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Nouns are the names of people, places and things.

Some nouns are countable, and some nouns


are uncountable. Countable nouns are separate items that can be counted. They have a singular
(one) and a plural (two or more) form. You can add -s or -es to the end of most countable nouns
to make them plural.

Uncountable nouns are things that cannot be counted individually. Examples are whole groups of
things (clothing), abstract ideas (love), liquids (milk), and some food items (meat). Uncountable
nouns don't have a plural form. No final -s or -es is added to the end of an uncountable noun.

To talk about a specific quantity of an uncountable noun you can use certain units of
measurement with certain nouns: glass of, bottle of, cup of, loaf of, piece of and bowl of.

Countable nouns are separate items that can be counted. Examples of countable nouns are
"shirt," "table," and "apple." Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. The plural is
generally formed by adding "-s" or "-es."

Uncountable nouns are things that cannot be counted easily. Examples of uncountable nouns
are abstract ideas ("happiness"), nouns which represent a whole group of similar items
("furniture"), weather terms ("rain"), and things which are too small to count ("salt"). Uncountable
nouns have no plural form.

Many nouns can be both countable and uncountable, but with different meanings.

When you or the listener is not thinking of a specific thing, and the noun is singular and
countable, use "a" or "an" before the noun. Use "a" before words that start with a consonant
sound and "an" before words that start with a vowel sound.

When you or the listener is not thinking of a specific thing, and the noun is plural or uncountable,
use "some" or no article before the noun.

When you and the listener are thinking about the same thing, use "the"before the noun. "The" is
used before singular and plural countable nouns and before uncountable nouns.

Quantifiers are used to describe the number or amount of something. Certain quantifiers are
used with certain kinds of nouns.

The nouns on the left side are examples of countable nouns. They can follow "a" or "an" in the
singular. Adding "s" or "es" makes them plural. The nouns on the right side are examples of
uncountable nouns. They cannot follow "a" or "an" and cannot be made plural.

These quantifiers describe the number of a countable noun. "A couple of" usually means two. "A
few" is approximately 2 - 4. It implies a small number. "Few" without "a" is almost none. It implies
a smaller number than expected. "Several" is more than a few. "Few" and "several" are usually
not used in questions. "Many" is a large number.

These quantifiers describe the amount of an uncountable noun. "A little" is a small amount.
"Little" without "a" is almost none. It implies less than expected. "Little" isn't used in questions.
"Much" is a large amount, and is usually used in questions ("how much") and negative
statements ("not much"). "A great deal of" is a large amount.

These quantifiers can be used with either countable or uncountable nouns. "Any" is usually used
only in questions or in negative statements. It means even the smallest number or amount.
"Enough" is as many or as much as necessary. "Some" is an indefinite number or amount. "A lot
of" is a large number or amount.

These quantifiers cannot be used in negative statements.


All of the expressions of quantity can be used without a noun if the meaning is clear. Note that in
this case, "of" is not used after "a lot."

Quantifiers give specific information about the nouns they come before. They express the
quantity of something.

Note the structure: "a" + (Adj) + "number of" + plural countable noun
"A number of" means "many," while "a significant/considerable number of" means "very many."
These phrases are used only with plural countable nouns.

"A great deal of" and expressions with "amount of" are used only with uncountable nouns to
express a large quantity.

Note that "hardly any" can be used with plural countable nouns to mean "very few" and with
uncountable nouns to mean "a very small amount of."

Now practice the grammar you've learned. Go on to the exercises below.

Prepositions are words that come before nouns and show the relationship between a noun and
the rest of the sentence. Use the prepositions in, on, and at to talk about location. Use to to talk
about going toward a place.

Use in to talk about being in a specific room, building, city, state, country, or continent.

Use on to talk about a specific location on a floor of a building or on a street and for locations
next to bodies of water.

Use at to talk about street addresses and specific locations like companies, museums, and
universities.

Use during + an event or time to show that something else happens at the same time.