between normal level II and (offset = -125) which even the fully laden vehicle may be lowered is
normal level I / Lower calibration level front or rear represented by the buffers. Due to the greater dead
(for vehicles with 1 st generation ECAS 4x2/6x2 CAN) weight, this desired lower level for the fully laden vehicle
would be below the lower level calibrated when the
A few special aspects have to be considered in vehicles
vehicle was in unladen condition.
with 1 st generation ECAS 4x2/6x2 CAN.
The parameter to select for input is greater than 100.
The entry is made taking into account of an offset of 125
Because the input value is greater than 100, the
counts. This significantly alters the philosophy for
electronic control unit detects case A, "Rubber buffer". It
entering values. The input value (IV) is calculated as the
uses the input value to calculate a limit value (input value
difference between the normal level II (NL II) and the
minus 100) which is internally added to the calibrated
reference level (RL, i. e. normal level I or the lower level)
lower level. While the vehicle body is positioned within
plus the offset 125:
the determined range, plausibility fault recognition is
Input value = NL II - RN + 125 suppressed.

Therefore, if NL II is meant to be above the reference The main criterion for cancelling bellows venting is the
level, the value <125 must be entered. If NL II is meant to electronic control unit no longer detecting a change in
be below the reference level, the value to be entered height within a parameterised time period. This means it
must be >125. is possible to move to levels below the calibrated lower
level.
Example 1: A NL II is meant to be 10 cts. above the NL I:
The level thus reached is then assumed to be the new
RN = NL I = 100 cts. desired level.
NL II = 100 - 10 = 90 cts.
Recommendation: If calibration is done on the unladen
IV = 90 - 100 + 125 = 115 cts.
vehicle, a value between 110 and 125 should be chosen
Input parameter: 115 counts
for this parameter to ensure that no plausibility error is
Example 2: A NLII is meant to be 10 cts. below the NL I: detected even when the vehicle is in a tilting position and
thus resting on the buffers on one side only. If calibration
is done on the laden vehicle, a value between 120 and
RN = NL I = 100 cts.
135 is reasonable.
NL II = 100 + 10 = 110 cts.
IV = 110 - 100 + 125 = 135 cts. Case B: Lower height limit is above the rubber buffer.
Input parameter: 135 counts
In order to avoid abrasion of the rubber buffer in the
Entering ZERO would thus give a NL II that is 125 counts supporting bellows, thereby causing wear debris to
below the reference level. spread in the air lines, it may be desirable to prevent
lowering of the vehicle body onto the rubber buffers.
Limit for detecting plausibility errors on the front axle
or on the rear axle The parameter to select for input is less than 100.
Because the input value is less than 100, the electronic
This parameter defines a value for the distance sensor
control unit detects case B, "Limit above the rubber
which, when exceeded while the vehicle body is being
buffer". The input value represents a limit value which is
lowered, will not cause the electronic control to detect a
internally added to the calibrated lower level. While the
plausibility error. Depending on the definition of the
vehicle body is positioned within the determined range,
lowest permissible level, the function of the parameter
plausibility fault recognition is suppressed analogous to
varies:
case A.
Case A: The rubber buffer is meant to be the lower
The main criteria for cancelling bellow venting is the
height limit (lowest possible limit).
vehicle body having reached the lower level.
In order to ensure the vehicle remains stable, it may be
The level thus reached is then assumed to be the new
desirable to define the rubber buffers as the absolute
desired level.
lowest possible level to which the vehicle body can be

97
9. ECAS Setting parameters

Permissible desired level tolerance on the front axle Minor deviations cause constant pulsing of the solenoid
or the rear axle valves during the control process and should therefore be
avoided. Input is made in counts.
The tolerance value to be entered describes the
permissible value by which the vehicle body may move
Permissible level increase 7 s after starting a drive or
above or below each desired level to be controlled on the
when the unloading level function is activated
front and rear axle. The tolerance range, within which a
nominal value is considered as having been set, is If required, desired level control occurs at certain time
therefore twice the entered value. intervals while driving (interval length = control delay
when stationary - default setting: 6060 seconds or freely
This parameter setting also determines, together with the adjustable parameter). It may well be that the vehicle is
proportional and differential coefficients or the self-taught still being unloaded when it starts moving. In this case,
control characteristics, the control quality of the system the distance between the vehicle body and the axle
on the rear axle. (↑ 4.1 Control algorithm for levelling increases and is therefore above the desired level. In the
control) worst case, an adjustment did not occur until 60 s later.

Input is made in counts. The entered value must be This parameter contains the permissible value by which
greater than 2 … 3 counts (depending on the system). the vehicle body distance above the axle may exceed the
desired level. 7 7 seconds after the vehicle starts moving,
Permissible right/left deviation at desired level ECAS checks whether the distance "desired level +
permissible value for exceeding desired level" has been
This parameter only takes effect in systems with two exceeded on all distance sensors in the system. If this
distance sensors at the rear axle. It indicates the condition is detected, the level is immediately adjusted to
permissible inclination of the body when the load the desired level.
distribution is biased towards one side. Input is made in
counts. The parameter should not be ZERO, otherwise an
adjustment would be triggered each time the value is
Permissible right/left deviation exceed even by a minimal value as soon as 7 s have
when lifting/lowering elapsed after starting the drive. Input is made in counts.

This parameter only relates to axles with two distance Vehicle speed up to which targeted height changes
sensors. In contrast to the aforementioned parameters, are possible
the control procedure is specified during substantial level
changes (lifting/lowering). On a vehicle with a greater The parameter describes the speed limit up to which
load on one side, the side which has less weight on it will "lifting/lowering" or "M1/M2" commands from the remote
be raised more rapidly than the other (or the side with the control unit are accepted. If this speed is exceeded, the
heavier load will be lowered more rapidly), thus causing desired level set via the remote control unit is retained
a dangerous inclination as the level is being changed. and can no longer be changed via the remote control unit
.
More even lifting is achieved by reducing the
pressurisation of the less loaded bellows (pressure Control to the last preselected normal level occurs in the
pulsing). More even lowering is achieved by reducing parameter "Vehicle speed above which the normal level
venting of the more loaded bellows (pressure pulsing). is activated automatically" (explained below). The value
for the parameter "Vehicle speed up to which the targeted
Permissible front/rear deviation height changes are possible" must be smaller than the
when lifting/lowering parameter "Vehicle speed above which the normal level
is activated automatically".
When the level of the fully air-suspended vehicle
changes, the body is supposed to reach the new desired
Control delay when stationary
level simultaneously at the front and the rear. That
section of the body above the axle which has the shorter The parameter defines a period for which the distance
path to the new desired value is lifted/lowered at a sensor signals must have been persistently outside the
correspondingly slower rate. permissible desired level tolerance range to trigger a
readjustment.
This parameter determines the permissible path
differential between the distance sensors at front and
rear for the control process to occur.

98
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

Pulse repetition period T deviation. Thus, a proportionality factor – the proportional


coefficient KP – must be provided to the ECU so that it
In systems where control characteristics must be
can compute the pulse length.
entered, this parameter defines the length of a pulsing
period for desired level control. The proportional coefficient KP is dependent on the
system configuration and must be determined by trials
The standard setting is a pulse repetition period of 12
and then defined more precisely. This the vehicle
counts (= 300 ms). Input values are in steps of 25 ms per
manufacturer's responsibility and is usually not required
count. Input is made in counts.
for servicing. It is determined as follows:
The pulse period is the interval between two actuating
1. Set parameters "Permitted deviation right/left in the
pulses to the directional control valves 2/2 inside the
desired levels", "Permitted deviation right/left outside
ECAS solenoid valve. The actuation period of the
the desired levels" and "Permitted deviation front/
directional control valves 2/2 is determined by the ECU
rear outside the desired levels" to "255"
on the basis of the control parameter deviation and the
speed at which the control parameter deviation changes.
Set parameter "Pulse repetition period T" to  12
If the computed actuation period is equal to, or greater Set parameter "Tolerance of desired level front /
than, the entered pulse repetition period, the directional rear" to  3 … 5 or possibly up to 7
control valves 2/2 are energised continuously. A detailed
description is found in chapter 5.1. 2. Determine a (starting) value for KP according to the
formula:
Buffer recognition time KP = (Parameter "Pulse repetition period" - 2) /
The parameter is closely related to the parameter (Parameter "Tolerance for desired level at front"
"Plausibility check when lowering at the front or rear". It or "… rear" - 1)
defines the time in which the ECU should recognise the
3. Determine the parameter to be entered according to
lower stop (rubber buffer).
the formula:
If no change in distance is detected within this time Parameter to enter = KP x 3 (round off the result to
following output of the command "lower vehicle body", a whole number)
and the body distance above the axle is at a level (Note: With this value, the slowest raising rate and
corresponding to the setting in the parameter "Plausibility the smallest desired level deviation to be controlled
check when lowering at the front or rear", pulsing of the would just cause the ECAS solenoid valve to be
ECAS solenoid valve is stopped. energised continuously.)

Pulse divider 4. Calibrate the vehicle

In conjunction with the parameters "Permitted deviation 5. Move vehicle to a level below the nominal value
right/left outside the desired levels" and "Permitted tolerance for the current normal level, followed by the
deviation front/rear outside the desired levels", this "normal level" command (via remote control unit).
parameter specifies the portion of a period during which Check: Does the vehicle body move to the normal
the faster moving body side during the raising/lowering level without excessive oscillation (overshooting)
process is switched off or only pulse-pressurised. and without the solenoid valve pulsing?

Pulse times below 75 ms are not executed. 6. Result:


If the value "255" is entered, the solenoid valve on the YES: KP is OK and does not need to be changed
faster moving side is closed until the vehicle body has Body overshoots; reduce the KD value
returned to within the permissible tolerance. (increase desired level tolerance if necessary)
Solenoid valves pulsing: Increase the KP value

Proportional coefficient KPV or KPH for desired level 7. Continue as described under 5. after making any
control at the front (also: on the front axle) or at the necessary corrections.
rear (also: on the rear axle)
If you cannot find a compromise setting, i. e. the tendency
The proportional coefficient KP is a basic value for ECAS of the vehicle body to overshoot cannot be overcome
control of nominal values. It is used to compute the pulse within a reasonable nominal value tolerance range by
length during levelling control. The pulse length to be altering the KD value setting, then the recommended
computed is proportional to the existing desired level course of action is to optimise the cross-section (e. g.

99
9. ECAS Setting parameters

narrowing) of the pneumatic lines between solenoid valve normal level III on the front or rear axle. The entry is made
and supporting bellows (smaller line cross-section or in counts.
throttle).
If normal level II is to be higher than normal level I, a value
IMPORTANT: The value is entered in thirds of counts. between 0 and 99 counts is entered. The value entered
is then added to normal level I.
In vehicles with self-learning control function, this and the
following parameter no longer have to be determined and If normal level III is meant to be lower than normal level I
entered. then parameter 24 must be specified as greater than 100.
Normal level III is then calculated as: Normal level I -
Differential coefficient KPV or KPH for desired level Parameter + 100.
control
or on the rear axle) Vehicle speed which, when exceeded, automatically
triggers adjustment to normal level II.
The differential coefficient KD is one of the basic values
for ECAS nominal value control. The period of time in This and the following parameter are closely related and
which the ECAS valve solenoid is energised while the are set in vehicles which have a speed-dependent control
vehicle body is being raised can be shortened as a ratio setting from normal level I to normal level II and back
of the speed at which the control deviation is being again. This function must be activated in the
changed. This serves to slow down the lifting process in corresponding option parameter.
the event of major deviations in the desired levels, and so
to prevent overshooting. In order to shorten this pulse If the speed set in this parameter is exceeded, the
length, the electronic control unit has to be provided with electronic control unit sets normal level II automatically
a factor – the differential coefficient KD. as the nominal value during driving. The entry is made in
km/h.
The differential coefficient KD is dependent on the system
configuration and has to be determined by trials and must Vehicle speed which, when exceeded, automatically
then be defined more precisely. This the vehicle triggers adjustment to normal level I.
manufacturer's responsibility and is usually not required
This parameter is closely related to the one described
for servicing. It is determined as follows:
previously and specifies a speed at which, if the vehicle's
1. Determine a starting value according to the formula: speed falls below that speed, normal level I is set.
KD = Proportional coefficient KP x 2 This function must be activated in the corresponding
option parameter. The parameter is the inverse function
2. Bring the vehicle into a major nominal value
of the parameter described above and must be set lower
deviation below the normal level, followed by the
than the parameter described above. The entry is made
"normal level" command (via remote control unit).
in km/h.
Check: Does the vehicle body move to the normal
level without overshooting and without the solenoid
Control delay when driving
valve pulsing?
This parameter is used in vehicles with ECAS 4x2/6x2
3. Result: CAN. The time interval at which the desired level is
YES: KD is OK and does not need to be changed controlled while the vehicle is in motion can be set by this
Vehicle body overshoots: Increase the KD value parameter. It is set to 60 s in electronic control units in
(note that KD should not exceed 4 x KP) which this value cannot be set in the parameters.
The entry is made in seconds.
4. Continue as described under 2. after making any
necessary corrections. Permitted (mean) pressure on the driving axle at
which the lifting axle is lowered or the weight on the
The value is entered as the pulse repetition period per trailing axle increased.
thirds of counts.
This parameter is an important parameter for 6x2
Normal level III to normal level I on the front axle or vehicles with pressure equalising control.
on the rear axle
It describes the lowering pressure in the supporting
This parameter is used in vehicles with a third driving bellows on the leading axle. When this pressure is
level (e. g. 6x2 DV) and parameter 24 describes the exceeded, automatic lifting axle control becomes
effective. As a consequence, the lifting axle is lowered

100
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

and thus the axle load distributed across the main and parameters, to the ECAS electronic control unit by means
lifting axle. of a connected pressure sensor or via the CAN line as
axle load information. In vehicles with EBS, for example,
The specified pressure must not lead to the permitted information about the loading condition is output via the
axle load on the main axle being exceeded. This axle load information.
permitted axle load is specified by the axle manufacturer.
After the lifting axle has been lowered, the pressure in the The description of the parameter corresponds to the
supporting bellows falls below the specified value! description of the previous parameter.

Section 4.2 provides more detailed information. Input is Permissible mean overload pressure
provided in steps, depending on the type of pressure on the driving axle
sensor used, of 1/16 (standard value) or 1/20 bar per
count. Input is made in counts. The parameter describes the pressure level in the
supporting bellows of the main axle which may never be
In vehicles with a CAN enabled electronic control unit, it exceeded because this would involve the risk of
may occur that the permissible pressure on the driving overloading the axle or the air suspension bellows. If the
axle with activated traction help is made known to the pressure sensor measures a higher value than the value
electronic control unit via calibration. described here, any further increase in the pressure is
prevented, and the vehicle body is lowered onto the
buffers.
Permissible (mean) pressure on the driving axle at
which the lifting axle/trailing axle relief is possible When this happens, reducing the axle load (unloading)
and switching the ignition off and on again will induce a
This parameter is an important parameter for 6x2
return to normal operating conditions.
vehicles with pressure ratio control and is closely related
to the previous parameter. If the system includes a pressure sensor, the parameter
may never be set to 0 because this would cause ECAS to
It specifies the pressure at which the lifting axle is lifted
lower the vehicle until it rests on the buffers. If this
automatically. The axle load is distributed between the
function, referred to as overload protection is not
main axle and the lifting axle. The pressure in the
required, the value should be set to 255.
supporting bellows of the axle in contact with the ground
drops in accordance with the new axle load distribution Section 4.1 provides more detailed information. Input is
after the lifting axle has been lowered. provided in steps, depending on the type of pressure
sensor used, of 1/16 (standard value) or 1/20 bar per
The pressure value to be set in the parameters must be
count. Input is made in counts.
less than the previous parameter. Strictly speaking, it
must be even less than the supporting bellows pressure
established after lowering of the lifting axle in order to Permissible mean overload pressure (overload)
avoid constant lowering and raising of the lifting axle. on the driving axle

Input is provided in steps, depending on the type of This parameter is found in vehicles with CAN electronic
pressure sensor used, of 1/16 (standard value) or 1/20 control units and serves the same function as the
bar per count. Input is made in counts. previously described parameter for conventional ECAS
electronic control units.

Mean load on driving axle up to which relief of lifting In this parameter it is merely taken into consideration that
axle/tag axle is still possible. the information about the loading condition of the vehicle
or mean pressure can be sent to the ECAS electronic control unit, in
accordance with the setting in the option parameters, via
This parameter occurs in vehicles with CAN electronic
a connected pressure sensor or via the CAN line as part
control units and serves the same function as the
of the axle load information. In vehicles with EBS, for
previously described parameter for conventional ECAS
example, information about the loading condition is
electronic control units.
output via the axle load information.
This parameter merely takes account of the situation that
The description of the parameter corresponds to the
the information about the load status of the vehicle can be
description of the previous parameter.
sent,in accordance with the setting in the option

101
9. ECAS Setting parameters

Vehicle speed up to which manual lifting/trailing axle Driving speed at which traction help is switched off
control is possible automatically
This parameter limits the speed up to which the lifting/ As soon as the EU regulation 97/27/EC comes into force,
trailing axle can be controlled manually. The entry is this 30 km/h speed limit may not be exceeded. The entry
made in km/h. is made in km/h.

Level increase with activated traction help Permissible mean pressure on the
The parameter specifies the value for increasing the driving axle during traction help
normal level when traction help is activated. This This parameter defines the average pressure permitted
provides more clearance for the wheels of the lifting axle in the supporting bellows of the driving axle that may not
when traction help is activated. be exceeded when traction help is active. As a rule –
unless the axle manufacturer specifies a lower maximum
Duration of traction help, type Germany load – 130 % of the bellows pressure at maximum
The parameter defines for how long traction help may be permitted vehicle loading is set here.
active. German Motor Vehicle Construction and Use
Input is provided in steps, depending on the type of
Regulations (StVZO) permit the traction help function to
pressure sensor used, of 1/16 (standard value) or 1/20
be effective for 90 seconds. The entry is made in steps of
bar per count. Input is made in counts.
5 seconds. Input is made in counts.
– Set parameter to  18 counts. If the pressure set here were to be exceeded when the
lifting axle is fully raised, the lifting axle would stay on the
When EC Directive 97/27/EC comes into force, the time
ground. The pressure in the supporting bellows for the
limit for the traction help will no longer apply. main axle is controlled so that it does not exceed the
value set by this parameter. This means that the
Duration of traction help type Outside Germany maximum possible load is applied to the driving axle. Any
(also: …type ”EC“ or …type "EU 99") excess load is absorbed by the partially exhausted
The parameter defines for how long traction help is supporting bellows of the lifting axle – the axle load is
activated. This parameter is set in accordance with being distributed.
national legislation. The entry is made in steps of 5
When EC Guideline 97/27/EC comes into force, this
seconds. Input is made in counts. Entering the value 255
means that in the member states of the EU the axle load
deactivates the time limit for this type of traction help.
may not be exceeded by more than 30 %, provided the
When EC Directive 97/27/EC comes into force, the time value stipulated by the manufacturer for this purpose is
limit for the traction help will no longer apply. not exceeded.

In vehicles with a CAN enabled electronic control unit, it


Forced pause of traction help may be that the permitted pressure on the driving axle
This parameter is closely related to the parameter with activated traction help is made known to the
Duration of traction help type Germany and specifies how electronic control unit via calibration.
long the interval is between the end of a traction help
cycle and reactivation of the traction help. This parameter Safety margin relative to the calibrated permissible
is set according to the German Motor Vehicle pressure on the driving axle in the event that a
Construction and Use Regulations (StVZO), which is at pressure sensor fails
present 50s. The entry is made in steps of 5 seconds. This parameter takes effect in vehicles with a CAN
Input is made in counts.
electronic control unit in which the permissible pressure
– Set parameter to  10 counts. on the driving axle made known to the electronic control
unit via pressure sensor calibration. This parameter is not
Driving speed up to which relevant if the axle load information is transmitted via the
traction help can be activated data line.

This parameter is not subject to statutory provisions. It For lifting axle control, 2 pressure sensors on the driving
restricts the speed up to which the traction help can be axle determine the load and transmit this information to
activated. the electronic control unit. Should a pressure sensor now
The entry is made in km/h. fail, there is a risk that an uneven load above the driving
axle on the side of the failed pressure sensor will cause

102
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

an overload situation. For this reason, a safety differential accordance with the setting in the option parameters, via
is entered, and the permitted value specified to the a connected pressure sensor or via the CAN line as part
electronic control unit for the pressure on the driving axle of the axle load information. In vehicles with EBS, for
is reduced by this safety differential if a pressure sensor example, information about the loading condition is
failure is detected. output via the axle load information.
This parameter only takes effect during normal operation. The description of the parameter corresponds to the
description of the previous parameter.
Safety differential to the calibrated permissible
pressure on the driving axle during traction help Normal level increase with raised lifting axle
when a pressure sensor fails
The parameter specifies the value for increasing the
This parameter takes effect in vehicles with a CAN normal level when the lifting axle is raised. This provides
electronic control unit in which the permitted pressure on more clearance for the wheels of the lifting axle. This
the driving axle is made known to the electronic control effect is also called normal level shift. The value set here
unit via pressure sensor calibration. It is not relevant if the must be observed during calibration.
axle load information is transferred via the data line.
Normal level increase with traction help
For lifting axle control with traction help activated, 2
pressure sensors on the driving axle determine the load The parameter specifies the value for increasing the
which is sent to the electronic control unit – as already normal level when the lifting axle is raised and traction
described in the previous parameter. If a pressure sensor help is activated. This achieves improved clearance for
were to fail, there would be a risk of uneven load above the wheels of the lifting axle during traction help control.
the driving axle on the side of the failed pressure sensor This effect is also called normal level shift during traction
causing an overload situation. For this reason, a safety help.
differential is entered, and the permissible value specified
to the electronic control unit for the pressure on the Offset for increasing the calibrated top stop level at
driving axle is reduced by this safety differential when a the front or rear
pressure sensor failure is detected. The upper desired level for front or rear can be set above
the calibrated upper level by entering a distance
Whereas the parameter described previously applies in
differential. The background is that, after calibration of
normal operation, this parameter is only takes effect
three calibration levels, the vehicle body can no longer be
when traction help is active.
moved to the upper level in normal mode. An internal
safety function for protecting the mechanical stops
Pressure hysteresis
prevents the vehicle body from moving beyond within a
While traction help control is active, the distribution of the few counts (often 3 counts) of the calibrated upper level
axle load across the lifting axle and the driving axle when moving to the upper level. In order to utilise the last
causes the pressure in the driving axle's supporting reserves of height or to form a rigid block of the vehicle
bellows to rise. The pressure in the supporting bellows of body against the axles, it is possible to enter a distance
the driving axle is maintained within a defined tolerance differential here whereby the vehicle body can be lifted
range below the set maximum permissible supporting beyond the upper level that can be attained in normal
bellows pressure on the driving axle. mode. Input is made in counts.

Input is provided in steps, depending on the type of Setting this parameter (i. e. parameter greater than
pressure sensor used, of 1/16 (standard value) or 1/20 ZERO was entered) when the dimensions of the
bar per count. Input is made in counts. mechanical stops are not sufficient may cause problems:

Pressure hysteresis, driving axle – When, during the unloading procedure, the vehicle
or loading hysteresis, driving axle body is at its uppermost desired level (i. e. nominal
value + nominal value tolerance), flexure in the
This parameter occurs in vehicles with CAN electronic structure may prevent lowering of the vehicle body
control units and serves the same function as the when the ECAS solenoid valve is vented, so that this
previously described parameter for conventional ECAS desired level can no longer be exited.
electronic control units.
– If the parameter value is set higher, it may be possible
In this parameter it is merely taken into consideration that that the resulting upper level (e. g. by keeping the
the information about the loading condition of the vehicle LIFT button pressed on the remote control unit) can
can be sent to the ECAS electronic control unit, in no longer be reached. The supporting bellows

103
9. ECAS Setting parameters

pressure can rise up to the supply pressure of the air Input is made in steps of 0.3 s. Input is made in counts.
suspension. After the period for the plausibility error
check has elapsed, a plausibility error is entered in the Standby time (STAND-BY)
electronic control unit.
Input of the duration for which stand-by operation is
Plausibility errors are distance sensor responses to the desired. Input is made in counts.
air intake or air exhaust actions specified for the ECAS
solenoid valve in the event that they do not match the Limit speed for manual lifting/trailing axle control
expectations of the electronic control unit. The ECU
This parameter defines a speed limit up to which the
checks the way ECAS reacts to any commands given.
lifting axle can still be manually controlled. Lowering the
For example, after a command to LIFT has been given,
lifting axle at higher speeds would cause tyre damage
the ECU expects a rising number of distance sensor
due to the high ground contact load. Input is made in
value counts. If the distance sensor values remain
counts.
unchanged, or if they even fall, the ECU considers this to
be implausible and detects a so-called plausibility error.
Mean pressure on the driving axle at which tyre
In spite of the electronic system working properly, in
impression compensation begins
some cases, especially after a long period at a standstill,
a lifting commend cannot be executed because there is a This parameter specifies the supporting bellows pressure
shortage of compressed air in the air suspension system. in the driving axle at which tyre deformation
To prevent a fault being recorded due to this shortage, compensation starts.
the air suspension system is given enough time to build
Preferably, the supporting bellows pressure for the
up sufficient operating pressure to execute the lift
unladen vehicle should be selected. Input is provided in
command.
steps, depending on the type of pressure sensor used, of
1/16 (standard value) or 1/20 bar per count. Input is made
Plausibility error check delay
in counts.
This parameter specifies a time period after the ignition is
switched ON during which the electronic control unit does Mean pressure on the driving axle at which at which
not check the system for plausibility errors. tyre impression compensation ends
This parameter specifies the supporting bellows pressure
Vehicle speed above which the normal level is
in the driving axle at which tyre deformation
activated automatically
compensation ends.
This parameter defines a speed above which the level is
Preferably, the supporting bellows pressure for the fully
automatically adjusted to the current normal level. The
laden vehicle should be selected. Input is provided in
normal level which is taken as the current normal level
steps, depending on the type of pressure sensor used, of
depends on the position of the normal level switch or the
1/16 (standard value) or 1/20 bar per count. Input is made
setting of the speed-dependent normal level control.
in counts.
This parameter is important in vehicles with a remote
control unit because, when the ignition is switched ON, Maximum value with which tyre impression is
the level is only automatically adjusted to normal level if compensated on the driven or front axle.
the normal level button is pressed on the remote control The parameter is used to define the amount by which a
unit or, in vehicles without a remote control unit, the tyre is compressed, i.e. impressed, between the load
CLOCK and DATA lines are jumpered on the electronic conditions as defined by the two aforementioned
control unit. parameters.
The entry is made in km/h. If the value 255 is entered, the This value should be determined by trials performed on
function is deactivated. the vehicle. The value established then applies only to
the tyre used with the applicable axle steering
Time period for checking plausibility errors kinematics. If tyres other than the ones from the test are
used with this parameter setting, unintentional changes
The parameter defines a time period in which the in the normal level may result, causing the permissible
electronic control unit expects a command to be
height of the vehicle to be exceeded. Input is made in
executed or continued. If a given command is not counts.
followed by any response, the ECU detects implausible
behaviour.

104
Setting parameters ECAS 9.

Time period for air exhaust without to be below the reference level, the value to be entered
Distance change during crane operation must be >125.
This specifies the time during which no more distance Example 1: A LL is meant to be 10 cts. above the NL I:
sensor changes take place when the vehicle is being
lowered while the ECAS solenoid valve continues to
NL I = 100cts.
exhaust air. When this time has elapsed, the electronic
LL = 100 - 10 = 90 cts.
control unit recognises crane operation. Input is made in
IV = 90 - 100 + 125 = 115 cts.
counts.
Input parameter: 115 counts
Difference loading level to normal level I (for vehicles
with ECAS 4x2/6x2 CAN of the 1st generation) Example 2: A LL is meant to be 10 cts. below the NL I:

In vehicles with ECAS 4x2/6x2 CAN, it is possible to set NL I = 100 cts.


a loading level in the parameters which can be activated LL = 100 + 10 = 110 cts.
by a message request. Activation using the remote IV = 110 - 100 + 125 = 135 cts.
control unit is not possible. This loading level can only be Input parameter: 135 counts
activated when the vehicle is stationary and causes the
vehicle body to move to the level set in the parameters As a result, entering ZERO would produce a LL of 125
here as a difference from the normal level I, where it is counts below the normal level I.
then maintained by the control system, so that a
The loading level can be set separately for each distance
supporting position can be adopted in the event of
sensor (i. e. front, rear left and rear right).
unloading (e. g. increased tilt of a tank container for better
unloading). This concludes the explanation of the parameters. This
list contains a large number of possible parameters, but
The entry is made taking account of an offset of 125 nevertheless no claims are made regarding
counts. This significantly alters the philosophy for completeness.
entering values. The input value (IV) is calculated as the
difference between the required loading level (LL) and Contact the vehicle manufacturer or WABCO if you have
the normal level I (NL I) plus the offset 125: any general questions.

Input value = LL - NL I + 125 ATTENTION!


The specific parameter values are the responsibility
Therefore, if LL is meant to be above the reference level, of the vehicle manufacturer in question and any
the value <125 must be entered. If loading level is meant changes to the parameters always requires the a
request on the part of the user and the approval of
the vehicle manufacturer (not WABCO).

105
10. ECAS Calibration

10. Calibration
As part of the commissioning procedure on a new If the electronic control unit is to be replaced and you do
vehicle, the sensors have to be calibrated after the not know the calibration data for the vehicle, you can read
parameters have been set. The distance and pressure out the calibration data for the distance sensors of the
sensors which are part of the system have to be former electronic control unit. If this is no longer possible,
introduced to the electronic control unit. This means that the following assumptions can be used as a workaround:
they must be given a reference value in relation to the
electronic control unit. • The distance sensor will be aligned horizontally at
normal level I.
The calibration process has to be repeated every time the • The level is driven to the upper and lower level until
electronic control unit is to work with a new sensor. This the vehicle body can no longer be raised or lowered.
is the case when:
The distance sensor is calibrated using the PC. To do
• A sensor is replaced this, call up the "Calibrate Distance Sensors" menu item
• The electronic control unit is replaced on the diagnostic tool. This menu item offers interactive
calibration which is briefly explained at this point.
Depending on the sensor to be calibrated, one
distinguishes between:
10.1.1 Distance sensor calibration with the PC
• Distance sensor calibration
• Pressure sensor calibration To calibrate 3 calibration levels, move to each level to be
calibrated in the following sequence: Normal level I,
As a rule, a calibration PIN (personal identification upper level, and lower level. Do this use the PC.
number) is required for calibration. This may be the
system PIN which is also used for making changes to a) First, the vehicle is taken to the determined normal
level I (for the front axle and the rear axle in each
parameters, or else it is possible to request a calibration
PIN from WABCO if required. case). Then the calibration process is initiated
(actual levels are now stored as normal levels).

b) Move the vehicle to the level of the upper stop. Re-


10.1 Distance sensor calibration initiate the calibration process. (Actual levels to
The process of calibrating the distance sensor aligns the which the vehicle body is moved are stored as upper
sensor with the electronic control unit. As a rule, the stop levels.) To protect the stops, the ECU will
vehicle body is moved to normal level I, to the upper and automatically reduce the value for the upper stop
lower level (stops beyond which movement is not level by 3 counts.
possible when raising and lowering), and the respective
c) Move the vehicle to the level of the lower stop. Re-
level is then assigned to the electronic control unit. The
initiate the calibration process. (Actual levels are
distance sensor values are specified in "counts".
stored as lower stop levels.)
Correct calibration requires the following preparatory
Note: It is not possible to change the level via the remote
work to be carried out with due care:
control unit when calibrating with the PC. In order for the
– Place the vehicle on a surface which is horizontal and ECU to recognise the remote control unit, it has to be
even. connected to the system during the calibration process.

– Make sure that the distance sensor has been properly After the individual calibration phases have been
installed and that its lever can move freely across the completed, the PC will check the fault memory and
whole of the lifting/lowering range. indicate whether calibration was carried out correctly or
– If the vehicle has two distance sensors on one axle, not.
the bellows on both sides are connected to each other
For a successful completion of the calibration, the
by means of a test hose (balancing the pressure to
following principles for the distance sensor values DSV
spread the load evenly across the axle).
must be observed: The individual numerical values may
– Determine the distance between the vehicle body and fluctuate – a guideline should be given here:
the axle for each distance sensor, at least in normal
level I. – The entered distance sensor values must be greater
than 4 counts and less than 250 counts.

106
Calibration ECAS 10.

4 counts < DSV < 250 counts DSVNL left + ∆DSVUL = IVUL
– The upper level (UL) must be larger than the total of 3. Calculate the differences between the "normal level
the normal level (NL) plus 3 counts and 3 times the rear left" – "lower level rear left" and "normal level rear
desired level tolerance (∆DSV ) set in the parameters. right" – "lower level rear right".
The front/rear assignment of the distance sensor
depends on its slot in the control unit. DSVLL left - DSVNL left = ∆DSVleft
DSV OL > DSWNL + 3counts + 3x ∆DSV
DSWLL right - DSVNL right = ∆DSVright
– The lower level (LL) must be less than the normal
4. Subtract the smaller difference from the expected
level (NL) less twice the desired level tolerance ∆DSV
. calibration value "normal level rear left" to obtain the
calibration value to be entered for the "lower level
DSV LL < DSV LL - 2x ∆DSV rear".

A second possibility is to calibrate normal level I only. Selection of ∆DSVLL:


The upper and lower levels are entered in the electronic
control unit manually using the diagnostic tool prior to ∆DSVright > ∆DSVleft  ∆DSVLL = ∆DSVleft
calibration. This type of calibration is a good idea if the
positions of the upper and lower stops are known and it or
is only necessary to calibrate the distance sensor to the
normal level. ∆DSVleft > ∆DSVright  ∆DSVUN = ∆DSVright

At the same time, this function can be used to make some Calibration input value IVLL:
manipulations. In vehicles in which no offset from the
DSVNL left - ∆DSVUL = IVUL
upper level is possible, this function makes it possible to
bypass the protective function for reducing the load on The data thus computed are stored via the PC prior to
the stops in the upper level. It is also possible to enter a actual calibration. The calibration process is then initiated
low value for the lower level in order to ensure that the as follows:
vehicle body does actually come to rest on the rubber
buffers. – Take vehicle to its normal level.

For this procedure, the calibration guidelines also have to – By initiating the calibration process, this level is
be observed. On the basis of the rear left and rear right recognised as the normal level.
normal level, the calibration values for the "upper/lower After the individual calibration phases are completed, the
level rear" can be defined as follows: PC will check the fault memory and indicate whether
calibration completed correctly or incorrectly.
1. Calculate the differences between the "upper level
rear left" – "normal level rear left" and "upper level rear The third option for making the calibration values known
right" – "normal level rear right". to the electronic control unit is to enter the distance
sensor values directly. This can only be done with a PIN.
DSVOL-left - DSVNL-left = ∆DSVleft To do this, the distance sensor values have to be known.
DSVOL-right - DSVNL-right = ∆DSVright In theory, calibration can also be done without a DC/PC.
However, this should be done in emergencies only
because it involves a complex procedure which has to be
2. Add the smaller difference to the expected calibration followed scrupulously. For further information, please
value "normal level rear left" to obtain the calibration contact the WABCO Customer Service Department.
value to be entered for the "upper level rear".
Note: Increasing the normal level when the lifting
Selection of ∆DSVOL: axle is raised and compensating for tyre impression
have to be taken into account when calibrating
∆DSVright > ∆DSVleft  ∆DSVUL = ∆DSVleft
sensors. If values are entered for these parameters, it
or may be that calibration will not lead to the desired result.
If a vehicle is now calibrated with a raised lifting axle and
∆DSVleft > ∆DSVright  ∆DSVUL = ∆DSVright a bellows pressure just under the lifting axle lowering
pressure, and the normal level command is issued at the
Calibration input value IVUL: end of diagnosis, then the normal level increases

107
10. ECAS Calibration

(offsets) relative to the calibrated normal level are added normal operation is a calibration procedure which is
to the loading condition accordingly and may lead to required in vehicles with CAN electronic control units.
problems with regard to the overall vehicle height.
The supporting bellows pressures on the driving axle at
which the lifting axle is lowered/the load is transferred
10.2 Pressure sensor calibration from the trailing axle are in this case not specified to the
electronic control unit by parameter settings, but instead
The process of pressure-sensor calibration aligns the using this calibration process. To generate the required
pressure sensor with the ECU. The pressure sensor bellows pressures, the corresponding pressure must be
values are given in counts. created in the supporting bellows by loading the vehicle
accordingly, or else the pressure sensor must be
Pressure sensor calibration is necessary in up to 3 cases: unscrewed and a pressure simulated using a precision
control valve.
1. Pressure sensor calibration for calibrating to
atmospheric pressure. The supporting bellows pressure is made known to the
2. Pressure sensor calibration for defining the permitted electronic control unit in this condition; this being the
bellows pressure on the driving axle in normal pressure which, if exceeded, leads to the lifting axle being
operation. lowered/the trailing axle being raised.
3. Pressure sensor calibration for defining the
permissible bellows pressure on the driving axle with 10.2.3 Pressure sensor calibration for defining
traction help activated. the permissible bellows pressure on the
driving axle with traction help activated.
10.2.1 Pressure sensor calibration for Calibration of the pressure sensor for defining the
calibrating to atmospheric pressure permissible bellows pressure on the driving axle when
traction help is activated is a calibration procedure which
Calibrating the pressure sensor for atmospheric pressure
is required in vehicles with CAN electronic control units.
calibration is by far the most frequently required pressure
sensor calibration. This type of calibration is referred to in
The supporting bellows pressures on the driving axle
general when pressure sensor calibration is discussed.
which are not allowed to be exceeded when traction help
Pressure-sensor calibration is in fact an offset allocation. is activated are in this case not specified to the electronic
control unit by parameter settings, but instead using this
At ambient pressure, the pressure sensor transmits a
certain signal to the control unit which, depending on the calibration process. To generate the required bellows
pressures, the corresponding pressure must be created
type of sensor used, is somewhere around 16 and 20
in the supporting bellows by loading the vehicle
counts. This value has a pressure of 0 bar assigned to it.
accordingly, or else the pressure sensor must be
Proper calibration requires that the supporting bellow on
unscrewed and a pressure simulated using a precision
which the pressure sensor is located are pressureless.
control valve.
To ensure this, it is safest to unscrew the pressure sensor
from the bellows and to measure the ambient.
The supporting bellows pressure is made known to the
electronic control unit in this condition; this being the
Calibration of the pressure sensor can be done via the
pressure which is set when traction help is activated and
PC. To do this, call up the "Calibrate Pressure Sensor"
is not exceeded.
menu item of the diagnostic software.
When the parameters have been set and the calibration
10.2.2 Pressure sensor calibration for defining process has been completed, initial start-up has been
the permissible bellows pressure on the completed. After exiting from the diagnosis program (it
driving axle in normal operation. might be advisable to read out the fault memory again
first!), the vehicle is ready for operation.
Calibration of the pressure sensor for defining the
permitted bellows pressure on the driving axle during

108
Safety Concept ECAS 11.

11. Safety Concept


In order to check the functioning of ECAS, the ECU: • a plausibility warning is being displayed (in some
• testing the electrical connections to the individual versions).
components for the various control processes, The fault lamp displays faults in the ECAS system and,
• Compares the voltages and resistance values to the depending on the severity of the fault, may either display
nominal values, a steady light (minor fault) or flash (severe fault). If a fault
occurs, this will not only cause the signal lamp to light up
• checking the sensor signals for plausibility.
or flash, but also triggers the following reactions
depending on the severity and type of the fault:
Faults which occur are written into a diagnostic memory
and (if they are currently present) can be displayed using
• If the fault is minor or if the voltage supply is
a fault lamp or on a display. insufficient (voltage between 5 and 18 volts): no
further reaction.
Indication of fault responses by lamps
• In case of plausibility errors: temporary and also
In ECAS systems without CAN data transmission, up to partial shut-down of the system is possible.
4 lamps can be fitted in order to provide information • If the error is severe: The system is switched off.
about special operating conditions as well as faults.
The severity and characteristics of a error are described
Every time the ignition is switched on, the lamps will
as follows:
come on for a few seconds as a function check.

The following different lamps are used:


1. Warning lamp (4x2 and 6x2 vehicles): indicates 11.1 Minor faults which do not cause a
whether the system is outside normal control mode. shut-down of the system
(In some versions, the warning lamp may indicate The following faults are referred to as "minor faults". The
minor faults or a plausibility warning.) system can still operate with restrictions, meaning that
the vehicle does not have to be taken out of service
2. Fault lamp (4x2 and 6x2 vehicles): indicates immediately:
whether there is a fault active in the system. In this
case, a flashing light (severe fault) takes precedence • Failure of a distance sensor if the same axle has
over a steady light (minor fault). another distance sensor.
• Failure of one or both pressure sensors.
3. Lifting axle lamp (only 6x2 vehicles): displays
• Error in the data stored in the ECU.
whether the lifting axle is raised.
The system responds as follows in the event of
4. Traction help lamp (only 6x2 vehicles): indicates
minor errors
whether the traction help is active.
• The fault lamp lights up.
Various meanings of warning lamp ON • The fault is stored in the non-volatile memory of the
• functional test of the warning lamp after the ignition ECU.
has been switched on Minor errors permit a limited function of the ECAS
• at least one measured actual level is not at the current system. After the error has been corrected, the system
normal level after ignition ON and lamp test returns to normal operation.
• the distance between the vehicle body and the axle is
not at the normal level
11.2 Plausibility errors causing the system
• level change command has been issued
to be switched off temporarily
• normal level shift "lifting axle" (increased distance
between the vehicle body and axle when the lifting axle There are no pressure sensors connected to the inlet and
is raised) in progress (6x2 vehicles) outlet ports of ECAS solenoid valves, which means faults
• normal level shift "traction help" (= increased distance in the pneumatic system can only be detected indirectly.
between the vehicle body and axle when the traction To do this, the reaction of the vehicle body is evaluated
help is activated) in progress (6x2 vehicles) on the basis of the distance sensor values being sent to
the electronic control unit. In the event of a LIFT vehicle
• a minor fault is present (in some versions)
body, for example, command is sent to the vehicle body

109
11. ECAS Safety Concept

then the distance sensor values must increase after a • a valve relay is interrupted (no contact from Terminal
certain length of time. If the distance sensor values are 30) or has a short circuit/ an external voltage at the
different from the expected response, the electronic valve-outlet port.
control unit signals a plausibility error, which means the
reaction of the vehicle body deduced from the distance Category II
sensor values is not plausible.
Emergency operation is possible via the remote control
Malfunctions which can cause a plausibility error to be unit. Axle preselection will definitely be working. Lifting/
reported: Lowering of the vehicle body is possible by pressing the
LIFT/LOWER button on the remote control unit, provided
• The ECAS solenoid valve is failing to pressurise or
there is compressed air available for lifting/lowering.
evacuate the supporting bellows.
• The ECAS solenoid valve remains in its air intake or Category II includes the following faults:
exhaust position although the control process has • Parameter error: The checksum of the parameter
been completed. values has changed or the parameters have not been
• Lines blocked or kinked, insufficient supply pressure. set in the ECU.
• Leakage in the supporting bellows. • Calibration error:
• The calibrated sensor values are outside their
Reactions of the system in the event of plausibility permissible tolerance.,
errors:
• the calibration data memory is defective (check
• The fault lamp lights up. total has changed),
• The fault is stored in the non-volatile memory of the • no calibration has been performed yet.
ECU. • Interruption or short circuit on a solenoid valve or in a
• The current control process and levelling control are cable leading to the solenoid valve (ECAS or load-
aborted. sensing solenoid valve).
• Failure of all distance sensors on one axle.
Solving temporary error in operation or error which • Standard value for distance sensor evaluation circuit
merely seems to exist:
or its checksum is incorrect or does not exist.
– Switching the ignition off and on again. • WABCO-specific data are faulty.
or
System reactions to severe faults:
– pushing any button on the remote control unit.
• The fault lamp flashes.
If the error does not re-occur, the system is operating as
• The fault is stored in the non-volatile memory of the
usual. The fault will, however, continue to be stored in the
ECU.
electronic control unit until it is deleted.
• automatic shutdown of the entire system.
Severe faults causing the system to be switched off
permanently. If errors of category I and II prove impossible to
eliminate, the ECU must be replaced.

After eliminating the fault, the system can be taken back


11.3 Severe faults
into operation by switching the ignition OFF/ON.
Severe error cause the system to be switched off
permanently. They are divided into two categories. The fault will, however, continue to be stored in the
electronic control unit until it is deleted.
Category I
Output of fault responses via CAN message
ECAS can no longer execute any functions.
In ECAS systems with CAN data transfer, information
Category I includes the following faults: relating to level warnings and fault messages are sent as
• A fault has been detected in the program of the ECU CAN messages and displayed using suitable display
(ROM module), equipment. Outputting detected faults in CAN messages
makes it possible to treat the information in a very
• a storage cell in the ECU's main memory (RAM) is detailed way. However, a detailed explanation is beyond
defective, the scope of this document. The detailed fault resolution

110
Safety Concept ECAS 11.

make partial function shut-downs possible while not represent much of a hazard because the person
maintaining basic functions. using it will notice immediately that there is an error.

Reaction of the system in the event of intermittent • Bent linkage of a distance sensor
contact Is not detected by the electronic control unit but may
If an error is temporary, e. g. caused by intermittent result in an inaccurate normal level, or in an inclined
contact, it will be displayed, or the system switched off, vehicle.
only as long as the error prevails. The type of error is
• Failure of a pressure switch or an error of the
irrelevant. However, the error will always be stored in the
pressure sensor within a permissible range
error memory so it can be localised in subsequent
repairs. The error will, however, continue to be stored in Valid measured values are still being transmitted. The
the ECU until it is deleted. error causes that the permissible axle load might be
exceeded.
Errors not detected by the ECU:
Faults of this type can only be found if the system is
• A burnt filament of the signal lamp closely inspected.

! working when the ignition is switched on.


It is up to the driver to check that the lamps are
– The vehicle may have to be re-calibrated after the
fault has been eliminated.
• Malfunction of the remote control unit Do not load or unload the vehicle when the
The remote control unit does not transmit signals warning lamp is flashing to display a fault or when
continuously and it may also be disconnected at times. the system is switched off! This is because there
The ECU cannot check the function of the remote control will be no response to any changes in level.
unit. Usually, a malfunctioning remote control unit does

11.4 Fault search table


Table 4 provides an overview of possible faults, representative of those reported by customers.

Fault indication Effect of fault Possible cause of fault Suggested remedy


ECAS fault lamp is flashing, ECAS not working, emergency ECU detects a severe fault of Read out the ECAS-ECU fault
ECAS is inactive, LIFT/LOWER function maintained. Category II memory; replace ECU if
function ("emergency function") (↑ 11. Safety concept). necessary
possible with remote control unit. (↑ 11. Safety concept) or
eliminate fault

ECAS traction help lamp on after ECAS traction help lamp on, Traction help activated (no fault - Traction help switches off
error is eliminated, vehicle traction help active. ↑ 11. Safety concept). or ECU pin automatically or check cabling
adjusts to normal level I. traction help received unwanted and traction help button or switch.
ground contact.

ECAS lifting axle lamp on after ECAS lifting axle lamp on, lifting Lifting axle lowering activated (no Lift lifting axle or check cabling
fault elimination, axle remains lowered in unladen fault - ↑ 11. Safety concept) and lifting axle switch.
Vehicle adjusts into normal level I condition. or ECU pin "Lifting axle lowering"
receives unwanted contact.

ECAS warning lamp does not go possible vehicle inclination vehicle not at normal level Use remote control unit to bring
off after ignition ON. vehicle to normal level (↑ 6.4
Remote control unit) or drive
vehicle faster than parameterised
speed at which vehicle moves to
normal level.

ECAS warning lamp not working ECAS lamp does not provide any Warning lamp or warning lamp Repair warning lamp or warning
after ignition ON, or ECAS signal information (i. e. does not light up feed line defective. lamp feed line.
lamp but ECAS fully operable. at all).

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11. ECAS Safety Concept

Fault indication Effect of fault Possible cause of fault Suggested remedy


ECAS warning lamp on; starts to ECU does not carry out level Plausibility error. Charge compressed air reservoir;
flash after a while. changes. check distance sensor for
plausible reaction (distance
sensor values rising when raising,
falling when lowering); delay
plausibility fault recognition
further; extend plausibility fault
recognition limits.

Normal level is increased while Vehicle is slightly above normal No fault; normal level increase Adjustment of corresponding
lifting axle is being raised. level. according to permitted desired parameter required if legal
level increase when lifting axle maximum heights are exceeded.
raised.

No switch-over from normal level Normal level II cannot be set. Normal level II is higher than Alter corresponding parameters if
I to normal level II when vehicle is normal level I by same distance necessary.
unladen and axle is lifted. as lifting axle normal level shift;
no fault.

Lifting axle cannot be raised by Lifting axle stays on the ground. Vehicle load too heavy - no error Unload vehicle or fit a new remote
remote control unit. or defective remote control unit or control unit or fit a new pressure
defective pressure switch/ switch/pressure sensor or change
pressure sensor or wrong parameter setting.
parameter setting for lifting axle
control.

Vehicle body above rear axle is Continuous control, continuous Directional control valves 2/2 of Replace solenoid valve block.
being raised or lowered change of normal level. RA valve block remain open. Check/replace distance sensor,
continuously. Sensor leap. ECU defective. replace ECU.

Continuous actuation of ECAS Unchecked raising and lowering no speed information or incorrect ECAS solenoid valve leaking or
solenoid valves when in motion. of vehicle body while vehicle is parameter setting of basic check wiring ABS/EBS-ECAS or
moving. function (nominal value check wiring ABS/EBS-ECAS or
tolerances; control parameter alter parameter settings.
KP+KD)

Traction help and lifting axle Lifting axle stays on the ground. Load does not permit activation or Check load – no fault or replace
function cannot be activated. pressure sensor defective or no pressure sensor. check EBS
pressure sensor signal via K-line system, check K-line.
(EBS).

Lifting axle cannot be lowered. Lifting axle remains raised. Remote-control unit defective or Replace remote control unit or
pressure sensor defective or no replace pressure sensor.
pressure sensor signals via CAN Check the CAN line.
line. Check pressure.
No supply pressure.

If two distance sensor installed on Vehicle body inclination. Sensor linkage bent or uneven Straighten distance sensor
driving axle, vehicle body tilted. surface - no fault. Stabiliser linkage or check nominal value
distorted. tolerance set in parameters
Rubber on linkage has slipped. between 2 distance sensors on
driving axle and alter if necessary
recalibrate vehicle. Tighten
rubber.

If 1 distance sensor is installed on Vehicle body inclination. Transverse throttle in ECAS Replace ECAS solenoid valve or
the driving axle, vehicle body solenoid valve (one distance re-calibrate the vehicle.
tilted and different supporting sensor) or stabiliser distorted. Check stabiliser.
bellows pressures.

Remote control unit is not No lifting/lowering possible with Remote-control unit not Re-calibrate vehicle while remote
accepted by ECAS after remote control unit. connected to ECAS during control unit is connected.
parameter setting. calibration.

Fault search cannot be started No fault search possible via PC. Wrong ISO address setting or Set ISO address to 18 or repair
with PC although ECAS-ECU is diagnostic line/socket defective or diagnostic line or switch off
functioning. measuring value output switched measured value output.
on.

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Safety Concept ECAS 11.

Fault indication Effect of fault Possible cause of fault Suggested remedy


Desired level cannot be changed No change in desired level. No axle preselected on remote Preselect axle or ignition ON or
by remote control unit. control unit or ignition OFFor if put changeover switch into
several remote control units: correct position or replace remote
Changeover switch is in wrong control unit.
position or remote control unit is
defective.

No reaction of ECAS solenoid No levelling control. ECAS deactivated or control day Switch on ECAS - select STAND-
valves while loading/unloading. at standstill set too high or BY function (↑ 6.4 Remote
nominal value tolerances too Control Unit) or reduce control
great. delay at standstill or correct
excessive nominal value
tolerances.

Neither parameter settings nor ECAS-ECU does not respond. ECU defective. Replace ECU.
calibration possible for ECAS- Water in the ECU. Eliminate the cause for water
ECU. penetration.

Lifting axle is swinging (lifting/ Lifting axle does not remain in Parameter configuration not Increase difference between
lowering). assigned position. ideal. parameters (pressure difference).
Pressure sensor/cable defective. Check, replace as necessary.

Lifting axle is in "laden" condition. Lifting axle remains lifted No error, as the load does not Improved customer information
although full load is assumed. achieve the pressure applicable service.
to the maximum axle load. Lower the corresponding
parameter.

113