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CCB 2092 Unit Operation Laboratory I

September 2013
Experiment : Cross Flow Heat Exchanger

Group : 22

Group Members : Rifqi Andi Febrianto


17787

Syed Nazrin Bin Syed Yusof 16442

Tay Yu Cong 16129

Thipashini A/P Ganesan


16095

Wan Maizatul Fathirah bt. Wan Abdul Halim


16396

The Weng Kean


15907

Lab Instructor : Mr. Tauqeer Abbas

Date of Experiment : 17/10/2013


OBJECTIVE

To determine the mean surface heat transfer coefficient for finned tube in the 1st,2nd , 3rd and
4th rows of finned cross flow heat exchanger.

SUMMARY

A cross-flow heat exchanger exchanges thermal energy from one airstream to another in an
air handling unit (AHU).A cross-flow heat exchanger is used in a cooling and ventilation
system that requires heat to be transferred from one airstream to another. A cross-flow heat
exchanger is made of thin metal panels, normally aluminum. The thermal energy is
exchanged via the panels.The purpose of fins is to increase heat transfer between the hot
and cold mediums. The experiment is conducted by installing the finned tube plate onto the
vertical air duct. The air blower and heater is then turned on. The finned tube heater then is
inserted into the slot in the 1st row. The heater is set at 5 W. The values are recorded once
the system reached steady state.These steps are repeated for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows. Each
reading is repeated 6 times, for iris settings of 1 to 6. The results obtained are tabulated.

Graph of versus ln Nu is plotted, the intercept, and the slope, n are determined.The value of
average heat transfer coefficient can be obtained by taking the average values of all four of
heat transfer coefficients and used the correction factor.

RESULTS
ROW 1

Iris Tin (°C) Ts (°C) V (m/s) Ts - Tin (°C)


1 24.60 25.25 3.64 0.65
2 24.60 25.20 3.94 0.60
3 24.63 25.20 3.84 0.57
4 24.60 25.13 3.94 0.53
5 24.65 25.15 4.42 0.50
6 24.63 25.10 4.32 0.47
Iris Tf (°C) μ(kg/m. s) k(W/ p(kg/m3) vf (m2/s) Vmax( Remax Nu
m.K) m/s)
1 24.93 1.836x10-5 0.026 1.186 1.540 x10-5 6.07 3941.56 714.18
0
2 24.90 1.836x10-5 0.026 1.186 1.540 x10-5 6.57 4266.23 779.80
0
3 24.92 1.836 x10-5 0.026 1.186 1.540 x10-5 6.40 4155.84 832.06
0
4 24.87 1.836 x10-5 0.026 1.186 1.540 x10-5 6.57 4266.23 881.06
0
5 24.90 1.836x10-5 0.026 1.186 1.540 x10-5 7.03 4783.55 937.58
1
6 24.87 1.836x10-5 0.026 1.186 1.540 x10-5 7.20 4675.32 995.48
0

Iris Remax Nu ln Remax ln Nu


1 3941.56 714.18 8.28 6.57
2 4266.23 779.80 8.36 6.67
3 4155.84 832.06 8.33 6.72
4 4266.23 881.06 8.36 6.78
5 4783.55 937.58 8.47 6.84
6 4675.32 995.48 8.45 6.90
From the graph, the equation: y = 0.0634x + 6.5247

Slope = n = 0.0634

y-intercept = 6.5247

C1 = 681.78

hD
 CI  Re max 
n

kf

Average Remax = 4348.12

Average k = 0.0260 W/m.K

h = (681.78(0.0260)(4348.12)0.0634)/0.01

= 3014.99 W/m.k

ROW 2

Iris Tin (°C) Ts (°C) V (m/s) Ts - Tin (°C)


1 24.82 25.44 3.55 0.62
2 24.77 25.35 3.84 0.58
3 24.80 25.33 4.23 0.53
4 24.80 25.32 4.23 0.52
5 24.79 25.28 4.13 0.49
6 24.71 25.16 4.52 0.45

Iris Tf μ(kg/m. s) k(W/m.K p(kg/m3) vf Vmax Remax Nu


(°C) ) (m2/s) (m/s)
-5
1 25.1 1.837x10 0.0261 1.185 1.550 5.92 3821.82 759.09
3 x10-5
2 25.0 1.837x10-5 0.0261 1.185 1.550 6.40 4129.03 817.72
6 x10-5
3 25.0 1.837 x10-5 0.0261 1.185 1.550 7.05 4548.39 879.41
7 x10-5
4 25.0 1.837 x10-5 0.0261 1.185 1.550 7.05 4548.39 887.56
6 x10-5
5 25.0 1.837x10-5 0.0260 1.185 1.549 6.88 4443.73 938.19
0 x10-5
6 24.9 1.837x10-5 0.0260 1.185 1.549 7.53 4861.01 1015.5
4 x10-5 1

Iris Remax Nu ln Remax ln Nu


1 3821.82 759.09 8.25 6.63
2 4129.03 817.72 8.33 6.71
3 4548.39 879.41 8.42 6.78
4 4548.39 887.56 8.42 6.79
5 4443.73 938.19 8.40 6.84
6 4861.01 1015.51 8.49 6.92

ln Re VS ln Nu
6.95
6.9
6.85 f(x) = 0.05x + 6.59
6.8 R² = 0.96
6.75
6.7 ln Nu
ln Re

6.65 Linear (ln Nu)


6.6
6.55
6.5
6.45
8.25 8.33 8.42 8.42 8.4 8.49

ln Nu

From the graph, the equation: y = 0.0529x + 6.5933

Slope = n = 0.0529

y-intercept = 6.5933

C1 = 730.19

hD
 CI  Re max 
n

kf
Average Remax = 4392.06

Average k = 0.0261 W/m.K

h = (730.19(0.0261)(4392.06)0.0529)/0.01

= 2970.12 W/m.k

ROW 3

Iris Tin (°C) Ts (°C) V (m/s) Ts - Tin (°C)


1 24.60 25.85 3.55 1.25
2 24.54 25.73 3.94 1.19
3 24.54 25.74 3.84 1.20
4 24.63 25.80 4.04 1.17
5 24.61 25.73 4.23 1.12
6 24.63 25.69 4.23 1.06

Iris Tf μ(kg/m. s) k(W/m.K p(kg/m3) vf Vmax Remax Nu


(°C) ) (m2/s) (m/s)
1 25.2 1.837x10-5 0.0261 1.185 1.550 5.92 3819.35 362.87
3 x10-5
2 25.1 1.837x10-5 0.0260 1.185 1.550 6.57 4238.71 385.70
4 x10-5
3 25.1 1.837 x10-5 0.0260 1.185 1.550 6.40 4129.03 384.01
4 x10-5
4 25.2 1.837 x105 0.0261 1.185 1.550 6.73 4341.94 390.79
2 x10-5
5 25.1 1.837x10-5 0.0261 1.185 1.550 7.05 4548.39 392.01
7 x10-5
6 25.1 1.837x10-5 0.0261 1.185 1.550 7.05 4548.39 393.61
6 x10-5

Iris Remax Nu ln Remax ln Nu


1 3819.35 362.87 8.25 5.89
2 4238.71 385.70 8.35 5.96
3 4129.03 384.01 8.33 5.95
4 4341.94 390.79 8.38 5.97
5 4548.39 392.01 8.42 5.97
6 4548.39 393.61 8.38 5.98
ln Re VS ln Nu
6
5.98 f(x) = 0.01x + 5.9
5.96 R² = 0.67
5.94
5.92 ln Nu
ln Re

5.9 Linear (ln Nu)


5.88
5.86
5.84
8.25 8.35 8.33 8.38 8.42 8.38

ln Nu

From the graph, the equation: y = 0.0143x + 5.9033

Slope = n = 0.0143

y-intercept = 5.9033

C1 = 366.24

hD
 CI  Re max 
n

kf

Average Remax = 4270.97

Average k = 0.0261 W/m.K

h = (366.24(0.0261)(4270.97)0.0143)/0.01

= 1077.27 W/m.k

ROW 4

Iris Tin (°C) Ts (°C) V (m/s) Ts - Tin (°C)


1 24.65 25.44 3.36 1.51
2 24.56 26.02 3.85 1.46
3 24.49 25.90 3.87 1.41
4 24.49 25.87 4.14 1.38
5 24.51 25.75 4.24 1.24
6 24.41 25.74 4.14 1.33

Iris Tf μ(kg/m. s) k p(kg/m3) vf Vmax Remax Nu


(°C) (W/m.K (m2/s) (m/s)
)
1 25.0 1.837x10-5 0.0261 1.185 1.550 5.60 3612.90 302.80
5 x10-5
2 25.2 1.838x10-5 0.0261 1.184 1.552 6.42 4136.60 308.81
9 x10-5
3 25.2 1.837 x10-5 0.0261 1.185 1.550 6.45 4161.29 311.38
0 x10-5
4 25.1 1.837 x105 0.0261 1.185 1.550 6.90 4451.61 335.28
8 x10-5
5 25.1 1.837x10-5 0.0260 1.185 1.550 7.07 4561.29 370.15
3 x10-5
6 25.0 1.837x10-5 0.0260 1.185 1.550 6.90 4451.61 334.81
6 x10-5

Iris Remax Nu ln Remax ln Nu


1 3612.90 302.80 8.19 5.71
2 4136.60 308.81 8.33 5.73
3 4161.29 311.38 8.33 5.74
4 4451.61 335.28 8.40 5.81
5 4561.29 370.15 8.43 5.91
6 4451.61 334.81 8.40 5.81

ln Re VS ln Nu
5.95
5.9
5.85 f(x) = 0.03x + 5.67
5.8 R² = 0.64
ln Nu
ln Re

5.75
Linear (ln Nu)
5.7
5.65
5.6
8.19 8.33 8.33 8.4 8.43 8.4

ln Nu

From the graph, the equation: y = 0.0317x + 5.674

Slope = n = 0.0317

y-intercept = 5.674

C1 = 291.20
hD
 CI  Re max 
n

kf

Average Remax = 4229.22

Average k = 0.0261 W/m.K

h = (291.20(0.0261)(4229.22)0.0317)/0.01

= 990.34 W/m.k

Average heat transfer coefficient = (990.34 + 1077.27 + 2970.12 + 3014.99)/4

= 2013.18 W/m.k

DISCUSSION
Experiment C: Determination of the mean surface heat transfer coefficient for finned tubes
in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th rows of finned cross flow heat exchanger

In this experiment, calculation is to be done to obtain the value of Nusselt Number. The
equation involved in this calculation are :

hD
 CI  Re max 
n

kf

n n
hD  V a / 2  D   V aD 
 CI     CI  
kf   a  D  / 2  V f   (a  D ) f 

Graph of ln Nu versus ln Remax is plotted by using the equation,

ln Nu = n ln Remax + ln C1

From the graph plotted based on the obtained results by performing this experiment, it can
be seen that ln Nu is directly proportional to ln Re max. Comparing with the linear graph form
of Y=mX + C, the slope of the graph represents the value of n. The y-axis intercept of the
graph represents the value of ln C1. The value of C1 is determined as follows,

C1 = e(y-intercept)

The value of heat transfer in each of the row is then calculated by using the equation,

h = (C1 x Remaxn x kf )/D


Based on the calculation that has been done the area for the finned tubes is A = 0.0061895
m2.The equation used to calculate this value is

A = пD(l-Fnt) + [ 2Fn (п/4 (Df2 – D2) ) + FnпDft ] nf

For Row 1, 2 and 3 the value shows the same trend, for which the Re max, Nu and H increases
as going down the iris from 1 to 6. For row 4, the trend for the value of of Re max, Nu and h
increases from iris 1 to 5 but at iris 6, the values seems to decrease. The value is supposed to
keep increasing till iris 6 but the decrease in value could be caused by the instability in the
power supplied to the heat exchanger, causing the result to fluctuate. The air velocity, V
increases while most of the differences in the inlet and outlet temperatures decrease from
iris 1 to 6, indicating more rapid heat transfer process. This happens because as the velocity
increases, the frequency of collision of the particles with the surfaces because the particles
have more energy. The increasing frequency of collision will increase the process of heat
transfer.

Reliability

The results that we obtained are not accurate enough due to certain errors when this
experiment was being conducted:

a) Human reaction error could happen when performing the experiment itself. This
could cause inconsistent time interval for the result to be taken by human. It is stated
that we have to take the temperature reading once it reaches steady state.
b) Loose fittings on the equipment may cause inaccurate result.
c) A thin layer of oxidation layer and impurities such as dust can also be found on the
surface of the tubes. The area for heat transfer is decreasing as it is covered by the
dust. This will somehow affect the heat transfer and efficiency of the tubes because
the area of heat transfer is very crucial in determining the heat transfer coefficient.
d) Inconsistent heat that is supplied to the tube causes the value to be fluctuate
because the heat supplied to the tube should be constant all the time.

Recommendation

There is some recommendation that could be taken into accountability to reduce the
percentage of error in the process of performing this experiment.

 Remove dust and fibers with a soft brush or with a vacuum cleaner. Take care when
cleaning with compressed air that exchanger package is not damaged. It is best to
keep a distance.
 Since it take a long time to cool down the equipment, more fan should be use so that
the equipment is not easily overheated.
 Conduct the experiment in a close room. This is to make sure no surrounding wind
will have an effect on the heat transfer.
 Always check the fittings on the equipment.
 Check the condition of the heater before start the experiment. The heater must be
ensured to provide a constant heat to the tubes.

CONCLUSION

From this experiment, we have achieved all our objective based on the third observation;
Determination of the mean surface heat transfer coefficient for finned tubes in the 1 st, 2nd, 3rd
and 4th rows of finned cross flow heat exchanger, which is:

1. To determine steady state mean surface heat transfer coefficient for finned tubes in a
first to fourth row of a cross flow heat exchanger.

Based on the results we obtained through the experiment, we can conclude that the effect
on disparate type of tubes on the heat transfer coefficient is disparate. For the finned tube
bundles, we observed that the velocity rises with the opening of the iris but the temperature
for both inlet and surface are seen to be fluctuating. Our group are only able to complete the
third observation because the cable for the first and second experiments are both spoil so
we cannot adjust the heat to 5W.

With the increasing of the differences between the inlet and outlet temperatures, the heat
transfer coefficient will decrease and vice versa. The maximum velocity is depends on the
inlet air velocity, means they are proportional to each other according to the formula given.

Also, we can also conclude that the heat transfer rises with the increasing of the air velocity.
The higher the air flow rate, the better the process of heat transfer occur. Positions and
adjustment of tubes in heat exchanger also affect the heat transfer rate while careen
situation transfers heat better that the aligned adjustment.

REFERENCES
1. Holman, J. P. (2010). Heat Transfer, 10th Edition. McGraw Hill.

2. Coulson & Richardson's Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, Elsevier. Butterworth


Heinemann.

3. Incropera, F. P. and D. P. De Witt (2007). Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th
Edition. John. Wiley and Sons.

4. W. McCabe, J. Smith, and P. Harriot, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th ed.
McGraw-Hill, 2005.

5. Tube Bundles, Tube Bundles, Finned Tube Bundle, Heat Exchanger Tube Bundle.
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.indiamart.com/temasmeveselex/tube-bundles.html

APPENDIX
Sample calculation for experiment 13c :

Row 1, Iris 1

Given

a=0.025m
D=0.01m
b=0.0185m

(a-D)/2 = 0.0075

Vmax = ((Va)/2)/( (a-D)/2)


= (3.64(0.025)/2)/0.0075
= 6.07
Remax = (Vmax D)/ vf
= (6.07)(0.01)/ 1.540 x10-5
= 3941.56

For finned tubes, the area is given by:

A = пD(l-Fnt) + [ 2Fn (п/4 (Df2 – D2) ) + FnпDft ] nf

where t = thickness of the fin

Fn = number of fins

l = length of the tube

Df = fin diameter

D = tube outside diameter

A = 0.0061895 m2

h = Q / (A (Ts – Ti))

= 5.08 / 0.0061895(0.65)

=1262.68

For no. of tubes to be 1, h/h 10 = 0.68

h10 = 1856.88

Nu = h10 D / kf

= (1856.88)(0.01) / 0.0260

= 714.18

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