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1. The pay of a worker depends on his seniority, 3. It cannot be denied that the influence of
that is to say, on the years he has been with politics on sport is not a new development.
the firm. ____ . When he is 30 or 40 years old, For instance, Mussolini’s Italy, with the fascists
therefore, he cannot afford to change jobs. If in command, was a fiery setting for the second
he did move, he would also lose valuable World Cup in 1934. ____ . However in our time
fringe benefits. Promotion depends on governments try to maintain a low profile in
seniority as well. sporting matters.

A) The results produced are not as good as A) In recent decades one has observed the
might be expected rising success in sports of several new
B) Even so some people prefer to change jobs
frequently B) Most countries spend huge amounts of
money in preparing their teams for
C) The longer he stays there, the higher his
international competitions
salary will be
C) In fact, Italy has been one of the few
D) He will not be laid off if the company no
countries that have maintained a constant
longer needs him
high standard in sporting events
E) It is a common practice among Japanese
D) In soccer it is not only the technical skill of a
workers to make it a family concern
player but also his age that counts
E) Even though the credit and praise for Italy’s
2. Lassa Fewer was first recognised in West
winning of the cup rightly went to the
Africa in 1982 when three missioner nurses
players and their coach, there was a great
working in Lassa became ill with a mysterious
deal of open political interference
infection and two died. ____ . Cases have also
occurred among medical and nursing staff
tending patients with the disease and in
laboratory workers handling specimens from

A) Since then a number of localized outbreaks

have been notified in several countries in
West Africa
B) Some infections flourish in warm countries
like those in the tropical regions
C) People travelling to West Africa are advised
to get themselves vaccinated
D) Malnutrition has been one of the major
hazards of the region
E) The World Health Organisation has taken
stringent measures to eradicate all kinds of
infectious diseases there

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4. Economic liberalisation and reform generally 5. With the end of the ideological rivalry between
promote economic development. This is not East and West, the world has a fresh chance to
always the case; for instance, the Soviet Union reinvigorate the idea and institution of
in the 1930s and East European countries in collective security. Now that there is wide
the 1950s achieved very high rates of agreement on first principles, the United
economic growth under state control. In the Nations can play the leading role its creators
contemporary world, however, state envisioned for it a half-century ago. An
ownership, controls and regulations have expanded Security Council, no longer
generally hindered economic development, paralysed by veto threats, can now become a
whereas, countries like the United States have more effective catalyst for UN action across a
created strong economies through the range of security and humanitarian needs.
implementation of economic liberalisation ____ .
policies. ____ .
A) And the General Assembly can serve as a
A) Economic reforms can most effectively be forum for more productive co-operation
carried out under strong government B) The cold war was then a threat to world
pressure peace
B) Countries that are still primarily agricultural C) The International Monetary Fund has
are most to be found in Asia and Latin always played an active role in the
America regulation of less developed countries
C) So it really is fair to say that economic D) The United States and her allies are
development is more likely to occur with committed to the maintenance of security
less state economic control than with more in the world
D) These two systems can obviously not be E) In dealing with the crisis, America’s
reconciled in the decades ahead enduring interests abroad have to be taken
E) Economic and social conditions have a great into consideration
impact on state ownership in certain

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6. In Britain at the head of the government 8. Vegetables eaten freshly cooked are safe.
structure is the Cabinet, which consists of the They may be contaminated after cooking or be
leading members of the majority party in the subject to spore germination and outgrowth if
Commons, selected by the Prime Minister. cooled slowly and stored warm. Salad
____ . Although legally ministers are vegetables, lettuce, tomatoes, radishes,
individually responsible for the exercise of cucumber and watercress should be washed in
government powers, politically it is expected water for not less than 30 seconds. ____ .
that the Cabinet is collectively responsible for
government policy. It thus acts as one man,
A) In some restaurants a great variety of salad
and a minister who disagrees with the Cabinet
is served
must either resign or remain silent.
B) Some people are not fond of vegetables at
A) The British Parliament consists of the
C) Water pollution is a serious danger that
Houses of Commons and Lords
threatens the world
B) Most Cabinet ministers are the heads of
D) This is especially important in countries
government departments, which are staffed
where crops are sometimes flooded with
by civil servants
water polluted with human and animal
C) In the British political system the monarch sewage.
has no executive powers
E) As a result of easy transportation and good
D) Local administrations enjoy considerable packaging, tropical vegetables are
autonomy in decision-making distributed worldwide
E) In the past British governments followed a
policy of non-intervention in the world

7. Bacteria are minute, single-celled organisms of

9. ____ . Never has a statement made anywhere
variable shape and activity. Along with the
been meant more literally. Without energy
viruses, they are classified as the lowest forms
nothing could walk, fly, prowl, dive, swim,
of plant life. Bacteria are everywhere - in soil,
chew, hiss, bark, or grow. Einstein showed
water, dust and in air. ____ . Some turn
that even matter is a form of energy. It should
decaying vegetable matter into manure;
be obvious, then, why energy is central to one
others within the human or animal body,
of the cardinal principles of ecology.
assist in the development of certain vitamins
essential to health.
A) The importance of' energy to human beings
is often overestimated
A) There are still many bacteria whose size and
B) Without energy there would be nothing
shape are not known yet.
C) The energy problem has been the main
B) Food poisoning is also caused by various
concern of many governments.
kinds of bacteria
D) The energy sources of the world are
C) A high-powered microscope is needed to
constantly being wasted.
detect bacteria in some substances
E) The committee has decided the new energy
D) Under hygienic circumstances no bacterial
policy for the decade.
activity takes place
E) There are thousands of different types and
many perform useful functions

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10. Even the smallest organisation, public or 11. People will exchange any goods or services
private, has a personnel function. People are for money: this is its most important function.
an organisation’s main resource and, In order to be a medium of exchange, money
although the links between the personnel must be acceptable: ____ Initially, this
department and other departments are not confidence was created by using metals like
always obvious, it is important that gold and silver which in themselves were
cooperation between all departments and valuable. The coins, notes and cheques which
personnel is maintained. It is the personnel are used as money today are not in
department, with the help of the other themselves worth what they represent.
departments, which will implement any Nevertheless, they are accepted by everyone
manpower policies by recruiting, selecting in business transactions.
and training all employees. ____ .
A) this primitive method of exchange is no
A) This shows that personnel departments longer used
carry out crucial functions in organisations B) therefore, it plays a vital role in
B) That is why institutions will be forced to international trade
make huge investments C) that is, it must enjoy everyone's confidence
C) Certainly, some functions such as research D) the creation of money made business
or legal advice are carried out by different transactions much easier
E) money provides a standard measurement in
D) In fact, no government agency would have business
been involved in such a case
E) Initially, each department was required to
submit their proposals for improvement
12. ____ . There is, for instance, an obvious
relationship between increases in economic
wealth and general improvements in our life
style. The extent of the interrelationship
between social and economic change means
that many business organisations are affected
by changes in society.

A) The nature of family life is constantly

B) Most forms of social change are related to
economic change
C) New economic policies adopted by the
government give priority to economic
D) Successive governments have tried to solve
the problems resulting from economic
E) Population growth has a damaging effect on
economic recovery

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13. It seems that in most countries, the 15. The word “psychology’ was coined by the
categorising of the handicapped is ancient Greeks as a label for their
undergoing a change. In particular, the idea philosophic probings into the human
of mental handicap is being recognised. The “psyche”. ____ . But how does this go about
case of autistic children is an example of this. studying the mind scientifically? Science
____ . implies measurement. How does one
measure something which can neither be
seen nor heard nor touched?
A) It is now clear that these children can be
B) On the contrary, the handicapped can get A) This is why psychology has come to be
effective education in regular classrooms known as the study of behaviour
C) As far as the authorities are concerned, B) It is not the only discipline that is
more attention should be given to concerned with a systematic study of
budgetary restrictions behaviour
D) Judging from the data gathered recently, C) All of these disciplines are rightly regarded
throughout the world the handicapped as behavioural sciences
are not receiving the care they actually D) Sociology, on the other hand, is devoted in
need largest part to the nature and
E) In fact, among reforms proposed by the development of human society
ministry, is the form of general election. E) Gradually it came to mean the study of
the “mind”, and still, in part, retains that
14. In this age crime has become everyday event,
and this has had an effect on our reading.
Readers no longer look for an escape when
they pick up a crime novel. ____ . That is, they
want to learn something about the real world,
and about those good and bad, who inhabit it.

A) Crime novelists cannot be dismissed simply

because the incidents they describe are
inherently more interesting than those in
other kinds
B) Today the crime novel, in all its forms,
proceeds more surely and satisfactorily
from character
C) Most novelists see crime as a fascinating
topic when they creatively write about
D) They read it for the same reasons they read
novels of any other kind
E) A great majority of readers regard incidents
in a crime novel as more fantasy

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16. ____ . Size alone has clearly nothing to do 17. For centuries, scientists and philosophers
with the distinction, there are some huge have speculated on the structure of the
colleges and some small universities. Is the universe and the existence of galaxies outside
difference to be found in breadth or scope of our own. But until the 20th century, they were
instructional offerings? Not according to the able to do no more than speculate. ____ .
late Hastings Renewal, whose three-volume Using grant telescopes, ultraviolet and
“Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages” infrared instruments, and high speed
is a classic in the field. computers, they are studying the formation of
galaxies for further insights into the nature of
A) Public institutions are in a different
B) The content and the structure of general A) Meanwhile, the study of other galaxies has
education need to be improved led to an extraordinary insight into the
possible structure of the universe
C) First, let us clarify the terms “college” and
“university” B) We know, of course, that the universe is
designed on a scale far more grand
D) In most countries college has come to
mean a label for a higher institution of C) After decades of speculation, in fact, we
limited or special scope have started to penetrate to the very centre
of our own galaxy
E) A number of colleges and universities have
experimented with curricular structures D) Now, however, scientists have determined
that the universe is made up of thousands
of millions of galaxies
E) They have located regions that are very
much disturbed with hot turbulent gases
swirling at great force about the centre

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18. Few artists have had such an impact on their 20. The universe includes everything from the
own and succeeding ages as has smallest sub-atomic particle to the mightiest
Michelangelo. He became a myth even in his system of stars. ____. It is worth considering
own lifetime. Now a vast amount of source first just what a “scientific view” is, and what
material about him has been collected is remarkable about it.
including letters poems and contracts. ____ .
A) Every year more and more is learned
A) For him manual execution was a vital about atomic particles
component of the creative process and, B) Scientists have devoted much energy to
on occasion, seemed part of the process the study of solar system
of design itself
C) The scientific view of the universe is a
B) Nevertheless, modern history of art has remarkable achievement of the human
formed an image of the artist that is much mind
nearer to historical truth than those
D) Science is the basis of all that we have of
presented by his first biographers
high technology
C) Precisely for this reason, the earlier
E) Astrology and cosmology are the sciences
history of art is filled with distorted
most closely interrelated
material which is mostly mere speculation
D) Indeed, one of the most striking
peculiarities of his work is the great
number of pieces that were left
E) Thus the artist’s character, his daily habits,
and his working habits are known to us

19. When we got on the plane, we were directed 21. The feudal system in Europe lasted from
to our seats by the stewardess, and as the th
about 6 century to roughly the middle of
plane was ready to take off, all the passengers th
the 15 century. ____. This was because
were asked to fasten their seat-belts. ____. society throughout this period was based
almost entirely on agriculture.
A) Moreover the noise of the engines had
made some people very uncomfortable A) A king was free to grant whatever title he
B) Some of the passengers will not be allowed wished to his vassals
to enter the country B) In England, however, it began much later
C) On the other hand, more than half of us C) On the whole people were getting critical
were against the suggestion of the church towards the end of the
D) Afterwards we were given some advice on period
what to do in case of an emergency D) No explanation has been found for rapid
E) Still, airline companies could develop new spread of the system throughout Europe
strategies to keep air fares at a reasonable E) It was a military and political organisation
level firmly depending on land tenure

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22. ____ ; taking jobs to people or bringing 24. In recent years remarkable results have been
people to the jobs. If the latter alternative is achieved in the field of organ transplants.
chosen, the government should encourage the Formerly, a genetically alien tissue could not
mobility of labour through retraining schemes be transplanted. ____ . This is now no longer
or a rehousing subsidy. the case.

A) There are essentially two ways of tackling A) Naturally the future of the medicine will be
the problem of regional unemployment affected greatly by developments in organ
B) Regional planning is usually a two stage transplants
activity B) We are familiar with it as the response of
C) One of the major problems facing most the body to an infectious germ
governments is migration from rural to C) Actually the body generates an army of
urban areas antibodies to fight off the invading germs
D) Unemployment and high inflation are the D) Eventually, it will be possible to transplant
two major causes of unrest any organ from one person to another
E) Whatever else may be overlooked, E) Plastic surgery used to depend on using the
investment in poorer areas must be skin or tissues of the patient himself or of a
continued genetically identical twin

23. In Britain, the manufacturing industry 25. The science of computers and the technology
accounts for about 70 percent of industrial of their use are broad and complex subjects.
production. Within manufacturing some _____ . Consequently, as in other similar
industries such as chemicals, petroleum fields so in computer sciences, there is a
products and electrical engineering have great variety of terminology and jargon.
expanded rapidly since World War II,
whereas some industries have had a slower
A) Even children in primary schools now
growth rate. ____ .
learn to use computers
B) Obviously there are several types of
A) Inflation was to make the problem of computers which would serve this
unemployment even more serious particular purpose adequately
B) New competitors had already begun to C) The languages the computer understands
dominate the market are easily understood by even ordinary
C) Among these can be mentioned ship people
building, textiles and clothing D) One recent development is that
D) On the whole the southern countries have computers are getting smaller and smaller
been more prosperous than the northern E) Moreover the rapid rate of change in this
ones field has contributed still further to this
E) On the contrary, management strategies complexity
could have saved the situation

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26. _____ . The feudal lords in England had always 28. All considered, the United States has the
run their own law courts and profited by the world's most efficient overall economy.
fines paid by those brought to court. But King _____ . This increase in efficiency has in part
John took many cases out of their courts and been made possible by the fact that this
tried them in his own, taking the money for sector is less heavily unionised than the
himself. manufacturing sector.

A) King John always had the full support of the A) Unfortunately many American car
feudal lords manufacturers have lost a sizeable share
B) The administration of justice in Medieval of the world market
England was completely centralised B) In fact Japan has become one of the
C) King John who lived in the 13th century, biggest exporters of high-tech goods
was unpopular mainly because he was C) Many American steel plants have entered
greedy a period of recession
D) Medieval economy in England was based on D) Europe, however, has been making itself
agriculture more efficient in the services industry
E) The history of the British Parliament goes E) Competition from Germany is a threat
back to the signing of Magna Carta both to Japan and the US

27. The main power of the media lies in the fact 29. When Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in
that it can shape what we know about the 1885, the Soviet Union had the only
world and can be a main source of ideas and advanced economy that had not joined the
opinions. _____ . This power is greater if we computer age. As a result of this, Soviet-
consider all the various media together, not manufactured products found no customers
just one, such as the Press. in world markets. He realised that to
modernise the country, it was essential to
permit the free exchange of scientific and
A) The most influential media is obviously
technological ideas. _____ .
B) Indeed it can influence the way we think
and act more than we realise A) He played a constructive role in the
reduction of weapons of mass destruction
C) Journalists are jealous of the power of
television B) The average income, over the last five
years, has dropped considerably
D) In recent decades the main concern of the
media has been democracy C) The process of industrialisation, therefore,
came to a halt
E) Most governments ignore the influence of
the media on society D) Any radical political change would obviously
have encountered fierce opposition
E) This, indeed, was the policy he followed
while he was in power

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30. The most important ideas of the 19th century 32. Below the earth’s crust the rocks are hot. By
was that everyone had the right to personal drilling the crust, these rocks can be reached.
freedom which was the basis of capitalism. ___ . This in turn can be used to produce
This idea had spread widely through Adam electricity.
Smith's book Wealth of Nations, written in the
18th century. _____ . Fewer laws, they
A) Areas where there is volcanic activity must
claimed, meant more freedom, and freedom
be avoided
for individuals would lead to happiness for the
B) Such proceedings are obviously extremely
greatest number of people.
C) Water can be pumped down into contact
A) The British government at this time was
with these rocks to produce steam
reluctant to make use of his ideas
D) Geothermal energy is the name given to this
B) The result was a number of laws were
particular form of energy
passed to prevent people carrying guns
E) Millions of years ago the earth was a liquid
C) Obviously Adam Smith was well informed
about working conditions in the factories
D) After Adam Smith, several capitalist
economists argued that governments
should not interfere in trade and industry at
E) By the turn of the 20th century, capitalism
had grown less popular outside England

31. Michelangelo hated to delegate work to

33. Acupuncturists treat all kinds of conditions
others and would only do so in an extreme
ranging from headaches to strokes. ____ . In
emergency. ____ ; and certainly no artist of
Britain, this very rarely happens, but some
note emerged from his studio.
health insurance schemes do cover.
A) The Chinese first developed this branch of
A) His assistants, moreover, were all medicine
exceptionally talented
B) Many of the people who practice
B) As a result he has been accused of not acupuncture are not fully qualified
passing on his artistic skill to others
C) This kind of treatment hasn’t been
C) Naturally he was unwilling to do much of approved of by the medical profession yet
the purely manual work himself
D) In France and Germany acupuncture is
D) As a result many of his works had to be available under national health schemes
finished by his assistants.
E) Contrary to general belief this method of
E) He went to great pains to train his assistants treatment is not in the least painful

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34. As scientific knowledge increased, so did the 36. ____ . X-rays can tell a cultured pearl from a
practical applications. The eighteenth natural one because they can detect the
century witnessed what is actually called the structure of mother of pearl in the side.
Industrial Revolution, ____ . Since then, Cultured pearls are usually less expensive than
there has been a succession of technical natural ones though actually they, too, are
innovations and fewer manual workers have “real” pearls.
been needed.
A) The last X-ray showed an improvement in
A) when machines began to do more and her condition
more of the work that had previously B) Cultured pearls are cheap imitations of the
been done by human beings and animals real thing
B) as nuclear and solid-state physics are C) The difference between a cultured pearl
disciplines that have evolved more and a real one is obvious at a glance
D) The pearls that are “cultured” fetch a higher
C) for mathematics, it should be noted, is the price than the “natural” ones do
basic tool of modern engineering
E) Cultured pearls are produced by inserting a
D) so the engineer must always be willing to bead of mother of pearl into an oyster,
face new challenges which then coats in the pearl
E) which is likely to lead to much unnecessary
suffering particularly as the workforce is
largely made up of young people

35. ____ . But most psychotherapists would say

37. The brain's main nutritional substance is
that such depression stems from buried grief
glucose. ____ . If a diabetic patient receives
or pain. For example someone who has been
an overdose of insulin there is a fall in the
unhappy as a child may become depressed as
blood’s glucose.
an adult.

A) Furthermore, the brain is the seat of

A) One should not let oneself get depressed
B) Sometimes one may be depressed for no
B) Surgeons know exactly where to cut the
apparent reason
affected part of the brain
C) People who are depressed aren’t good
C) The brain is very sensitive to changes in the
blood's glucose level
D) During the last two decades problems
D) This can have a harmful effect on a child's
pertaining to mental health have steadily
learning process
E) Even so the effects of smoking cannot be
E) The crime rate goes up with the increase
of depression

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38. ____ . This area is called a reservoir. The water 40. Before 1950, in Britain, it was the
stored in it can be used for irrigation or power responsibility of the municipalities to
generation; it can also be used to supply water provide gas and electricity for public use.
to homes and industry. However this was changed by the Attlee
government; ____ . Among them were steel,
coal and railways.
A) A dam is a wall, generally constructed
across a valley, to enclose an area in which
water is stored A) even the Conservatives were impressed at
B) A dam is a complex structure, consisting of the results
various parts B) they were extremely concerned about
C) The GAP Project has already brought great unemployment and economic decline
benefits to the region C) there was naturally a great deal of public
D) The site for any dam has to be chosen with reaction
great care D) the policy they followed was bound to
E) South East Turkey is obviously even richer in make them unpopular
water resources E) all gas and electricity services were
nationalised along with several other

41. Bridges are among the most important, and

39. People visit Cappadocia for a number of
often the most spectacular, of all civil
reasons. Mainly they come for the exotic
engineering works. ____ . Without them it
scenery and the archaeological interest. ____ .
would be impossible to imagine how traffic in
Moreover, in the vicinity, there are many
Istanbul could circulate. Moreover they are
places of remarkable beauty and historical
the symbolic link of two continents.

A) A further aspect of civil engineering is the

A) Unfortunately it hasn't been sufficiently
choice of a suitable site
B) The construction of bridges requires a
B) The rock monasteries, in particular, draw
number of engineering skills
large crowds
C) One of the major problems posed by long
C) It is only recently that the number of
bridges is that of maintenance
tourists to Cappadocia has declined
D) The bridges across the Bosphorus are a case
D) The majority of tourists coming to Turkey
in point
prefer sea-side resorts
E) Historically there has always been a dream
E) Few people realise that Cappadocia could
to construct a bridge across the Bosphorus
be developed as a tourist centre

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42. Following World War II, there was an era of 44. In Britain today every household with a TV set
great optimism, economic growth and must, by law, pay for a license which costs
affluence. It lasted, however, for only a short about the same for a year as a popular
period of time. ____ . This was largely due to newspaper every day. A few people including
continuous economic recession and a whole those with noncolour TV pay less. ____ .
series of world crises. Another important source is the selling of its
productions to other broadcasting stations.
A) The super powers should be held
responsible for this state of affairs A) The BBC enjoyed a monopoly until 1954.
B) Especially in the West the growth in the B) Unlike the press the BBC has rarely been
population was noticeable accused of being partial.
C) Many people looked forward to a better C) The new payments are mainly compulsory
future for all subscription to the BBC, which derives
D) Indeed the European Community took nearly all of its funds from this source.
serious measures aimed at reducing D) News programs and films still attract the
unemployment largest audience.
E) From the 1970s onwards a new mood of E) Since the 1970s most British households
frustration and disillusionment set in have had TV sets able to receive channels.

43. Ever since universities have existed there have 45. The Times newspaper has three weekly
been arguments about what books should be supplements all published and sold separately.
taught to students. ____ . Others have These are The Times Literary Supplement, The
maintained that such a practice does not help Times Education Supplement and The Times
the students to distinguish between the good Higher Education Supplements. ____ . It is
and the bad. Instead, they have suggested that devoted almost entirely to reviews and covers
students should be exposed to a wider range all kinds of new literature.
of writing.
A) Obviously they influence the way people
A) Some have acquired that students should think to a considerable extent.
be introduced to the “great” books of the B) Glossy weekly magazines cater for special
world. interests.
B) In fact, university authorities have always C) Both of these appeal only to a restricted
concerned themselves with this problem. number of people.
C) This is not to say that all students should D) Of these the Literary Supplement has the
read the same books. biggest number of readers.
D) The decision taken was that we limit E) They make good use of academic
ourselves to the world classics. contributions on issues related to education
E) The problem was heatedly debated right and literature.
through the 1950s.

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46. In general, the farther north one goes in 47. The habit of thinking about the past as divided
England the more adequate are roads for the into water-tight periods is especially
traffic they have to carry. ____ . But the roads in dangerous when it comes to economic and
the south of England, apart from the motorways social history. Actually ‘periods’ usually have,
which radiate from London must be among the as their names imply a purely political
most inadequate in Europe. Traffic there connotation - ‘the Tudor age’ or ‘the age of
frequently moves at walking pace. Louis XIV’. ____ . Rather absorbed in its own
daily task it flows on like an underground river
only occasionally making eruption into the
A) It is advisable to use the metro in London:
upper daylight of politics.
for traffic jams make other forms of
transport completely unreliable.
B) Wales and Scotland for instance are well- A) This system, which originated in late
designed with great lengths of nearly empty medieval times, only blossomed in modern
dual carriage ways. times.
C) The noise of the traffic has, in fact, B) The characteristics of one age thus
increased very little in recent years. invariably overlap into the next.
D) Similarly in London traffic hardly moves C) But economic and social life takes little heed
faster now than it did a century ago when of the deaths of kings or the accession of
vehicles were horse-drawn. new dynasties.
E) Several new schemes are now being D) The great innovators of social reform have
considered to alleviate this condition all too often remained unacknowledged.
E) The approach of the modern historian has
been to play down this important trend.

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48. A teacher’s expectancy of a child’s ability can 50. At the beginning of this century, a group of
often determine the child’s actual writers from scattered mid-western towns
performance at school. If a group of children is came together in bustling, commercial
divided into two groups of equal aptitude but Chicago. From the rough immediacy of the
their teachers are told that the children in city, they forged a style that was distinctively
group 1 have high IQs and are expected to do and unsparingly realistic. ____ . In fact the
well, whereas in group 2 the children are critics were soon to describe Chicago as the
academically poor, ____ . This has been borne literary capital of the US.
out by numerous studies in many fields not
only in education.
A) Most of them, however, eventually moved
away from Chicago.
A) The children in group 1 will do much better B) The "Chicago Renaissance" fuelled by these
than those in group 2. writers soon captured the attention of the
B) The performance of each group is likely to rest of the nation.
be similar. C) It is now commonplace of literary criticism
C) The quality of the teaching could account that there is a close relationship between
for the difference. cities and their writers.
D) The children felt discouraged by the results. D) Chicano is indeed a city of absorbing
E) The children in group 2 soon realized what contrast in the field of architecture.
was happening and complained accordingly. E) American realism differs in many obvious
ways from European realism.
49. Most of our misconceptions of art arise from a
lack of consistency in the use of the words 51. Italy is the great country of fountains, and the
“art” and “beauty”. ____ . We always assume fountains of Rome are world famous. ____ . It
that all that is beautiful is art, or that all art is was built in the time of Pope Clement XII
beautiful, that what is not beautiful is not art, about the middle of the eighteenth century.
and that ugliness is the negation of art. This The fountain and the palace behind it are a
identification of art and beauty is at the good examples of the baroque style of
bottom of all our difficulties in the architecture, which gives a feeling of
appreciation of art. magnificence, movement and excitement.

A) The painter usually expresses himself by the A) The fountain of Trevi, in Rome, is one of the
representation of the visible world most magnificent in the city.
B) The relation between art and religion is one B) This style is especially effective for fountains
of the most difficult questions that we have because of the moving water.
to face. C) The water is brought underground from a
C) Expressionism in modern art is a distinct spring many miles outside the city.
movement, having little or nothing in D) A statue of Neptune in the fountain is
common with cubism.. surrounded by numerous other figures.
D) It might be said that we are only consistent E) The city of Rome has been the capital of
in our misuse of these words Italy ever since it was founded thousands of
E) Some people are quite unaware of the years ago.
importance of proportion in architecture,
and have no sense of shape, surface and

Sayfa 15 / 93

52. ____ . His principal equipment is a leather, 53. The Federal Republic of Germany, founded in
couch for patients to lie on and a cabinet of 1949, had as its first Chancellor Dr. Konrad
mysterious drugs of one kind or another to Adenauer. His Christian Democrat government
send them off to sleep. He is particularly produced conditions of stability and
interested in the dreams of his clients and may confidence in which Germany rebuilt her
use some form of hypnosis to study their shattered prosperity and a viable
repressed thoughts and secret emotions. parliamentary democracy. Further, his work in
building a special relationship with France,
culminating in a treaty of friendship, was a
A) More and more large firms are realising the
dramatic contrast to the long tradition of
advantages offered by psychiatry
enmity towards France. ____ .
B) No one may prescribe drugs or surgery in
treating mentally sick individuals unless he
is medically qualified A) Even so, Adenauer's successor Dr. Erhard
was a loyal supporter of the Atlantic
C) It is important to realise that psychologists
are first and foremost trained as scientists
rather than as medical experts. B) Moreover, he strove relentlessly for
German reunification within the boundaries
D) Psychologists are primarily concerned with
of 1937, stressing West Germany's right to
behaviour and its abnormalities.
speak for the whole of Germany.
E) The popular image of a psychiatrist is a
C) The Brandt Government's main
fairly well defined one
achievements were in the field of foreign
D) On the other hand, Brandt had built up his
reputation as mayor of West Berlin before
he was elected Chancellor.
E) Indeed, the tension within the government
were heightened by protracted negotiations
between the coalition partners over policies
to counter the sharply rising trend of

Sayfa 16 / 93
54. 1972 was not an easy or a successful year for 56. In connection with the American dream, one
the Heath Government in Britain. It was a year needs to remember that the world “dream” is
of confrontation with the trade unions. ____ . not a synonym for “reality”; it means rather a
Indeed, it was even forced to adopt certain “hope” or a “possibility”. Further the original
policies similar to those which it had attacked American dream had little to do with material
so vehemently when it had been in possessions but a lot to do with choices,
Opposition. beginnings and opportunity. ____

A) Finally, after 1972, there was industrial A) However, such a really successful
action in protest against the Government's businessman soon outgrows his dreams.
prices and incomes policy B) This is why so many dreams were realised.
B) These problems were aggravated by C) Obviously, the only dreams one remembers
persistently high levels of unemployment, are those that come true.
especially in certain regions.
D) Thus everyone had dreams of growing rich
C) It was also a year in which the pressure of fast.
circumstances forced the Government to
E) It was not a guarantee of success but simply
aband on many of the initiatives it had
an opportunity to try.
started in I970
D) Moreover, negotiations with the EEC
started immediately after the general
election of 1970
E) Consequently, a 90-day standstill was
imposed on wages, and prices and charges
for goods and services were similarly frozen

57. The style of our lives is often based on the

type of work we do. Some jobs allow for
55. Aristotle considered that the stars must move flexible schedules which enable us to take
in circles because the circle is the most perfect time off to deal with personal or family needs.
curve. In the absence of evidence to the ____ Other jobs are quite inflexible. With
contrary, ____ . In such a case it is at once these we only have evenings and weekends to
obvious to us that this appeal was deal family needs but when we do go home,
unjustifiable. work stays at the job site.

A) he was naturally drawn to the least A) Thus the type of work we do tends to turn
erroneous method us all into stereotypes.
B) he allowed himself to decide a question of B) Naturally, most of us work not only for
fact by an appeal to aesthetic-moral money but also for status.
considerations C) There is an important disadvantage with
C) all objections to the doctrine were readily this type of work; we often have to take
overcome our work home with us.
D) such a scientific attitude of mind might be D) Actually the average person doesn’t even
expected to dispel all desires other than the hope for job satisfaction.
desire for knowledge. E) Changes in traditional family roles are
E) His determination to regard this as a natural slowly having an effect – usually adverse -
phenomenon was greatly admired on the work place.

Sayfa 17 / 93
58. According to social scientists we learn to see 60. Bulbs are ideal for new gardeners because
ourselves as others see us. In a sense, we look they are easy to plant and flower well in
at ourselves from outside. ____ Presently we their first season. ____ and grow happily in
settle into a pattern of behaviour through all types of soil. They came up year after
interactions with others; and we learn the year and delight the eye with their rich
“rules” of behaviour for our particular colours and lovely shapes.
A) They require comparatively little attention
A) We form an idea of what others want and B) The tulip, however, isn’t everybody’s
expect of us. favourite flower
B) Those who don’t regularly follow these rules C) As a result, the site must be chosen with
are regarded as abnormal. great care
C) Children soon learn that good behaviour is D) Farmers are all satisfied with the results
rewarded. they get in a short time
D) Thus, the physical and social environment E) Even experienced gardeners get
exert less of an influence. disappointing results
E) The choice we make is invariably governed
by what we assume will be the most
rewarding option.

61. We all know that learning is important. _____

59. It is now a commonplace to note how the jet
? A dictionary might tell you that learning is
aircraft and the TV screen have transformed
acquiring knowledge through experience and
our old ideas of geography. Technology has
study. A teacher might tell you that it is
indeed compressed time and space. ____ In
memorising what he wants you to know for an
the past people grew familiar with their
examination. Your boss might tell you that it is
neighbours across the sea slowly and gradually
mastery of the task you are hired to do. A
over generations. This is no longer the case.
psychologist might tell you that it is a
The meeting is abrupt and often violent.
relatively permanent change in behaviour due
to past experience. Obviously, learning takes
A) The Mediterranean world at that time had place in many ways and forms.
already the experience of commerce behind
A) How is it managed
B) Documentaries of the natural world are
B) What exactly do you mean
particularly instructive.
C) Yet can one depend on it
C) Naturally older people tend to feel nostalgic
D) But what exactly is it
about their youth.
E) Do you think it can be mastered
D) It was Spain in the sixteenth century that
pioneered this sort of work.
E) But living these new realities is not so easy
as talking about them.

Sayfa 18 / 93
62. Someone once said that there are three sides 64. _____ . The faltering economy they inherited
to every questionable issue: your side, my side was now under additional pressure from those
and the “right” side. _____ . For instance, the newly employed, including the million-man
reactions to the issue of abortion are usually army of the former regime. There were critical
divided into two basic viewpoints: for or shortages of foreign exchange and gold, much
against. But the issue is not that simple. Other of which had been stolen in the final days of
questions begin to surface, which turn the the war. There were also at least two million
issue into a complex one and make it new refugees, nearly 10 % of the population.
necessary for us to look at it from many sides. Virtually, the country was in a state of total
A) Unknowingly people become conditioned to
speak out of prejudice A) The end of the war in Vietnam brought
B) In truth, there may be many sides, massive problems to the new leaders of the
depending upon the issue itself country
C) As we mature, our beliefs are also shaped B) In the first place, all industry was
both directly and indirectly by the media nationalised by the new Vietnamese
D) Consequently our thinking process becomes
overruled by others’ opinions C) One unexpected problem facing the new
government was continuing military activity
E) Even when we think we are acting as
individuals by rejecting the ideas of one D )One solution to the urban problems facing
group, we are often just accepting the ideas Vietnam was to get people to return to the
of another countryside
E) In their first months in power Vietnam’s new
leaders succeeded in persuading hundreds
63. Some sociologists are concerned that America
of thousands of people to move back to
is no longer ‘a melting pot’ but ‘ a salad bowl.’
their farms
Unlike most earlier immigrants who were
willing to learn English and wanted to ‘melt’
into American life, many of today’s
immigrants do not see the need. _____ ? How
will all this affect America’s future?

A) Why did most European immigrants settle

in the cities rather than on farms
B) What was city life like for most immigrants
C) What changes can we expect in the make-
up of America’s population by the year 2000
D) What hardships did the early immigrants
face when they arrived in America
E) How far back can an American trace his

Sayfa 19 / 93
65. Gathering information on a possible adversary 66. In the 1900s cancer was nearly always fatal;
or adversaries is only the start of the by the 1930s one out of five cancer patients
intelligence process. The raw material, once in was saved; by 1975 treatment was successful
hand, must be drawn together, analysed, in one out of every three cancer patients.
correlated, and evaluated before it becomes _____ .
useful knowledge. _____ . From this appraisal
which points to his most likely course of
A) New evidence suggests that the highest risk
action, the target state can chart a course of
for lung cancer occurs in asbestos workers
action best designed to meet the developing
who smoke
B) Indeed every one knows that cancer refers
A) The ethics of secret intelligence operations
to a group of over 100 different diseases
have long been debated
C) Today scientists and physicians believe that
B) At this stage there emerges an estimate of
half of cancer patients can be saved if
the adversary’s intentions and of his ability
present knowledge is applied promptly in
to achieve them
every case
C) But the richest source is usually the secret
D) Rehabilitation of the cancer patient has
agent, who is always a highly skilled and
become an important new concern for
well trained professional
social workers
D) Intelligence findings are, therefore, usually
E) The aim of cancer rehabilitation is to help
classified and limited in circulation.
the patient lead as normal a life as possible
E) In recent decades, technology has
enormously lengthened the reach and
sharpened the penetration of intelligence

Sayfa 20 / 93
67. What is soul? From Plato onwards, many 69. ____ . Composers such as Schubert,
answers have been given to this question, Schumann, Listz, and Berlioz sought a new
but no one answer has ever been found to freedom in musical expression. Form became
be adequate. ____ . Presumably we must of less importance than content; and that
mean something by it. content often had literary connections.

A) His definition, quite understandably, soon A) Wordsworth is one of the best-known of all
returned to favour the English Romantic poets.
B) Even so, the word is still in constant use B) Mendelssohn and Brahms are the two most
C) At a still later period soul and character typical representative composers of the
were equated Romantic era.
D) If there had been further developments in C) The Romantic movement, which began
this line they may have proved significant around the year 1800 in literature, also had
its counterpart in music.
E) The next step would then have been to
differentiate between soul and body D) In fact, the Romantic movement itself did
not last very long.
E) Among the Romantic composers, Brahms
has generally been the most popular.

68. The Japanese have a strong aesthetic sense;

70. Just how the Alzheimer disease ravages the
they beautify, adorn and decorate everything
brain isn’t understood, but a protein molecule
they touch. ____ . It is cut into an artistic
is thought to be involved. ____ . On the theory
shape and given a colour scheme with
that the protein causes the disorder by
carefully placed pieces of tomato and herbs.
travelling from other tissues to the brain,
researchers may now seek to devise drugs that
A) Presumably they get a great deal of would block the protein and stop it getting
satisfaction out of such elegant displays there.
B) The art of flower arrangement is
particularly well developed in Japan.
A) If this is confirmed it may lead to a break-
C) Many of these arrangements consist of through in the treatment of the disease.
merely two or three flowers and a spring
B) In fact it hardly seems worthwhile to carry
of green.
out further research into the Alzheimer
D) Naturally this is especially true of the disease.
women of that country
C) Much research has already been carried out
E) A sandwich in Japan is not a sandwich. It is to discover the causes of the disease.
a work of art, designed to appeal not just
D) Once the molecule had been isolated it was
to the palate but also to the eye.
possible to cure the condition.
E) The Alzheimer disease is just one of the
many incurable illnesses that inflict people
in the developed countries.

Sayfa 21 / 93

71. Underdeveloped countries are those in which 72. The purpose of a novel varies with its type.
economic structure and development are held Anthony Trollope’s statement has a
back. The causes of the condition of fundamental validity: “the object of a novel
underdevelopment are complex, but two should be to instruct in morals while it
opposing sets of theories dominates amuses.” At one extreme, some novels are
discussion. ____ . On the other hand there are expressly meant to teach, such as some
the theories that ascribe underdevelopment children’s novels and social novels. ____ .
directly to the distortions of economic However, one can say that the aim of most
structure and the exploitation involved in the novels is to reveal and stimulate thought
relations between the developed and the about aspects of human behaviour both
underdeveloped countries. individually and in personal and social
A) In other words, development and
underdevelopment are mutually A) Hence, fantasy has become increasingly
interdependent. popular, especially in the form of science
B) This view implies that the state and process fiction.
of underdevelopment in certain countries is B) Therefore, a novel is a fictitious prose
inevitable. narrative, usually of more than fifty
C) On the one hand there are those theories thousand words in length.
that attribute underdevelopment to the C) On the whole, Daniel Defoe is regarded as
internal characteristics of the the first notable English novelist.
underdeveloped countries themselves. D) At the other, some novels are meant simply
D) Accordingly, such countries are responsible as entertainment, such as detective stories
for their own underdevelopment. and much science fiction.
E) However, no country in the world is E) At the same time, the reading public has
completely isolated from the current increased in numbers, especially among the
monetary policies. educated.

Sayfa 22 / 93

73. ____ . Not easy, is it? Yet 150 years ago, that 74. Today most of France’s 600.000 Jews are well
is exactly what it was. Over a century and half established and assimilated, though some
the people of Hong Kong have managed to pockets of anti-Semitism still remain. Research
transform that rock into a world financial earlier this decade found one in four
centre. With a government committed to free Frenchmen complaining that there were too
trade and free enterprise, and also because of many Jews in France, while one in five
its location in the heart of Asia Pacific region, admitted to feelings of antipathy towards
Hong Kong has thrived and is now the world’s them. ____ .
eleventh largest trading economy.
A) During the Second World War the Vichy
A) Imagine Hong Kong as a barren rock government introduced laws that banned
B) There are a host of reasons behind Hong Jews from holding a wide range of jobs
Kong’s economic success B) According to another poll at the time, only
C) Hong Kong has a harbour which has been 9% said they would not vote for a Jew as
described as the world’s busiest president
D) Imagine what one can achieve in Hong Kong C) Consequently, from the 13 century until
the French Revolution in 1789, Jews in
E) Think of the excellent investment
France, as in many other places in Europe,
opportunities Hong Kong offers today.
were systematically persecuted
D) Even so the Germans still wrestle with their
consciences over their attitude, past and
present, to the Jews
E) In 1995, Chirac became the first French
president to admit the French state’s
responsibility in rounding up the Jews to be
sent to Nazi extermination camps.

Sayfa 23 / 93

75. Africans have at last lost patience with their 76. The Pitcairn Islanders in the Pacific were
governments. They are particularly angry originally the mutineers of the ship Bounty.
about declining living standards, the They took possession of the island Pitcairn in
breakdown of law and order. The government 1790, and it was not until 1814 that their
officials in particular, are full of complaints. whereabouts were ascertained, accidentally,
____ . Most of them are members of militant by a passing ship. ____ . In the course of
trade unions, through which they demonstrate years they increased so in numbers that they
and go on strike. So, chaos and continuous were too many for the island to support.
political instability can never be averted. Finally, in 1856 they were removed by the
British Government to the much larger
Norfolk island.
A) It is possible that market forces and world
economic conditions can upset their high
hopes for improvement A) The Bounty was originally chartered to
B) Among the demonstrators are people from explore the Pacific islands and establish
the countryside who have been flooding British colonies there
into town seeking a better life B) Actually, much of their history is still
C) Undoubtedly, Africans want multy-party controversial and there is a considerable
democracy and are working hard to achieve difference of opinion about their origin
it C) Up to that date trade in the Pacific region
D) Since most governments are short of cash, had been their main occupation
these officials are underpaid or paid late D) The British Government sponsored a
E) Obviously, people tend to accept painful number of search projects, but all of them
policies more readily from elected ended in failure
governments than from dictators E) The mutineers, under their leader Adams,
had settled to a communal existence and
married Tahitian women

Sayfa 24 / 93

77. The planets are the celestial bodies that 78. It was the worst ice-storm in living memory.
revolve round the sun in elliptical orbits. What started in the clouds as rain became ice
____ . There are also a large number of as it hit power lines, trees and roads. ____ .
minor planets, commonly called asteroids. Well over 100.000 people had to flee their
Today many important questions concerning freezing homes for those of luckier or better
the planets can be answered by means of equipped neighbours.
probes sent to them. These include the
measurement of the magnetic field, if any, of
A) It fell for days and it paralysed much of
the planets, the study of their atmospheres
Quebec, knocking out the power supply to 3
and, in some cases, surface conditions.
million people
B) Until then it was regarded as one of the
A) Among them Pluto was the last planet to worst natural disasters ever to hit Canada
be discovered in 1930 by the American
C) The cleaning up process was soon in full
astronomer Tombaugh
swing and life returned to normal
B) At present only nine major planets are
D) Old people in particular are at risk if
known, and they are different in many
temperatures continue to fall in this way
respects from the fixed stars
E) E)The midweek forecast for the area is far
C) Scientists have recently managed to land
from encouraging
on the surface of Mars an extremely
efficient instrument for exploration
D) Yet the moon revolves round the earth
and has already been explored
E) However, Pluto is the most distant of the
planets and has an orbit more elliptical
than the other planetary orbits

Sayfa 25 / 93
79. There are several ways in which to write 81. How intelligent can machines become?
medical history. ____ Then there is the social Philosophers and scientists have
approach to the history of medicine which inconclusively debated this question since
concentrates on how, when, by whom and before the computer age. One of the reasons
with what effect, the ill were treated in times put forward for believing in the impossibility
gone by. Yet, another approach is to deal with of truly intelligent machines is simply that
the influence of disease upon the course of machines are created by people. ____ They
human affairs. do what he wants them to: machines have
“derived intent”, while only humans have
“original intent”.
A) It is only in the past 50 years that doctors
have appreciated how dangerous
experience can be as a guide to action. A) Laziness is a human failing and unknown
B) A major area with which medical history is to machines.
concerned is pathology. B) Computers themselves are now
C) But all the strands of medical history could presenting a more practical side to this
not possibly be woven into a coherent and debate.
comprehensive whole. C) This is actually why people are giving
D) Most accounts of medical developments machines more and more responsibility.
lack coherence and are often out-dated. D) This, it is argued, makes them man’s
E) One method, and this is the one preferred slaves rather than his equals.
by doctors, is to trace progress from E) The more complex a task the machine
complete medical ignorance to a high level achieves, the more it will be asked to do.
of medical competence.

80. The firm Carter was founded by Louis François

Carter in 1847 in Paris, but until the end of the
century, it remained quite a small concern.
____ Within ten years there were also
branches in London and New York, and each of
the branches was run by a grandson of the

A) No one guessed then how these Carter

creations would soon capture the popular
B) A move to new and more spacious premises
in 1899 opened the way to expansion.
C) Many of Carter’s craftsmen drew on original
antique artifacts for their inspiration.
D) For many years the designs were to remain
largely Renaissance-inspired.
E) More exotic work followed, based on
Persian, Indian and finally on Russian styles.

Sayfa 26 / 93

82. A career as a space-traffic controller isn’t one 83. There are, apparently, sufficient raw materials
most guidance counsellors recommend. But at hand on the moon to turn it into the
that could change. ____ Industry analysts shipbuilding capital of the solar system.
worry that, without properly trained ground- Building shuttles and satellites on the moon
control crews to steer them, satellites could would allow them to be launched from the
easily hurtle into one another. low-gravity lunar surface. ____ .

A) NASA intends to launch successive waves of A) This would mean that less fuel and thus, less
each model to keep the data coming in for money would be needed.
15 years. B) The amount and variety of the mineral
B) The satellites presently on the NASA deposits on the moon have yet to be
drawing boards will focus primarily on assessed.
scientific uncertainties surrounding global C) The potential for solar energy on the moon
warming. is unlimited.
C) With more than 200 satellites already in D) Other companies are particularly interested
orbit and 1.300 more set to be launched in the helium deposits on the moon.
during the next decade, space is going to
E) Iron will thus be the first mineral to be
need some traffic control.
mined on the moon.
D) The EOS satellites alone are expected to
cost 8 billion dollars to build, launch and
maintain just through the year 2000.
E) The EOS sensors will chart the visible,
infrared and microwave affects of clouds.

Sayfa 27 / 93

84. Napoleon, the greatest of all generals, 86. ____ . The usual causes are unsanitary tools
dismissed and disgraced Admiral Brulx for and careless manicurists. To protect yourself,
questioning an order to sail his fleet. ____ As check that the tools used in your salon are
a result, twenty ships were wrecked, and, sterilised before and after each use, either
2.000 men were drowned. From this incident with heat or a disinfectant.
we can understand that the absolute
obedience that a general can command is
A) A lot of people in the health services
not appropriate at sea.
recommend nail care at beauty salons
B) One sign of an affluent society is that more
A) Even so, Brulx continued to admire and and more beauty salons are being opened
obey Napoleon. throughout the country
B) By the time his successors had been C) With the growing popularity of manicure
appointed, the adverse weather conditions salons all across the country, dermatologists
were over. are reporting a sharp rise in nail infections
C) Everyone knew that this admiral never took D) In a hairdresser’s salon one can usually find
risks. an experienced and reliable manicurist
D) Napoleon seemed to know instinctively E) It is generally felt that nail deformities must
what the right course of action would be. always be treated in a hospital
E) His deputy obeyed the command although
the wind was wrong.

87. Today deflation comes in both benign and

85. A long time ago, many things were explained malign guises. ____ . But weak demand is
by reference to the will of unseen deities. ____ also creating harmful deflationary pressures
. In our world, we explain things by reference in some countries. A good way to detect this
to genes, and feel much superior for it. But is to look at “output gaps”, that is, the
there is not, if we think about it, very much difference between actual output and
difference between saying “The gods have output at full capacity.
made him angry” and saying “He has the gene
for anger.” Both are ways of attributing a
A) “Deflation”, like many economic concepts,
matter of personal agency to some fateful and
is a widely misunderstood and often
mysterious impersonal power.
misused term
B) There are several causes for concern, and
A) Today, we regard this as a foolish and
none of them are easy to control
primitive approach
C) New technology is pushing down prices of
B) Most people are likely to want to believe in
goods and services around the globe which
a little of both
should be good for most economies
C) Man has always struggled to change his
D) 0fficial consumer-price indices often
destiny and enjoy happiness
overstate inflation rates
D) In fact, human behaviour is determined by
E) Inflation is equally misunderstood by the
an inherited genetic package
majority of ordinary people
E) In the end, though, people have to figure
things out for themselves

Sayfa 28 / 93
88. Innovation has become the industrial religion 90. In the days of white rule, the South African
of the late twentieth century. ____ . economy suffered immensely from global
Governments also reach for it when trying to indifference. Sanctions deterred foreign firms
fix the economy. A)In fact, around the world, from investing in the country. ____ . Since
the rhetoric of Innovation has replaced the they could not easily operate abroad, they
post war language of welfare politics. then started to expand sideways. The mining
company Anglo Tech, for instance, diversified
into cars, newspapers and other enterprises.
A) It is only later that people realize that any
special product constitutes an innovation of
the highest order A) At the same time, rigid exchange controls
B) One way to describe innovation is to explain prevented South African firms from
what it is not expanding overseas
C) Otherwise, innovation would have been B ) As a result, there was no foreign
hard to explain and even harder to measure competition and this proved disastrous
D) Two centuries later economists are still no C) The crisis is not yet over and interest rates
nearer the truth remain steep
E) Business sees it as the key to increasing D) In fact, South Africa desperately needs
profits and market share access to global capital
E) Actually neither of these expectations

91. In an earthquake, the toll depends largely on

89. For forty years or more, the pesticides used
four factors. ____ . Then there is the type and
by farmers all over the country have been
quality of housing. The time or day is a further
blamed for the contamination of water
important factor. Finally there is the
supplies in Britain. ____ . This is the fertilisers
population density.
that are being so widely used. The most
important one seems to be nitrate. Only half
of the nitrogen put into the soil is taken up by A) The first is the magnitude of the earthquake
plants. Most of the rest gradually drifts to the itself
underground water table. B) All of these are outside our control
C) Of these only two can be controlled by man
A) Arable land needs to be fertilised regularly D) If only we knew when an earthquake was
B) Nevertheless farmers continue to use likely to occur, we could be better prepared
pesticides in very large amounts E) In these recent earthquakes, the toll of
C) In fact, pesticides should have been banned human life was needlessly great
long ago
D) More recently, a new cause has been
E) Research is presently being carried out on
the harmful side-effects of pesticides on

Sayfa 29 / 93
92. Economic liberalization, which is itself a vague 93. D. H. Lawrence differed in many ways from
term, occurs in various forms and in many his contemporaries. In particular he wrote
countries. ____ . With a few notable with more urgency and intensity than most.
exceptions, however, almost every country in ____.This is in keeping with his subject matter
the world has been affected by this trend. In which is so often the dreams and aspirations
the industrialized world, it was epitomized in of man.
the goals and policies of the Thatcher and
Reagan governments. Also, encouraged by the
A) His subject matter is all too often the
World Bank and IMF, most less developed
personal relationships of opposite
countries including India, Brazil, Argentina,
and Mexico have made some movements
B) Indeed, there is a poetic quality to much of
towards economic liberalization.
his work
C) He knew at first-hand the hardships of a coal
A) In fact, the movement towards liberalization
miner's life
relates to the change in thinking in the
D) It was the working class and its problems
economics profession in the 1950s and
that he presented most accurately
E) Actually, he was somewhat of a rebel himself
B) Even Vietnam has taken some small steps
towards opening up its economy to the
outside world
C) This policy recognizes the role of the state in
the stabilization of a country's economy
D) Next, however, is the question of the
relation of these trends to the overall global
processes of economic development and
social modernization
E) It is, therefore, difficult, if not impossible, to
produce a list of countries that can be said
to have fully liberalized

Sayfa 30 / 93

94. Mercury, which is the smallest of the planets, 95. Despite technological improvements which
is the closest to the sun at a little more than allow exploration to proceed rapidly, it is no
one-third of the Earth's distance. ____. It was simple matter to obtain oil from undersea
first visited In March 1974 by the spacecraft fields. Prospecting must be followed by the
Mariner 10 which passed within a few leasing of potential oil-producing areas, and
hundred kilometers of it. The craft relayed then by drilling to see whether oil is actually
pictures on the two following passes in there. Offshore drilling platforms must be
September 1974 and March 1975. It still constructed most efficiently so as to withstand
continues to revisit Mercury every 176 days. the force of waves. Especially during the
season for hurricanes. _____.
A) The relayed picture showed that the planet
has an approximately 59-day rotation A) Therefore, the technical difficulties of far
period more extensive offshore operations do not
B) It is only recently that we have been able to discourage specialists in petroleum
gain any accurate information about it engineering
C) Mariner 10 measured a small magnetic field B) Naturally, the search for petroleum has
at the surface repeatedly led geologists to sedimentary
rocks under the seas
D) Today we are in possession of vast amounts
of information about the planets C) I t is a fact that by no means all of the land
resources of petroleum have been
E) Obviously it will take many thousands of
years to reach even the nearest stars
D) Actually, off California, Texas and Louisiana,
oil companies have drilled into the
sediments of the shelf and are obtaining oil
E) Indeed, winds, storm waves, fogs and the
corrosive effects of seawater upon metal
structures are the major hazards that must
be faced and overcome in offshore oil

Sayfa 31 / 93
96. National self-reliance in disaster relief is a 97.It is an old wives' tale that reading in the dark
goal towards which all countries must strive. is harmful or will weaken the eyes. With the
However, international assistance may be exception of looking directly at the sun or
needed to provide locally unavailable another very high intensity light source, one
resources and skills for relief and does not hurt one's eyes by using them. True,
rehabilitation. Many agencies, associations, reading, with insufficient light, may tire the
groups and governments aid countries eye muscles. ____ . Admittedly, the proper
affected by natural disasters. ____.If properly level of illumination for reading is the level
coordinated, international relief is beneficial which one feels comfortable.
to disaster victims.
A) Moreover, light from behind is ideal for
A) The rehabilitation period provides an reading, and any close work
opportunity for making major changes in B) Therefore, higher illumination can actually
health-care methods, for during it people be a disadvantage
are receptive to new ideas
C) On the contrary, one would feel more
B) The arrival of unsolicited medical comfortable if the light were better
assistance, particularly in the form of
D) It may even cause headaches, but it does no
volunteer physicians, may be a persistent
permanent damage
E) In fact, there are new, inexpensive, high-
C) A major disaster with high mortality leaves
intensity lamps available now which provide
orphaned children whose care may
sufficient light
become the responsibility of health
D) Each has different objectives, expertise,
and financial support to offer, and over a
hundred may become involved in any
single major disaster
E) Funding long-term projects from
international resources may prove difficult
since many organizations are reluctant to
take on such expenditures

Sayfa 32 / 93
98. A simple idea could make flying much safer. 99 ____ . Periodic environmental cues such as
Tests in the US have shown that cooling fuel dawn or dusk or the change of the seasons,
before it is put into an aircraft prevents regulate these clocks. There is scientific
explosive fumes building up in the fuel tanks. evidence that matching clocks to these cues
____ . For this purpose, an American company helps animals live longer. Indeed, most
has developed a system that cools fuels to -1 researchers think that the clocks help animals
degree Celsius or below, before it is put into co-ordinate metabolic and physiological
an aircraft. This is the ideal safety temperature processes for survival.
and almost completely eliminates the chance
of an explosion in the fuel tanks.
A) In the case of some insects, the biological
clocks are never affected by changes in the
A) Research has revealed that the fuel environment in which they live
delivered to an aircraft before take-off will B) Biological clocks do not always enable
heat up fast if the aircraft is in the sun animals to live in harmony with their natural
B) The explosion of the TWA flight 800 off Long habitat
Island in the United States is thought to C) Biological clocks allow organisms to
have been caused by a fire in one of the anticipate when to feed, mate, migrate, or,
aircraft's tanks. in short, synchronise their activities with the
C) As an aircraft climbs, the drop in pressure environment
draws more fumes into the tanks, and if this D) Some scientists argue that biological clocks
occurs, safety depends largely on the disappear over time in populations raised in
absence of a spark an environment with no periodic changes
D) The US Federal Aviation Administration has E) Many people find it difficult to adapt to a
since been looking for many ways of making new time schedule
air travel safer
E) The idea is to minimize vaporization, so that
there is no danger of an explosion even if
static electricity of faulty wiring creates a

Sayfa 33 / 93
100. Want, neglect, confusion, and misery in 101. When the Crimean War broke out,
every shape and in every degree of intensity Captain Gordon, who was to become famous in
filled the endless corridors of the hospital. the future as General Gordon of Khartoum, was
The very building itself was shockingly twenty-one. Before the year was over, he had
defective. ____ . There were not enough managed to get himself transferred to the Crimea.
bedsteads and the sheets were of canvas ____ . Upon the declaration of peace, he was sent
and very coarse. There was no furniture of to Bessarabia to assist in determining the frontier
any kind, and empty beer bottles were used between Russia and Turkey, in accordance with
for candlesticks. There were no basins, no the Treaty of Paris. Upon this duty he was
towels, no soap, no brooms, no trays, or occupied for nearly two years. Then he was
plates. dispatched to China.

A) There had been some delay in the delivery A) Throughout the war, especially during the
of the medical stores sent out by various siege of Sebastopol, he behaved with
European countries conspicuous gallantry
B) The structural defects were equalled by B) For the historian, the circumstances of his
the deficiencies in the commonest objects tragic end, so bitterly debated, and so
of hospital use controversially described, still remain a
C) The authorities had taken measures to mystery
ensure that there would be an adequate C) It was not in peace and rest, but in ruin
supply of stretchers, bandages and the and horror, that he reached his end.
most ordinary drugs D) The news of the catastrophe reached
D) Indeed, great detachments of the England, and a great outcry arouse
wounded were already comfortably E) In fact, he was by no means in favour of
accommodated the Government's imperial policies in the
E) The first signs of hope came when a fair colonies
supply of the most necessary objects

Sayfa 34 / 93
102. ____ . The study found that the morale was 103. The creation of a single European state,
low among secretaries. Many of them towards which the single currency is a major
claimed that they felt a lack of respect for step, will serve only to further the scope and
their work and that they were not treated as power of large corporations. ____ .
full members of the company's executive Undoubtedly, the single currency will
team. The study also revealed that they significantly accelerate the process of
were under-utilised. economic globalisation, but the
consequences could prove disastrous.
A) First of all, we have made a list of tasks
that secretaries can perform in addition to A) Similarly, small businesses and
the more traditional tasks of typing and communities will have no voice in this
filing corporate Europe
B) The changes we have made in the B) Moreover, the further away government
personnel system of the company were in drifts from the communities it is supposed
part the result of a study conducted about to serve, the less accountable it will
secretaries over a six-month period become
C) In addition to the language training that C) The ongoing standardisation of European
has been offered, the company is culture, taste and regulations can only be
designed a training programme on office achieved with the unanimous support of
management for secretaries all Europeans
D) In upgrading office efficiency, managers D) It is unlikely that ordinary people will ever
also play an Important role by recognizing achieve access to the working strategies of
and appreciating the work and career the institutions that govern them
aspirations of secretaries E) It is, indeed, these corporations which
E) The questionnaire didn’t provide them have called most persistently for a single
with any useful information currency

Sayfa 35 / 93
104. Why are organisations important? ____ . The 106. In certain countries, air pollution from road
working force, which means the bulk of the traffic kills more people per year than fatal
adult population, spends more than a third car crashes. According to a study carried out
of its waking hours in the organisations by in Sweden, traffic fumes cause lung cancer
which it is employed. The life of the child and, hence, a high rate of mortality. ____ .
takes place to almost an equal extent in the People who have only lived in areas of heavy
environment of the school organisation. traffic for ten years are 20 per cent more
likely to develop the illness.
A) The answer is that organisations are
important because people spend so much A) On the contrary, the effects of the
of their time in them pollution caused by road traffic have
B) The obvious answer might be that it is proved to be fatal
organisations that give employment to the B) Researchers have found that those living in
workforce areas of high density traffic for a period of
C) Housewives are obviously less affected by thirty years are 40 per cent more likely to
organisations than working women in full- contact the disease
time employment C) A lot of people are hospitalised as a result
D) Influence processes can be specific or of accidents on roads and this puts a great
they can be diffuse strain on health resources
E) It is often argued that organisations have D) Clearly, further measures are needed to
a profound influence on human behaviour reduce air pollution caused by traffic, as
well as that caused by industry
E) Similar studies have been carried out in
other countries with similar results

105. The anthology has been edited by two very

fine poets, but the result is disappointing.
Quite simply, it fails to excite. ____ . Further,
the selection itself is overburdened by the
need to support this thesis.

A) Each new anthology is, in a way, a new

effort to reassess the past
B) The bibliographical material, moreover, is
correspondingly informative
C) The selection also includes, besides old
favourites, many delightful poems that
have been unfairly overlooked
D) The introduction is without originality and
indeed says nothing
E) The introduction is heavy and the thesis
that poetry has been fully “democratised"
since World War I, is overstated

Sayfa 36 / 93
107. ____ . This, we are assured, will enable it to 108. In 1906 the US authorities declared cocaine
become more "efficient". All affiliated illegal and then prohibited its import. ____ .
sectors are targeted: hospital care and other In financial, artistic and political milieu in the
care services, ambulance services, care for US, it is regarded as synonymous with
the aged, social benefits, and the highly- opulence and distinction. Therefore, its
lucrative area of plastic surgery. Patients desirability has launched a fabulous business
would henceforth become customers, and known as narco traffic.
hospitals health-care supermarkets.
A) At present, the US market almost entirely
A) The medico-pharmaceutical industry is absorbs Latin American drug production
one of the world’s leading business B) Towards the end of the nineteenth
sectors and one with an enormous century, cocaine consumption spread
potential for growth and profits in the through the upper classes of both Europe
new century and the US
B) In fact, to subject healthcare to the laws C) In Peru, for example, the cocaine industry
of the market can only lead to increased occupies 15 per cent of the active labour
inequality and tension in the country force and reports a yearly income of one
C) After the privatisation of billion US dollars
telecommunications and postal services, it D) In spite of the prohibition, cocaine has all
is now the turn of the health sector to be through the century been much in
opened up to competition and eventual demand
take-over by corporations
E) he US approach to the popularity of
D) The service sector, in which health-care is cocaine is a classic example of the
included, is as vast as it is undefined misrepresentation of the real problem
E) For over fifty years, access to health-care
for all has come to be regarded as a
fundamental human right in many

Sayfa 37 / 93
109. Little was known in the past about the 110. The simplest of the nutrients are the
economic life of Hittite Anatolia. ----- . For minerals. ----- . Its atoms are all alike. As a
instance, we now know that the mining of result, its identity never changes. Iron, for
such metals as copper, lead and silver, and example, remains iron when a food is
that the metallurgical techniques used were cooked, when a person eats the food, when
relatively well advanced. Among agricultural iron becomes part of a red blood cell, when
activities, sheep farming was the most the cell is broken down, and when the iron is
common while in some districts horses were lost from the body by excretion.
bred. In daily life, bread and beer were the
staple food in addition to dairy products.
A) The nutrients that foods supply are
essential nutrients, that is, they are
A) Evidently, regulations in the Hittite civil needed from outside the body
code protected farmers, and some prices B) The body can make some nutrients, but it
were fixed cannot make all of them
B) In fact, every Hittite subjects except the C) The amount of energy a food provides
members of privileged class, was forced to depends on how much carbohydrate, fat
assist in such public works as the upkeep of and protein it contains
roads and temples.
D) minerals are inorganic nutrients as they
C) However, some facts about the Hittite contain no carbon
economy have been established in recent
E) Each mineral is a chemical element
D) Hittite cities were well built walls of stout
E) On the other hand, the Hittites had a
considerable reverence for the law

Sayfa 38 / 93
111. In a developed country, the demand for 113. The modern historian of Greece and Rome
luxury goods expands rapidly as people's bases his writings on a wide range of
incomes rise. ----- . Thus, items such as cars archaeological and literary material. He has
and foreign holidays have a high income no access to ancient archives, but certain
elasticity of demand whereas items such as imperishable objects survive and take the
potatoes and bus journeys have a low place of modern "official document". Many
income elasticity of demand. surviving Greek and Latin inscriptions were
carved usually in Stone Age; official records
of treaties, of expenditure or of decrees of a
A) Poor people respond differently from rich
monarch. ----- .
people to a rise in their incomes
B) The demand for basic good, however,
such as bread, rises only a little if not all A) The Greeks were not the first to chronicle
human events but they were the first to
C) The reason is that producers and
apply criticism
consumers take time to respond to a
change in price B) The earliest Greek writers, like Homer,
wrote epic poems describing great heroes
D) The luxury goods of one generation are
and their deeds
often not regarded as luxury goods by the
next C) As a poor story-teller Herodotus stands
second only to Homer among the ancients
E) Whenever there is a noticeable change in
the price of a commodity, one can expect D) And many other, recording the private
a change in the demand for that affairs of individuals, reflect meaningfully
commodity on the social life of a moment or an age
E) The origins and growth of Roman
historiography remain obscure

112. Every volcano has its own geology and

history. Indeed, no two volcanoes are alike.
Hence, each need to be studied separately
so that its warning signals can be recognized.
The two volcano-watching satellites now
orbiting earth are simply not adequate. ----- .

A) Even so, once a volcano has erupted,

there is nothing men can do to stop it
B) A volcano may be active, dormant or
dead; all of them are of interest to the
C) For instance, the Pocoye Volcano in
Guatemala began spouting lava hundreds
of metres into the air two years ago
D) A system six to eight such satellites,
however, could keep a much more
effective watch on the world's volcanoes
E) It is the cracks on the surface of the
volcano that allow these hot gases to

Sayfa 39 / 93

114. ----- . Such problems include damage to the 115. The oldest direct evidence we have of life on
earth's environment, overcrowding and Earth consists of fossilised bacteria in 3,5
famine in developing nations, and billionyear- old rocks from Western
translational disputes over oil, water or Australia. ____ .So we can deduce that the
othernatural resources. Illegal immigration origin of life on Earth goes back even farther,
and the flow of illicitdrugs across national to perhaps close on four billion years ago.
borders are further problems.Americans can
neither solve these problems alone andnor
A) Obviously, once conditions had stabilised
escape the consequences, should the
sufficiently on Earth, life appeared very
international community fail to take action
for a solution.
B) This fact does not help us to determine
the actual age of Earth itself
A) Global problems are increasingly likely to
C) These fossilised organisms are actually
threaten the Americans' security and well-
quite advanced and must have had a long
evolutionary history
B) A large proportion of the national income
of America has accordingly to be invested D) The very fact that life appeared so late in
in security geological time suggests that it was not
easy for nature to achieve it
C) No nation has a greater stake than the
USA in the outcome of today's democratic E) It is usual to assume that life is bound to
upheavals arise whenever physical conditions are
similar to those of Earth
D) America must reinvigorate its economy,
not only to generate the resources
needed to sustain global leadership, but
also to stimulate global growth
E) The best way to work of new threats to
America's security and to international
stability is to support the spread of free
markets and democratic politics

Sayfa 40 / 93
116. ____ . Food can be protected from them by 118. ____ . More than ninety per cent of the
gauze covers, or the house itself can be inhabitants were primarily engaged in
protected by gauze. Further, householders agriculture. The remainder were fur traders,
should wage continual war against them fishermen, craftsmen, merchants and
with insecticide sprays. professional people. The last three groups
were also likely to be farmers.
A) Those topics are all covered in great detail
in their book Good Health in the Tropics A) The early settlers in America were raced
B) Visitors 10 the tropics frequently catch with a hostile environment and, hence,
intestinal diseases security was of primary importance
C) Certain intestinal diseases are spread B) The scarcity of large areas of good
through contaminated wate farmland and the lack of a large market
for their agricultural products forced the
D) In such cases anti-malarial tablets are
early settlers in America to turn to the sea
usually recommended
C) The economic life of the early colonists in
E) In the tropics, great care must be taken to
America was essentially based on the land
prevent food from being polluted by
flies61. D) The great period of colonial migration to
America was in the 18th rather than the
17th century
E) Although African slaves were imported
117. Venice was founded by refugees from the
early into Virginia. it was not until the
Italian mainland. They were fleeing before
18th century that their number increased
the barbarian invaders to the islands of the
lagoons, hitherto inhabited by a few
fishermen. At first the
newcomers returned to the mainland when
the invaders' force was spent, but after the
Lombard conquest they made a permanent
home in the islands. ____ .

A) During the first three crusades Venice

developed its carrying trade and acquired
commercial bases in the principal Syrian
B) From these small beginnings Venice rose
to become the most powerful maritime
state in the Mediterranean
C) At the height of its power Venice held
Crete, Corfu and many islands in the
D) Venice has a great number of interesting
churches, among the most important
being the basilica or St Mark
E) Important industrial establishments lie
north and west of the intricate harbour
basins of the city

Sayfa 41 / 93
119. A network of roads linked cities in Babylonia. 121. Glasgow is now the largest city in Scotland
Rivers and canals were spanned by bridges or and, indeed, is home to a quarter of the
crossed by terry and were themselves much population of Scotland. This, however, has
used for transport. ____ . There were also not always been the case. -----. After 1707, it
rafts on wood on inflated skins which could grew at a phenomenal rate both as an
be dismantled at the end of the downstream international port and as a major industrial
journey. centre.

A) Music played a large part in temple A) The university of Glasgow is one of the
worship and in the lives of the people in best in the country
general B) The name probably means "dear green
B) The Babylonians were primarily a nation of place"
merchants and were quick to open trade C) There is a cathedral and other
routes ecclesiastical institutions in the city
C) The country retained its ancient civilisation D) For a long time it was simply a small
and cuneiform writing right on to market town
Sassanian times E) It is situated on the river Clyde and ringed
D) There was a vaulted building there which by wind-swept moorlands
may have housed the Hanging Gardens,
which were one of the Seven Wonders of
the World
122. In 1912, a German weatherman named
E) Some of the boats used were flat-
Alfred Wegener declared that all the
bottomed barges, very like those seen
continents of the world had once been
today on the waterways of Iraq
joined together and were now drifting
around the face of the Earth like giant rafts.
At first, Wegener's claim attracted little
interest. Most would have given up, but not
Wegener. -----. When this still failed to
120. Roof design varies with geography and
provoke a reaction, he brought out a second
climate. In northern countries they slope
edition. That did it. Many of the world's top
steeply for quicker dispersal of melting
experts on geology gradually began to agree
snow. ____ .On the southern shores of the
with him.
Mediterranean and in hot climates, flat roofs
are the common type.
A) A decade later, he died, and his mad idea
died with him
A) In temperate Zones roots do not slope so
steeply as excessive snow is rare B) He published a small book on "continental
drift" in 1915
B) A well-designed root will carry rain winter
well away from the house C) But by the early 1960s, geologists were
discovering evidence to support his theory
C) The upkeep of roofs of all descriptions is
quite expensive D) He was right about continental drift but
unable to explain why it happened
D) There are usually pipes, too, to carry
rainwater to ground level E) Today, continental drift is regarded as a
science and is routinely taught at
E) In factories, roof structures are very often
of steel

Sayfa 42 / 93

123. On 5 December 1952, Londoners received a 124. When tourists eventually start arriving in
rude awakening. They opened their curtains space they will need somewhere to stay. -----
to find a choking dark cloud hanging over . A three-day stay at these hotels will cost
their city: a corrosive mixture of fog and roughly £40,000, but they are confident the
smoke and gas. -----. That week there were public will be prepared to pay.
more deaths in London than at the height of
the cholera epidemic of 1866.
A) They are hoping to produce a reusable
rocket large enough to carry three people
A) For some inexplicable reason the fog 100 km into space and back
stayed for the next four days causing an B) Scientists and researchers worldwide
epidemic of bronchitis were consequently trying to make space
B) Indeed, air-pollution had never been tourism affordable
regarded as a serious matter C) Orbiting space hotels have already been
C) Even so, it was not until 1956 that the designed by a Japanese construction giant
Clean Air Act came into force and a group of international hotel
D) Consequently, smokeless zones were architects
established to reduce domestic sources of D) A notable reduction in prices finally
smoke, and in these only smokeless fuels opened up the aviation industry to the
could be burnt general public
E) Those four, dark smoky days marked a E) The problem is not simply to launch
turning point in public and political people into space but to see that they
thinking about pollution remain comfortable throughout the flight

Sayfa 43 / 93
125. About seven out of ten fires are due to the 126. For many centuries before the coming of the
hand of man, either accidental or deliberate, first Europeans, Arabs had been trading with
one to products and processes of materials, the island of Madagascar, and had
and the remaining two to defects in established various settlements on the
buildings. The most dangerous products in coast. -----. During the ensuing three
the home are plastics and rubber, which give centuries, sporadic attempts at colonization
off highly toxic fumes when burning. Video were made by both Dutch and French,
cassettes and foam-backed carpets are especially the latter. In 1642, after the
major culprits. -----. French had been in touch with the island for
more than a century, a French company was
established to trade with the island, and in
A) The number of fire deaths has shown a
1643 Fort Dauphin was founded on the
steady fall in recent years, but the risk of a
southeast coast.
blaze can never be ruled out
A) But in 1500, the island was discovered by
B) If a means of escape does not exist, these
the Portuguese, and thus attracted
hot gases develop a pressure on the walls
of the upper parts of the structure
B) It was not until the last years of the 18th
C) When an opening is made to reach the
century that the island had been relatively
fire, the admission of oxygen causes these
gases to explode
C) In 1840-41, the French navy occupied the
D) Once air is heated, it becomes lighter,
island Nossi-Be, close to the north-
rises and seeks escape through any
western coast of Madagascar
openings that may be available
D) In the 18th century, French commercial
E) Although the foam used in furniture is
contact with the island was fairly
now treated so that it is less flammable, it
still helps to spread the blaze
E) Historically, the island had the status of an
overseas territory within the French Union

Sayfa 44 / 93
127. There are some people who are worried that 129. The new company manager has introduced a
one day man will regret that he ever made number of revolutionary changes, and he
robots. -----. They also promise that within underlines the difference between what
the next few decades we will be freed from used to be and what is, now. -----. "Now we
all manner of boring jobs for the robots will ask what is required to capture an
do them for us. opportunity and then either try to get those
skills by alliances or develop them internally
to fit."
A) A robot is any machine that can make
decisions independent of human control A) “Ambitious younger managers can always
be counted on to offer useful
B) The UN Economic Commission for Europe
suggestions,” he says
predicts that there will shortly be as many
as 290,000 robots in homes around the B) "A new openness towards external
world partners should result in valuable deals,"
he says
C) Robots are going to be particularly
necessary in Japan as the number of C) "Divisional managers must think in terms
elderly citizens there is expected to of the group as a whole." he says
increase rapidly D) "We shall have to introduce a great many
D) The scientists, however, say they can cuts in order to reduce overheads," he
guarantee they will be able to control says
their mechanical creations E) "We used to start by identifying our core
E) Meanwhile, the technology behind competences and then looking for market
industrial robots is improving rapidly opportunities," he says
128. Autonomous underwater vehicles are small,
pilotless submarines that can be equipped
with sensors of various kinds and
programmed to carry out observations
within the ocean. -----. For example, the
current quest to identify deep-sea
hydrothermal vents within the Arctic Ocean
cannot be carried out by a piloted deep-sea
vehicle because of the dangers involved.

A) In some instances, they provide the only

reasonable means to obtain the
B) They are being used everywhere to carry
out work that is dull or dirty
C) It is not at all easy to manoeuvre heavy
equipment towed from a ship at the end
of a lengthy cable
D) More traditional oceanographic tools have
also certain advantages
E) One such will prospect for hydrothermal
sites by crisscrossing the ocean above

Sayfa 45 / 93
130. Prposals to ban the pesticide DDT by 2007 132. To open a newspaper today is to be
have been dropped as it seemed likely that confronted by an avalanche of ever-
this would have an adverse effect on efforts worsening crises. -----. In fact, the list is
to fight malaria. -----. Before that can endless.
happen, however, the poor countries must
be helped to find and adopt suitable
A) Unfortunately, the larger institutions that
alternatives. Otherwise, the spread of
cannot easily be called to account, are
malaria will continue uncontrolled.
taking precedence over their smaller,
more ecological-based competitors
A) In some quarters, it is believed that DDT is B) The task of overcoming them seems so
actually not as harmful as it was once utterly overwhelming that most of us
believed simply try to ignore them
B) It is still agreed, however, that DDT must, C) At the heart of our problems is an
eventually, be banned economic system that alienates people
C) The various countries negotiating to limit from nature
persistent organic pollutants were all D) These range from global warming to the
agreed on this extinction of a whole species, and from
D) Obviously, there are many safer the destruction of cultures to rising job
insecticides insecurity
E) The draining of mosquito breeding areas E) The need to provide our children with a
has also been effective in the control of sense of security and identity is therefore
malaria gaining importance

131. Non-lethal weapons could offer the prospect 133. In Japan, the brighter economic picture of
of a less violent world where lethal force is the first 6 months of 2002 failed to carry
only a last resort. But not everyone over into the second half of the year.
welcomes them. -----. But the strongest ___________. This was no doubt influenced
objections come from civil rights protesters. by rising unemployment which is now at a
record high.
A) Non-lethal weapons are typically given
names that make them sound acceptable A) External demand supported Japan's
B) Language is sometimes designed to exporters to some degree, but the
mislead, as is the case with "rubber- domestic market was at a low ebb
coated bullets" which are steel bullets, the B) The year 2003 will doubtless be another
size of a marble, with a very thin rubber difficult year for the Japanese economy
coat C) Recovery looks like being slow
C) The term "non-lethal" is not strictly D) This uncertainty gave rise to a cut in
accurate as any weapon can kill interest rates
D) Thus demonstrations can be swiftly E) Once global investor confidence returns,
broken up and the voice of dissent equity markets will, in all likelihood, start
silenced to perform well again
E) One group to protest is the military forces
themselves who are not keen to exchange
familiar weapons for untried technology

Sayfa 46 / 93
134. There is a popular theory that suggests we 136. A recent survey carried out by the UK
only use 10 per cent of our brain, and that if lecturers' union shows that almost a quarter
we could just find a way to tap the other 90 of respondents rate their academic freedom
per cent it might be employed in the as limited, poor or non-existent.
important question o how it works. ___________. In 30% of cases, that pressure
____________. A recent spate of studies had come from the organization paying for
shows that all areas of the brain are active the research.
when performing day-to-day functions and
there is no 90 per cent that remains
A) Researchers in every sector know that
they must get positive results into journals
B) Most worrying is the results of this loss of
A) There are countless other ways in which integrity on medical research
the human brain is unique
C) Some researchers said they had been
B) Unfortunately, this theory has turned out pressurized to alter results, delay their
to be wrong publication or even bury them
C) We should also remember that other D) The public loss of confidence in science
animals are clever too, though in different has reached serious proportions and must
ways be faced squarely
D) Another theory tries to account for the E) Those with access to the truth are too
fact that we are suspicious of other's often those with most to gain from
motives avoiding it
E) This explains why, unlike other animals, we
are able to ignore the selfish dictates of
our genes

137. For many of the world's crucial arable lands,

135. Satellite tracking of sharks has at last put an
the availability of water is the single greatest
end to a 50-year-old assumption about their
threat to yields. ___________. One way to
habits, ___________. Instead, they travel
ensure this is drip irrigation which delivers
vast distances all year round in search of
water direct to the plants' roots. It is
zooplankton, their favourite food.
unfortunately, far more expensive than flood
A) Our knowledge concerning the habits of
sharks has increased immensely during
A) Actually, certain minor changes could
this period
greatly improve the efficiency of many of
B) Some assumptions never do get tested the world's largest irrigation system
C) In this respect sharks are quite unlike B) Moreover, the monitoring of soil moisture
whales can also be useful
D) It has now been finally established that C) Agricultural researchers are working to
they do not hibernate develop strains of rice that require lass
E) Such an assumption was easy enough to water
discredit D) In certain areas the food eaten by
livestock comes from irrigated fields
E) It is therefore essential that less water is

Sayfa 47 / 93

138. Zambia's people have a literacy rate of 78%, 140. The fundamental characteristics of suicide
which is high compared with many poor bombing, and its strong attraction for the
African countries. However, it has only terrorist organizations behind it, are
library, one university and no television universal. ----. They guarantee media
stations. Its economy is very limited, with coverage. The suicide terrorist is the
copper mining accounting for over 80% of ultimate smart bomb.
the country's foreign currency intake.
A) By any measure 2000 was an astonishing
year for Israel in terms of suicide
A) Even so, in 2001, its president, Chiluba, bombings
contemplated changing the constitution
B) The early years of suicide terrorism were
to allow him to run for another
in many ways simpler
presidential term
C) Suicide bombing initially seemed the
B) In fact, it has an annual industrial growth
desperate act of lone individuals
rate of only 1 per cent
D) A person wearing a bomb is far more
C) Early humans inhabited present-day
dangerous than a timed device left to
Zambia two million years ago
explode in a marketplace
D) In 1972, Kenneth Kaunda, the first
E) They are less complicated than other kinds
president o the country, outlawed all
of terrorist operations
opposition political parties.
E) In 1924, the British government took over
the administration of the region
141. The United States contains more fat people
than any other nation. ----. Some nine million
Americans are now "morbidly obese",
139. Germany is now the sick man of the meaning roughly a hundred pounds or more
European Union. Since 1996, it has averaged overweight
growth of just 1.1% a year compared with
2.2% in the euro zone as a whole. ----. A
A) Sixty-four per cent of American adults are
country which boasted unemployment of
presently overweight, as opposed to forty-
just 150,000 in 1970 may have 5 million
seven per cent in 1980
people out of work by the end of the year.
B) Obesity may soon surpass both hunger
and infectious disease as the world's most
A) In fact, Germany is the largest financier of
pressing public-health problem
the European Union
C) In parts of the developing world, slimness
B) The figures show that Germany is still the
has supplanted plumpness as a mark of
third largest economy in the world
social status and sexual desirability
C) The country is richer per head than the EU
D) Pockets of obesity can be found in
underdeveloped countries, particularly in
D) For almost three years the economy has urban areas
barely grown at all
E) In 2000, for the first time in history, the
E) In the aftermath of the fall of the Berlin number of overweight people in the world
wall, Germany did seem poised to emerge matched the number of underweight
as the new Europe's unrivalled people

Sayfa 48 / 93
142. Art forgery is an interesting occurrence. ----. 144. In the United States, in the two years since
For the imitation to succeed in fooling us, it September 11th , 2001, we have had to
must resemble one or more things that we become accustomed to an array of new and
have been led to believe are originals. previously inconceivable security measures. -
Without something to mimic, the fake could --- .With every new threat to international
not exist. security, we become more willing to live
with stringent precautions, and our everyday
life becomes more restricted.
A) Moreover, notions of what constitutes
value in a work of art are notably
subjective A) They are accepted because we feel more
B) Since it relies on camouflage and vulnerable than before
deception, it is an act that is both daring B) Terrorism is meant to produce
and self-denying psychological effects that reach far
C) Similarly, no one motive directs a forger's beyond the immediate victims of the
actions attack
D) Indeed, the first recorded case of art C) America's enemies are marshalling their
forgery involved Albrecht Dürer and an resources to continue the struggle that
Italian artist of his time crystallized on September 11
E) Two and a half centuries of classical-art D) No society, least of all the United States,
scholarship have given experts an array of can regard itself as immune from the
reliable tools with which to assess forgery threat of terrorism
E) Most people in the world believe that their
governments and security forces will
protect them from terrorist attacks

145. Most trees produce a ring of new wood each

143. A new guide to the European Union has
year and these circles of growrth can easily
recently come on the market it explains how
be seen in a crosssection of the trunk of a
the EU has developed and what the single
felled tree.----. First, the rings become
market means for business. ----. No other
narrower with the increasing age of the tree.
guide deals so comprehensively with how
Second, the amount a tree grows each year
the EU operates and why.
is affected by fluctuations in climate.

A) It thus gives a complete overview of all the

A) A narrow growth ring may be the result of
problems now facing the EU
a cold spell in spring
B) These are all ideas that have influenced the
B) In temperate regions, sunlight may be
approach to business management
more important than rainfall in affecting a
C) Forecasting techniques similarly receive
tree's growth
detailed attention
C) Several conditions can contribute to a
D) New financial markets have recently
particularly thick annual ring
become available
D) These rings are not of uniform thickness
E) Further, it discusses the implications of
and vary for two reasons
monetary and economic union since
E) Results have been particularly impressive
in the American Southwest for a variety of

Sayfa 49 / 93
146. If Johannesburg is to live up to its potential, 148. Police may soon have a new weapon in the
it must overcome its apartheid legacy of fight against crime: Earprints. Earprints are
division. Contact between the races often left when criminals press their ears against a
remains awkward.- ---. The hope is that with door or window to listen for sounds within. -
more children mixing at school, the next ---.
generation will coexist more easily.
A) They will also develop a database for ear
A) This is very understandable as the idea of shapes, scars and creases
equality is still very new B) The Forensic Ear Identification Project is
B) One major concern that all races have in expected to come up with a solution to
common is crime this problem
C) In the worst parts of the city, for example, C) As with fingerprints, earprints could help
one in three people was robbed last year detectives to place suspects at the scene
D) The best restaurants of Africa are to be of a crime
found in Johannesburg as are the best D) Even so, earprints are already being used
hospitals as evidence in parts of Europe
E) Indeed, in some suburbs living conditions E) So it seems unlikely that earprints will
are good, but in many quarters they ever be used as evidence in courtrooms
remain harsh and often violent

147. To help users find reliable nutrition 149. Robots could soon be doing their bit for the
information on the internet, this university environment. ----. The results suggest that
maintains an online rating and review guide herbicide use could be reduced by 70% if
called the Nutrition Navigator.----. Each farmers used these robots to adopt more
website receives a score from 1 to 25, and selective spraying techniques.
links are provided to recommended sites.

A) The longer term goal is to avoid herbicides

A) For instance, many televised nutrition altogether
messages are presented by celebrities,
B) Trials are presently underway for a
food editors and chefs
Danish robot that maps the position of
B) Even so, the Nutrition Navigator remained weeds growing among crops
the best site from which to launch
C) Naturally it would be better to have the
ventures into nutrition cyberspace
robot pull the weeds out of the ground
C) Many people tüm to their physicians for rather than poisoning them
dietary advice, expecting them to know all
D) These robots cannot distinguish between
about healthrelated matters
plant species and treat anything green as
D) The ratings reflect the opinions of a panel a weed
of nutrition experts on selected websites
E) The problem is not one of expense
on the basis of their accuracy and depth
because herbicides are cheap
E) The Internet offers no guarantees of the
accuracy of the information found there

Sayfa 50 / 93
150. The Internet introduces a technology which 151. The ability to recognize people automatically
poses new challenges to the protection of by analyzing bodily characteristics such as
individual privacy. ----. Each of these fingerprints, faces and eyeballs -known as
systems is capable of monitoring, capturing biometrics - has long been a goal of both
and storing communications that pass technologists and governments.
through it. .................... Both America and Europe plan
to start issuing biometric passports as soon
as next year.
A) Apparently Internet technology can gather
personal information without first seeking
consent A) Lobby groups have campaigned against
B) In the US, most federal privacy laws apply biometrics on the grounds that they
only to the federal government would invade privacy
C) It can be argued that intruding into others' B) Biometric technology has been around for
lives through unobtrusive surveillance quite some time, but has not been widely
through market research or through any adopted
other means is a violation of privacy C) The introduction of biometric identity
D) Screening for employment purposes can documents cannot be consicered for a
certainly be regarded as an invasion of long time since it would be so expensive
personal privacy D) Plans for projects to incorporate
E) Information sent over this vast network of biometric seams into passports, identity
networks may pass through many cards and visas are now under way in
computer systems before it reaches its several countries
final destination E) Biometric could undemine security by
providing a sense of false security

Sayfa 51 / 93
152. Until the development of the first scientific 153. There was a time when the American
dating techniques around the beginning of accounting system was the envy of the
the ast century, dating in archaeology world. ............... . It encouraged millions of
depended almost entirely on historical average people to invest, thus transforming
methods. ................ Such dating methods America into the world's first mass equity
are still of immense value today. culture.

A) For instance, excavations in Egypt at the A) Boosting the integrity and standards of
and of the 19th century brought to light the Financial markets is a critical
pottery of Aegean origin imperative
B) In the ancient world, literate societies B) Its transparency, uniformity and
such as these recorded their own history credibility allowed investors to make
in written documents intelligent comparisons among US
C) The chronological system reqires even corporate earnings statements
more careful reconsrruction, and any list C) Regulators and analysists should have
of rulers or kings needs to be reasonably embraced it or at least something very
complete much like it
D) Other areas of Mesoamerica had their D) There are almost as many measures of
own callendars which operated on similar earnings today as there are companies
lines E) it offers them a road map to restoring
E) That is to say, it relied on archaeological investor confidence though there are
connections with chronologies and shortcomings in the proposal that
calendars that people in ancient times had
themselves established

Sayfa 52 / 93
154. The Conservative Party, which dominated 155. Researchers are attempting to create the
British politics in the 20tn century, is a computer equivalent of human cognitive
shadow of its former self.............There is abilities, and they have had considerable
now only one conservative Member of success........................ But as little as 50
Parliament from Scotland and none from years ago, how would people have reacted
Wales. Large cities such as Liverpool elect no to a machine that corrected errors in spelling
conservatives. and grammar!

A) Moreover, the selection of parliamentary A) The research community,

candidates is in the hands of small groups underestimating the incredibte abilities of
with extreme views the human brain, seriously misjudged how
B) Elsewhere in Europe right-wing parties difficult the task would be.
continue to thrive B) In the field of intelligence, how does man
C) Thatcher governed Britain for 11 years compare with machines?
and was generally known as the "iron C) Man was certainly reluctant to admit that
lady" machines could be physically stronger
D) Even when a conservative candidate is than man.
elected it is usually by a narrow margin D) The chess machine is an interesting
E) Their role in the European Parliament at example in theory since all one had to do
this time inspired neither respect nor was create a computer chip that could
confidence analyze several million chess positions per
E) For instance, we now have computerized
spelling and grammar checkers; they are
standard components of all word
processors today.

Sayfa 53 / 93
156. Indian parents have long been known to 157. Of all the phases of the history of art that of
prefer sons to daughters. This is be one of ancient America remains the most
the prejudice that sons care for parents in mysterious and the least accessible. ----.
their old age, whereas daughters must be Comparatively very few examples of this art
married off at great expense. ----. To put it are available to the public and none of these
bluntly, ultrasound technology is enabling is of monumental size. Indeed, who le
parents to anticipate and abort unwanted aspects of this art are unknown. This is
female babies. because the objects have perished or
because they were destroyed by the Spanish
A) In an effort to curb this trend, India, a
decade age, imposed a ban on the use of
ultrasound to determine sex. A) Obviously, the Mayans were a notably
B) It now seems that modern science is intellectual people, possessing elaborate
increasingly being used in the service of religion and exact calendar system.
this traditional prejudice B) The historical development of the pre-
C) In the 1990s, the total population of India Columbian cultures of America is still very
rose by 21 percent to 1,03 billion obscure.
D) In 1961, there were 976 girls for every C) It is now generally accepted that man first
one boy’s age six and under in India entered America by way of the Bering
Straits from north- east Asia.
E) In southwestern Delhi, one at India’s
richest districts, the girl boy ratio declined D) The natives of what is now Peru were
in the 1 990s to a shocking 845 girls for apparently capable of science, but not of
every 1000 boys philosophy.
E) One might further add that it is the least
appreciated of them all.

Sayfa 54 / 93
158. Few regions are less the master of their own 160. For years environmentalists have warned
destinies than southeast Asia. ----. Indeed, against imminent food shortages, spreading
the region includes some of the world’s most pollution, accelerating climate change and
trade dependent countries All went well in the early exhaustion of the world’s oil and
the early 1990’s, but not after 1997. other minerals. ----. Now, however, there are
dare predictions of water shortages in many
countries. Even some experts claim that
A) Nevertheless, China has stepped up her
wars of the future will be fought over water,
imports and many of them are from
not oil.
southeast Asia.
B) Sars added its malign influence in 2003.
A) Certainly, dams will cause more argument
C) Moreover, China has enjoyed a huge store
than ever, with China’s three giant dams
of foreign direct investment, thus starving
already filling up.
the south eastern economies of fresh
capital B) On the other hand, powerful rural farmers
can afford to pump out free groundwater
D) This is because their economies are highly
or to lobby for big dams that will yield
sensitive to investment flows and the
irrigation benefits.
demand for manufactured goods from far
away. C) But, until recently they have overlooked
the most essential substance of all: water
E) However, there is an increased demand
for memory chips in which southeast Asia D) Fortunately, there are usually cheaper and
specializes. better ways of storing water, delivering
irrigation and protecting against floods.
E) In fact, rich households have access to
piped water from municipal utilities,
159. Putting on a Broadway show is one of the
whereas the poor have to pay door to
biggest gambles in America’s entertainment
door water vendors.
industry, with investments running into
millions of dollars. ----. Since only one out of
five shows manages that, there is no
financial security.

A) It can take at least two years for a

successful show to pay back its original
B) Indeed, a musical can cost around 10
million to put on
C) Consequently, producers are becoming
more creative with their fundraising
D) The New York stage is now looking to
advertising as a means of funding its
E) Sponsorship would seem to be another
obvious solution to the problem

Sayfa 55 / 93
161. Though half the world’s Muslims live in 162. The world's oldest cave paintings date back
electoral democracies, only eight of the some 35,000 years. They lie buried in the
forty-six Muslim- majority countries are side of a hill close to Verona in north Italy. ---
electoral democracies. This has made some -. Now, new archaeological research is also
political scientists wonder if Islam is proving that the ancients were adept, not
antithetical to democracy. ----. They needn’t only at the visual arts, but also at the art of
have wondered. in 1974, more than seventy sound.
percent of states that had catholic majorities
were not electoral democracies, but today
A) Stone Age ears must have appreciated
about eight percent of such states are.
the "echo-chamber" properties of the
A) In fact, from 1989 to 1996 forty-nine B) Archaeologists can use acoustics to study
nations were added to the tally of ancient sites in the following two ways
electoral democracies.
C) Similarly, the stones of Stonehenge in the
B) Many of the regimes that have become south of England have been found to have
electoral democracies over the past sonic qualities
fifteen years cannot properly be called
D) They prove that art was already part of
liberal democracies.
the way of life for the early civilizations of
C) Even after the great strides towards the time
freedom of democratic countries, the
E) Indeed, some of the stalactites in these
target is such growth over any comparable
caves issue bell-like notes when struck
period of history.
D) The Soviet collapse increased the number
of democratic countries, but since most of
these states were small, it did not
substantially increase the number of free
E) Experts wondered the same thing about
Catholicism in the early 1970s.

Sayfa 56 / 93
163. The new discipline of ethnoclimatology 165. Andy Stern runs the largest and fastest-
acknowledges that some folklore is growing labour union in the US. ----. But
surprisingly good at predicting the weather. - today you probably do not. For his activities
--. For them, if the stars are bright, they look receive almost no coverage in the press.
forward to a normal rainy season; if dim, to a
late, sparse one.
A) Actually, only 8.2 per cent of the private-
sector workforce is still enrolled in unions
A) One must remember, however, that B) If this were 25 or 50 or 100 years ago, you
weather lore does not travel well would surely know of a labour leader like
B) In Uganda, increases in overnight t Stern
emperatures traditionally C) Unless organized labour's constitution is
presage rain two weeks later overhauled the movement will keep on
C) One famous saying runs: "Red at night, withering
shepherds' delight, red in the morning, D) Low-wage hospital and clerical workers
shepherds' warning really do need a union
D) For example, in western India local people E) More innovative labour proposals include
use the flowering of a particular tree to a global minimum wage
predict the start of the monsoon 45 days
E) For example, in the Andes, potato farmers
use the clarity of the Pleiades star cluster
in June to predict the timing of the rainy

164. Cloning could be crucial when a species is 166. Recently a great deal of research has been
threatened with extinction. For instance, a carried out on the benefits of marriage. On
few years ago, the last remaining bucardo average, married people are healthier and
mountain-goats in Spain were rounded up have lower mortality rates than single,
for a captive breeding programme. ----. This divorced or separated people. ----.
species is now extinct but could have been Moreover, they suffer from less anxiety,
saved by the cloning technology we have depression and other mental ailments. These
today. findings apply to both sexes.

A) Unfortunately, however, they were wiped A) Formal marriage usually involves a higher
out by disease degree of personal commitment
B) Habitat protection is the cornerstone of B) This claim is still widely repeated
conservation C) Several research projects show that
C) Scientists made the world's first healthy women also benefit
clone of an endangered species in 2003 D) This means that serious violence among
D) Literally a hundred species become extinct married couples is fairly uncommon
every day E) Their lives are more regular and secure
E) There are cases in which cloning may and they engage in fewer harmful
prevent Extinction activities

Sayfa 57 / 93
167. Contemporary computer systems have both 169. Archaeologists have a duty, both to
advantages and disadvantages. ----. But on colleagues and to the general public, to
the debit side, these computer systems explain what they are doing and why. ----.
create opportunities for the illegal copying of Further, their work can also be enjoyed by
software. the wider public which, after all, has usually
paid the bill for the work, however
A) Software copying has emerged as a new
ethical issue precisely for this reason
B) Rapid technological change means that A) Up to 60 per cent of modern excavations
the choices facing individuals also rapidly apparently remain unpublished
change B) Archaeologists often prefer to dig new
C) One important advantage is that they sites rather than devote time to laborious
enable digital information to be made post excavation analysis
available to all C) Many projects depend upon the willing
D) In this environment it will be important hands of amateur enthusiasts
for management to conduct an ethical and D) Unfortunately, some archaeologists hoard
social impact analysis of new technologies their finds and prevent colleagues from
E) Software piracy challenges traditional gaining access to them
protections of property rights E) Basically, this means publishing the
discoveries so that the results are
available to other scholars

168. Mollusks can be found in virtually every

habitat on Earth and range in size from
microscopic to more than 10 m long. ----. But
others, the octopus for instance, are
considered to be delicacies.

A) They are indeed an extremely fascinating

group of creatures
B) Not all of them, however, are encased in
a shell
C) All the mollusks are invertebrate animals
D) Some, like the snails in our gardens, are
regarded as pests
E) The octopus even has problemsolving

Sayfa 58 / 93
170. Well into the 1860s the American West 172. Most Western industrialized nations have an
remained divided from the East by the harsh individualistic orientation, which values
nature of the country’ interior. ----. Their independence and selfassertiveness. ----.
aim was to build a railroad across the They stress the interdependence of people
formidable mountainous lands of the Sierra within the community.
Nevada. They were ridiculed on all sides, but A) There is no internal evidence to suggest
the ambitious enterprise eventually this
B) Individuals in collectivist Asian cultures are
even less likely to commit such errors
A) Their high-flying goal comes with similarly C) In contrast, many non- Western cultures
steep challenges have a more collectivist orientation
B) Top engineers had agreed that the Sierra D) This is why Americans tend to use
Nevada could not be crossed by road or psychological traits to describe
rail themselves
C) Naturally, politicians were not in favour of E) Actually, situational factors also play quite
uniting East and West an important role
D) Then four merchants began raising
money to fund a seemingly impossible
E) The high peaks of the Sierra Nevada were
acknowledged as being impassable

173. How common are other civilizations in the

171. In the anals of computing, nothing has
universe? This question has fascinated
caused as much disappointment as putting
humanity for centuries, but so far no
ideas on paper. ----. However, with the
definitive answer has been found. ----. Chief
coming of the inkjet printer it was soon
among these is the confirmation, after a long
possible to print really highquality images.
wait and several false starts, that planets
exist outside our solar system.
A) For decades, printing computer files was a
thankless task for users seeking to
A) Most surprising of all is the speed with
reproduce precisely what they saw on
which life was established on this planet
their screens
B) A number of recent developments have
B) To start with, thermal inkjets were no
brought the question once again to the
match for the costlier laser printers that
had just been introduced
C) So far, astronomers have found no Earth-
C) For all its originality the idea behind the
like planets, but we can be fairly confident
inkjet is far from new
that they will do so
D) The first inkjet printers were slow, messy
D) In spite of all this activity, researchers
machines, but they gradually got better
have made no positive detections of
and better
extraterrestrial signals
E) Designers of printers grew more
E) The lack of success to date cannot be used
ambitious and they started to want
to infer that Earth is the only planet with
colour, speed and low costs

Sayfa 59 / 93

174. This year a lot of good things have happened 175. Venezuela’s president Hugo Chávez is using
in the US economy. US companies have his country’s oil wealth to create a sphere of
become more competitive, and exports are influence in Latin America. He has given his
now booming. This strong export growth is open support to Cuba and funded leftist
helping to stabilize the trade gap, and slower politicians in Bolivia and Ecuador. ----.
US demand will bring down imports. ----. Chávez’s growing influence, however, means
Moreover, long-term interest rates are still that a collapse in Venezuela could take much
low, stock prices are setting records, and the of the continent down with it.
economy continues to grow at a moderate
A) He maintains that the Venezuelan
economy should not mainly depend on oil
A) The biggest danger in the weeks ahead is revenues but that more efforts must be
a US recession, since currency markets made to upgrade the other sectors of the
began to worry at the end of 2006 that national economy
the housing recession could spill over to B) He is well aware of the fact that, since
other areas of the economy 2003, stocks in developing economies
B) In the meantime, profits from overseas have averaged gains of 30% annually
operations and returns on international C) Moreover, by buying bonds from
investments are rising as the gains are Argentina, he has helped stocks there
translated back into dollars jump tenfold since 2001, thus greatly
C) Some leading economists have forecast contributing to the improvement of the
that the US dollar’s value could plunge by country’s economy
a third over the next few years D) He knows that with the Mexican, Asian,
D) The US dollar will be somewhat more and Russian market crashes of the 1990s
vulnerable against the euro, given that the long forgotten, developing-country stocks
European Central Bank will most likely in the world keep jumping to all-time
continue to raise interest rates highs
E) The dollar is down 3% from a year ago E) He believes that political turmoil
against the Chinese yuan, and futures elsewhere could be just as devastating for
markets expect an additional 5% decline the Venezuelan economy, which is
later in the year currently doing very well

Sayfa 60 / 93

176. Laying undersea cable systems is a 177. Epilepsy, one of the most common
monumental process. After surveying neurological disorders in the world, is caused
landing sites, studying seabed geology, and by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. --
assessing risks, engineers plot a route. --- -. --. Most forms of epilepsy have been
For months, these ships lower the cables assumed to stem from brain tissue “scars”
thousands of feet to the seabed. In acquired through trauma, so that molecular
congested spots, engineers use robots to dig approaches to understanding and treating
trenches for the cable that protect it from the disease would be fruitless.
wayward anchors and fishing nets. Then
crews pull the cable ends above the water
A) It is true that, in developed countries, a
and connect them to land-based stations.
principal focus of epilepsy research has
been on the causes of the disease
A) One of the new Pacific systems is part of a B) The symptoms of this disease range in
massive $1.5 billion global network severity from mild sensory disruption to
connecting 60 countries recurring seizures and unconsciousness
B) Traditional cross-ocean systems are loops C) In addition, not all cases of epilepsy have
made up of two cables, usually many been fully studied
miles apart
D) Moreover, proteins as large as insulin
C) Operators building new cable systems are have been proposed as neurotransmitters
mindful of the threat of earthquakes and
E) On the contrary, a pairing of proteins in
do what they can to avoid it
neurons may be relevant to the
D) Then gigantic spools of cable and other pathogenesis of human epilepsy
gear are loaded on cable-laying vessels
E) While there are ten major undersea cables
linking the US directly with Europe, there
are only five cables connecting the US
with Asia

Sayfa 61 / 93

178. The biggest problems affecting the IMF, the 179. Although the European Parliament (EP) can’t
World Bank, and other instruments of initiate legislation, it has been granted
globalization concern governance. At both increased powers under successive European
the IMF and the World Bank, voting rights Union (EU) treaties. ----. Germany has
are allocated not according to population recently proposed strengthening the EP’s
but according to economic power, and the hand in budgetary matters. Moreover,
various countries’ representatives are corporations and citizens’ groups have been
typically finance ministers or members of quick to recognize the parliament’s
central banks, not officials with broader increased powers, especially in
outlooks and concerns. ----. Therefore, the environmental and consumer protection,
voices of those most affected by and are dispatching more and more lobbyists
globalization are barely audible in to it.
discussions about what policies these
international bodies should follow.
A) In 1997, France successfully petitioned the
European Court of Justice to block efforts
A) It is within these same small, elite circles by the Parliament to meet eleven rather
that most of the debate about reforming than twelve times annually in Strasbourg
the international economic architecture B) In 1952, Strasbourg was designated the
occurs meeting place of the EP’s forerunner,
B) IMF policies have always had a lasting known as the Common Assembly of the
impact on the economies of developing European Coal and Steel Community
countries C) On the other hand, the EP holds at least
C) Yet well-managed globalization has twelve of its sessions in Strasbourg and
enormous potential for improving the the rest in Brussels, which is the
lives of people in poor countries headquarters of the EU
D) Traditionally, the World Bank has been D) Last year, the US mission to the EU was
reluctant to lend money unless the IMF enlarged, and the American monitoring of
certifies that the country in question has a the EP’s activities has since increased
solid macro-economic framework noticeably
E) If we continue with globalization as it has E) Thus, it can now approve, amend, or veto
been managed in the past, the future will eighty per cent of the economic and social
not be bright regulations generated by the European

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180. In recent years, the amount of aid for 182. Ice climbing and rock climbing share some
developing countries has increased, and the important features. Both use ropes,
price of many drugs has fallen. So why does harnesses, and other specialized equipment
one third of the world’s population still lack for ascending steep granite or blue ice. ----. A
access to proper healthcare? ----. Many rock climber follows the natural cracks or
charge high tariffs on life- saving medicines weaknesses in the rock whereas, with ice
and equipment, sometimes even taxing tools in each hand, an ice climber has more
products that are donated for free. freedom to blaze a path up and is limited
A) If these tariffs were lowered, it would only by the ice conditions and the
dramatically increase access to technology of the tools.
pharmaceuticals A) Most ice climbing trips require an arduous
B) Thus, even in places where tariffs are trek into the mountains and possibly
waived, other barriers remain several nights out in the cold
C) To a large extent, the fault lies with the B) But, the method of climbing in each case
poor countries themselves is different
D) Naturally, it is the right of any nation to C) However, climbing itself has always been
raise income as it sees fit considered to be very dangerous
E) These regulatory constraints are imposed D) There are many tragic stories of climbing
on a wide variety of medical equipment as accidents
well as drugs E) But once you find your footing, ice
181. No description of embarrassment would be climbing can become addictive
complete without considering the blush. For
many of us, it is the hallmark display of
embarrassment. ----. Although the
physiology of the blush is not fully
understood, we are getting nearer to a
better understanding of it.
A) Their results showed that blushing begins
with a sharp increase of blood flow, which
is then followed by a slower rise in facial
B) Although smiling occurs during
embarrassment, it has a different
appearance from that of amusement
C) On the other hand, in embarrassment, the
lips turn up but without the accompanying
action of the crinkling of the eyes
D) Actually, however, blushing does not
necessarily accompany embarrassment,
and facial reddening can occur during
other physical and emotional states as
E) Generally speaking, heart rate and blood
pressure tend to rise and fall in many
emotional states such as anger, fear and

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183. Norwegians, like the Danes and Swedes, are 184. ----. Traditionally, one of the most important
of Teutonic origin. The Norsemen, also tools used to study cell structures has been
known as Vikings, ravaged the coasts of the microscope. In fact, cells were not
northwest Europe from the 8 th to the 11 th described until 1665, when Robert Hooke
century and were ruled by local chieftains. -- examined the cell walls of dead cork cells
--. After 1442, the country was ruled by using a microscope he had made. Hooke
Danish kings until 1814, when it was united used the term “cell” because the tissue
with Sweden in an uneasy partnership. reminded him of the small rooms that
monks lived in during that period.
A) Despite severe losses in the World War II,
it recovered quickly as its economy A) A light microscope can be used to view
expanded stained or living cells, but at relatively low
B) Norway became the second largest net oil resolution
exporter after Saudi Arabia in 1995 B) Early biologists thought that the cell
C) When the World War I broke out, Norway consisted of a homogeneous jelly, which
joined with Sweden and Denmark in a they called protoplasm
decision to cooperate in the joint interest C) Lenses in the electron microscopes are
of the three countries actually magnets that bend the beam of
D) Olaf II Haraldsson became the first electrons
effective king of all Norway in 1015 and D) Because cells are so small, scientists have
began converting the Norwegians to had to be extremely clever in devising
Christianity methods for studying them
E) In the late 20 th century, the Labor Party E) Most of the methods used to prepare and
and the Conservative Party seesawed for stain cells for
control, each sometimes having to lead
minority governments

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185. ----. What he really seeks, however, are the 186. Logistics as a business concept began to gain
most meaningful ones, and these vary from ground in the 1950s, particularly in the US.
one context to another. His words may be This was because, as businesses expanded
grandiose or humble, fanciful or matter of and reached out both to far-flung markets
fact, romantic or realistic, archaic or modern, and sources of materials, the need for expert
technical or everyday, monosyllabic or logisticians became imperative. Logisticians
polysyllabic. applied their own ingenuity to create
companies that aimed to deliver the right
A) It is not unusual for a poet also to be a item in the right quantity at the right time in
musician the right place for the right price. ----.
Indeed, with increasing globalization and
B) A poet creates new experiences for the
ever longer and more complex supply chains,
reader in which the reader can participate
logistics companies have become ever more
C) A frequent misconception of poetic
sophisticated and adaptable.
language is that the poet seeks always the
most beautiful or noble-sounding words
A) The US has led the way in the
D) In the poem “Winter” Shakespeare is
development of efficient logistical systems
attempting to communicate the quality of
winter life around a sixteenth century B) No region in the world requires efficient
English country house logistics more urgently than Africa does
E) Language has many levels and varieties, C) Logistics is considered one of the most
and poets may choose from them all important aspects of military campaigns
D) The problems of the logistics industry
have not been clearly identified yet
E) These aims have not changed, but the
world has

Sayfa 65 / 93

187. The year 1960 seemed golden and full of 188. St. Petersburg is not just a city of names and
promise. Despite nearly constant movements. It is also a city of bridges, with
international tension, everyday life in more of them than any other city in the
Europe and North America seemed to be whole world. With its 101 islands, it is also
improving. Economies recovered, many worthy of the title “city of islands.” Not only
standards of living rose, and new forms of that, but it has enough canals to compete
culture flourished. The economic horizon with Venice, Amsterdam, and Stockholm. ----
looked bright. ----. Western Europeans could . As Dostoevsky’s hero puts it, “It is the most
no longer be so certain of their prosperity or abstract and fantastic city on earth.”
of their leaders’ ability to provide the sort of
life they took for granted.
A) But most of all St. Petersburg is a city of
culture, of literature and poetry in
A) Legal changes would not have occurred particular
without women’s movements of the time
B) There are a total of 539 bridges, including
B) These changes marked a new culture of 315 in the city centre
mass consumption boosted by marketing,
C) The sports facilities and activities in it
advertising, and credit payment
cannot go unnoticed
C) However, by 1990, most of the familiar
D) The people of St. Petersburg are offered
landscape had been dramatically
various educational opportunities
E) A considerable number of painters and
D) The civil rights movement in the US had
sculptors have lived there, too
enormous significance for the twentieth
E) The most serious outbreak of student
unrest in Europe came in Paris in the
spring of 1968

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189. Despite numerous intellectual and literary 190. World War II left Europe a land of wreckage
advances, the longest-lived achievements of and confusion. Millions of refugees travelled
the Italian Renaissance were made in the hundreds or thousands of miles on foot to
realm of art. Of all the arts, painting was return to their homes while others were
undoubtedly supreme. Although Giotto was forcibly displaced from their lands. ----. Food
the great artistic genius around 1300, it was remained in dangerously short supply, and
not until the fifteenth century that Italian even a year after the war roughly 100 million
painting began to come fully of age. ----. people in Europe still lived on less than 1,500
Fifteenth-century artists also experimented calories per day.
with effects of light and shade and, for the
first time, carefully studied the anatomy and
A) In some areas housing was practically
proportions of the human body.
nonexistent, with no available means to
build anew
A) From about 1450 until about 1600 Italian B) The Soviet campaign to control eastern
thought was dominated by a school of Europe did not go unchallenged
Neo-Platonists, who sought to blend
C) Historians estimate that in World War II
Platonism with Christianity
nearly 50 million people died
B) One reason for this was that, in the early
D) Even more than World War I, World War II
fifteenth century, the laws of linear
involved the combined efforts of whole
perspective were discovered and first
employed to give the fullest sense of three
dimensions E) Since industry was essential to winning
the war, centres of industry became vital
C) Sixteenth-century Italian writers, such as
military targets
Machiavelli, Ariosto, Tasso, and
Sannazaro, were also highly accomplished
creators of imaginative prose and verse
D) Perhaps the greatest of the Florentine
artists was Leonardo da Vinci, one of the
most versatile geniuses who ever lived
E) Most Venetian painters showed little of
the Florentine school’s concerns with
philosophical and psychological issues

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191. Western perceptions of the Middle East as a 192. An independent city close to Berlin, Potsdam
viable tourist destination have been has almost 150,000 inhabitants and is the
adversely affected by the 9/11 terrorist capital of Brandenburg. ----. The town
attacks in the US, the subsequent war on blossomed in the 1600s, during the era of
terrorism, and the war in Iraq. Indeed, the the Great Elector, and then again in the 18th
impact of the 9/11 attacks upon the tourist century, when the splendid summer palace,
sector in the region has been profound. ----. Schloss Sanssouci, was built for Frederick the
North Africa in general and Tunisia in Great. Potsdam suffered badly in World War
particular have fared comparatively well, but II, particularly on April 14 and 15, 1945,
Morocco has suffered badly. when the Allies bombed the town centre.

A) Morocco is already one of the biggest A) The Marmorpalais (Marble Palace) is

tourist destinations in the Middle East and located on the edge of the lake in the
North Africa, drawing 2.25 million visitors Neuer Garten, a park northeast of
a year Potsdam’s centre
B) Especially, the effect on visitor numbers B) Despite its wartime losses, Potsdam is
has been decisive although it has varied today one of Germany’s most attractive
considerably from country to country towns
C) Morocco has a better developed domestic C) The Schloss Cecilienhof played an
beach culture than probably anywhere important role in history in 1945, when it
else in the Middle East or North Africa served as the venue for the Potsdam
D) The target of 10 million visitors a year by Conference
2010 may have been a little over- D) The first documented reference to the
optimistic, although Egypt has made huge town dates from A.D. 993; it was later
investments granted municipal rights in 1317
E) Some of the driest parts of Morocco lie on E) Tourists flock to see the magnificent royal
the coast, and so one feasible option is to estate, Park Sanssouci, and to stroll in the
pipe water there from the Atlas Neuer Garten

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193. ----. For instance, Alpine scenery 194. The Scandinavian countries – Denmark,
predominates in the Tatra Mountains to the Norway, Sweden, and Finland – are,
south, while the north is dominated by lakes. arguably, among the least-populated
Mountain lovers can make use of the well- countries in Europe. ----. Away from the main
developed infrastructure of hostels and towns and cities lie vast expanses of
shelters, such as those found in the Tatras. The unspoiled, often wild terrain, from the
countless lakes of Warmia and Mazuria, breathtaking Norwegian fjords to the dense
collectively known as the Land of a Thousand pine forests and clear lakes of Finland.
Lakes, are a haven for water-sports Smaller and largely flat and rural, Denmark
enthusiasts. shares characteristics with both mainland
Europe and Scandinavia proper.
A) Since 1989, many new luxury hotels have
been built in Poland and the majority of A) In Norway, Sweden, and Finland, the
them belong to international hotel chains majority of the population lives in the
B) Poland’s borders have changed south, in affluent, modern cities, which
continually with the course of history are also rich in history and tradition
C) Bordering the Baltic Sea, Poland is one of B) Sweden is Europe’s fifth-largest country,
the largest countries in Central Europe, with an area about the size of California
with a population of around 39 million C) Finland’s main cities are all served by an
D) Warsaw, the capital of Poland, is located efficient railroad system and regular,
at the centre of Poland, on the banks of inexpensive internal flights
the Vistula River D) Norway is so long and narrow that, if Oslo
E) Although situated on the plains of Central remained fixed and the rest were turned
Europe, Poland has an extremely varied upside down, it would stretch all the way
Landscape to Rome
E) Oslo, Norway’s capital, is an attractive
city of grand Neoclassical buildings, wide
boulevards, and green open spaces

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195. With more than 600 species of orchids, 196. Ballet is theatrical representation in dance
Nicaragua is prime territory for one of form in which music also plays a major part
nature’s most exquisite treasures. The Selva in telling a story or conveying a mood. Some
Negra Mountain Resort in the central part of such form of entertainment existed in
the country boasts at least 140 species in its ancient Greece. ----. From there, it was taken
grounds, with 14 hiking trails that make by Caterina de’ Medici in the 16th century to
orchid sightings anything but rare. ----. The France in the form of a spectacle combining
best time to visit this particular region is in singing, dancing, and speech. During the
the dry season, from February to May, when 18th century, there were major
there is little rain and temperatures are cool. developments in technique, and ballet
gradually became divorced from opera,
emerging as an art form in its own right.
A) The dodsoniana, one of these newly
identified species, was found just 4 years
ago A) Ballet developed in the UK through the
B) Five new species have been discovered in influence of Marie Rambert
recent years in other parts of the country B) But Western ballet as we know it today
C) Selva Negra is situated in a cloud forest – first appeared in Renaissance Italy, where
an ecosystem ideal for orchids and other it was a form of court entertainment
air plants C) Ballet developed further in the USA
D) If an orchid’s growing conditions are through the work of George Balanchine
gradually modified to acclimatize it to a and the American Ballet Theater
new location, the plant can make a D) In fact, it was drama, rather than ballet,
healthy transition which greatly appealed to the Greeks
E) In fact, the Stanhopea flower looks like a E) In the 20th century, Russian ballet had a
hovering butterfly, and some are very vital influence on the classical tradition in
aromatic, with a fragrance of vanilla or hot the West

Sayfa 70 / 93
197. In finance, interest, which is a sum of money 198. The Africans who go abroad to work usually
paid by a borrower to a lender in return for send money back home to pay for their
the loan, is usually expressed as a relatives’ medical care, education, and
percentage per annum. ----. In compound housing. Today, most African countries get
interest, the interest earned over a period of the largest part of their foreign exchange
time is added to the principal, so that at the earnings from such remittances. ---- Without
end of the next period, interest is paid on this subsidy, Africa’s dictators would have to
that total. face the political consequences of an angry
A) Nevertheless, certain problems remain in
perennial interest, and these fall into two A) In Africa, foreign aid goes mostly to those
main groups governments that have mismanaged their
B) The theory of capital was not a matter of economies.
primary concern to economists in the late B) There are over three million Nigerians in
20th century the US and another one million in Britain.
C) Simple interest is calculated as a straight C) From a quarter to almost 50% of
percentage of the amount loaned or universityeducated graduates from
invested, called the principal Ghana, Uganda, and Kenya leave their
D) However, it may be expressed either in countries to work in the West.
money terms or as a rate of payment D) Ironically, African citizens abroad
E) Various theories have been developed to subsidize state corruption.
account for and justify interest E) About three million middle-class
Zimbabweans have migrated to South
Africa since 1999.

Sayfa 71 / 93
199. The United States and its allies cannot 200. After more than 30 years without building a
remain in Afghanistan indefinitely. For them, nuclear plant, US power companies are
building a capable Afghan security force and seeking licences for over 30 new reactors. In
a credible Afghan government is the fastest addition, more than 300 reactors have been
and most responsible exit strategy. ---- On proposed worldwide. Countries such as
the other hand, a security force can only be Egypt, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela
as good as its government, and the Afghan have serious plans to build their first nuclear
government has been crippled by plant. ----
corruption. However, national elections
scheduled for this year provide an incentive
A) In other parts of the world, some 40
for the Afghan government to continueto
reactors are already under construction,
though many have been underway for
decades with no end in sight.
A) Afghans’ greatest concerns are access to B) Annual emissions of greenhouse gases are
electricity, jobs, water, and education. expected to double by 2050, from a
B) Indeed, more US troops are absolutely current 7 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide
necessary to defeat the insurgents in each year to more than 14 billion tonnes.
Afghanistan. C) According to a recent report, nuclear
C) It is a clear fact that Pakistan is connected power is a major solution to the West’s
to the Afghan insurgency. growing electricity needs, and increased
D) The Pakistani army remains primarily nuclear use can substantially lower
focused on the perceived threat from greenhouse gas emissions.
India. D) On the contrary, a country’s use of
E) However, US efforts so far to reach a nuclear power has much to do with
decision for a complete withdrawal have government intervention, whether
been mixed. through state loans or streamlined
E) Therefore, global electricity demand is
estimated to nearly double by 2030, with
nuclear power currently accounting for
about 15 per cent of global use.

Sayfa 72 / 93
201. For decades, China has been content to let 202. The African Union is well aware that,
the invisible hand of the market work its although Africa has enormous agricultural
magic on the country’s economy. But there’s potential, it still remains a major food
one area where the government wants to importer. The majority of Africans live in
reassert state control: healthcare. ---- Today, rural areas and depend on agriculture for
nearly 40 per cent of the population can’t their livelihood; but the performance of the
afford to see a doctor. The average hospital agricultural sector has been dismal. In
stay for a Chinese citizen costs nearly as addition to internal and structural problems
much as an individual’s annual per capita that each African country faces, external
income in the country. Healthcare grievances setbacks such as climate change and global
have been at the heart of thousands of economic instability have made the
organized protests countrywide in recent conditions worse for growth and
years. development in all sectors, including
agriculture. ----
A) Some hospitals have had to hire security
personnel to protect medical staff from A) The vision of the African Union is to
angry mobs. achieve an integrated, prosperous, well-
B) By comparison, Japanese pay just 15 per governed, and peaceful United States of
cent of their medical spending out of Africa.
pocket. B) These are some of the most serious issues
C) So the government has recently that the African Union is determined to
developed a strategy to provide address as efficiently as possible.
affordable medical insurance to 90 per C) Africa seeks to promote existing and
cent of its population by 2010. agreedupon shared values across the
D) In fact, the free market reforms in China continent at individual, national, regional,
were first initiated in the late 1970s and and international levels.
early 1980s. D) All the African countries wish to eliminate
E) The Chinese government has already met ongoing conflicts and prevent the
many of its economic goals and is now occurrence of new ones in order to
beginning to address scientific and achieve development and integration.
technological development. E) Some of the values cherished and upheld
by each African nation are good
governance, democracy, respect for
human rights, accountability, and

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203. Turkey offers much for the naturalist, with 204. Most foreign tourists visiting London come
rich marine ecosystems, abundant birdlife, to see the Houses of Parliament. This
and elusive larger mammals. Especially the monumental Gothic building on the River
rugged eastern provinces and also the Thames is probably Britain’s best-known
regions with thick forests harbour a large landmark. Indeed, the people who come to
variety of these mammals. ---- The tulip is visit it may know very little and care even
perhaps the most famous of these. The great less about what happens inside, but they
diversity of plants stems not only from the appreciate the place as one of the greatest
variety of habitats, which include arid plains achievements of nineteenth-century art. ----.
as well as mountains and temperate Indeed, the Parliament is a magnificent
woodlands, but also from Turkey’s position building.
as a “biological watershed” at the crossroads
of Europe and Asia.
A) Before the Norman Conquest in 1066, King
Edward the Confessor established his
A) There are huge tracts of unspoiled palace on the site
countryside, some of which have been set B) Also, most of those who work daily in the
aside as national parks. building remain awed by its artistic power
B) Unfortunately, Turkish wetlands are under C) The disaster of the great fire of 1834
threat from dams, drainage, pollution, and destroyed much of the medieval palace
climatic change.
D) For security reasons, the Houses of
C) The country’s position on the migratory Parliament can no longer be viewed by
flyways makes it a paradise for the general public
E) The word “parliament” derives from the
D) The country is also floristically rich, with French word “parler”, which means “to
more than 11,000 plant species recorded. speak” or “to talk”
E) In winter, the country’s lakes and wetlands
hold thousands of wintering wildfowl.

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205. At the start of the twentieth century, Britain 206. During World War II, the Allies had started to
was still the greatest world power. By the think of ways in which a new world order
middle of the century, although still one of could replace the failed League of Nations.
the “Big Three”, Britain was clearly weaker Even before it joined the war against
than both the United States and the Soviet Germany and its allies, the US had agreed on
Union. ----. Its power had ended as quickly as an “Atlantic Charter” with Britain. The basis
Spain’s had done in the seventeenth century. of this new charter was US President
One reason for this sudden decline of Britain Roosevelt’s “Four Freedoms”: freedom of
was the cost and effort of two world wars. speech, freedom of worship, freedom from
fear, and freedom from want. At the end of
the war, the victorious Allies created the
A) Indeed, by the end of the 1970s, Britain
United Nations, which expressed the ideas of
was no longer even among the richest
the Atlantic Charter. ----.
European powers
B) In electronics and technology, Britain is
still a world competitor A) In the early 1960s, Britain was
increasingly interested in joining the
C) No one doubts that Britain is living in an
newly-formed European Community
age of uncertainty
B) In 1948, the Soviet Union tried to capture
D) But the most important reason was the
West Berlin by stopping all road and rail
basic weaknesses in Britain’s industrial
traffic to it
C) Thus, they hoped that the success of the
E) The discovery of oil in the North Sea has
wartime alliance could be carried into
given Britain a great deal of economic
D) All these military and scientific
developments drew Britain more closely
to the US
E) During the post-war period, Britain was
seriously concerned about the danger
from the Soviet Union

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207. Little is known about the life of women in 208. Around 1550, the Renaissance in Italy began
the Middle Ages, but without doubt it was to decline. The causes of this decline were
hard. ----. It also spread two very different varied. ----. The French King Charles VIII
ideas about women. So, on the one hand, viewed Italy as an attractive target for his
women were regarded as pure and holy, expansive dynastic ambitions. In 1494, he
while, on the other, they could not be led an army of thirty thousand well-trained
trusted and were a moral danger to men. troops across the Alps to press his claims to
Such religious teaching led men both to the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of
worship and also to look down on women. Naples.

A) It is unlikely that love played much of a A) The French invasion of 1494 and the
part in most marriages incessant warfare that ensued was one of
B) Marriage was always the single most the major factors
important event in the lives of medieval B) Renaissance humanists were primarily
men and women interested in the study of classical texts
C) This was because by marriage a family C) To the Italian political disasters was added
could improve its wealth and social a waning of Italian prosperity
position D) As Italian wealth diminished, there was
D) The Church taught that women were less and less of a surplus to support
always to obey their husbands artistic endeavours
E) Once married, a woman had to accept her E) Italy’s virtual monopoly of trade with Asia
husband as her master in the fifteenth century had been an
economic support for the Italian

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209. Our knowledge of the Celts in Britain is 210. The cell theory, one of the fundamental
slight. As with previous groups of settlers, unifying concepts of biology, states that all
we do not even know for certain whether living organisms are composed of basic units
the Celts invaded Britain or came peacefully called “cells” and of substances produced by
as a result of the lively trade with Europe cells. Although they vary greatly in size and
from about 750 B.C. onwards. At first, most appearance, all organisms are composed of
of Celtic Britain seems to have developed in those small building blocks. Some of the
a generally similar way. ----. Consequently, simplest life forms, such as bacteria, are
this fall led to serious economic and political unicellular: they consist of a single cell. ---- In
differences between the Celts of southeast these complex multicellular organisms, life
Britain and those of the northwest. processes depend on the coordinated
functions of the component cells.
A) The Celts were joined by new arrivals from
the European mainland A) Although plants do not move about in
B) The Celtic tribes continued the same kind the way we associate with animals, they
of agriculture as the Bronze Age people do move.
before them B) One of the remarkable aspects of the
C) The Celts knew how to work with iron and growth process is that each part of the
could make a variety of weapons organism continues to function as it
D) But from about 500 B.C., trade contact
with Europe declined C) Humans and many other organisms begin
life as a fertilized egg, which then grows
E) During the Celtic period, women may have
and develops specialized structures and
played an important role in political life
body form.
D) In contrast, the body of a human or an
animal or a tree is made of billions of cells.
E) Energy is required to maintain the precise
order that characterizes living systems.

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211. Gregor Mendel was not the first plant 212. From about 1300 until about the middle of
breeder. At the time he began his work, the fifteenth century, disasters struck
hybrid plants and animals had been known throughout western Europe with appalling
for a long time. Mendel’s genius lay in his severity and dismaying persistence. ---- Then
ability to recognize a pattern in the way the came the most terrible natural disaster of
parental traits reappear in the offspring of all: the dreadful plague known as “the Black
hybrids. ---- Death.” It reduced the total population of
western Europe by at least one half and
caused great hardships for most of the
A) It is true that Mendel was a clergyman
who bred pea plants in his monastery
garden at Brno, Czech Republic.
B) Therefore, at that time biology was A) Europe emerged in the later fifteenth
largely a descriptive science, and century with a healthier economy.
biologists had little interest in B) Of these disasters, famine was the most
experimental studies. widespread and persistent.
C) So it is clear that Mendel’s “hereditary C) There was a limit to the amount of land
factors” are essentially what we call that could be cleared for farming.
“genes” today, which is one of the major D) Overcrowding made Europe’s cities
subjects of modern biology. particularly vulnerable to the plague.
D) In fact, geneticists study not only the E) Large-scale banking had already emerged
transmission of genes, but also the during the thirteenth century
expression of genetic information.
E) No one before him had categorized and
counted the offspring and analyzed these
regular patterns over several generations.

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213. In 1915 the German scientist Alfred 214. The economic depression of the 1930s forced
Wegener, who had noted a similarity many writers to re-examine the style and
between the geographical shapes of South purpose of their work. Among threats of
America and Africa, proposed that all the economic devastation, totalitarianism, and
land masses had at one time been joined war, literature became increasingly
into one huge supercontinent. He called this politicized. Authors were largely interested
supercontinent “Pangea.” ---- Wegener did in the depiction of injustice and cruelty and
not know of any mechanism that could have felt obliged to point the way to a better
caused continental drift. So his idea, society. ----
although debated initially, was largely
A) In his great poem The Waste Land the
Anglo- American poet T.S. Eliot presented
A) He further suggested that Pangea had a philosophy that was close to despair.
subsequently broken apart and that B) In his novel The Sun Also Rises,
various land masses had separated in a Hemingway gave the public a powerful
process known as “continental drift.” description of the socalled “lost
B) Earth’s crust is composed of seven large generation”.
plates, plus a few smaller ones, that float C) Moreover, they no longer directed their
on the mantle which is the solid layer of work to fellow intellectuals alone, but to
Earth lying beneath the crust and above ordinary men and women as well.
the core.
D) Furthermore, Virginia Woolf’s essays and
C) As the plates move, the continents change novels offered an eloquent and severe
their relative positions, and this critique of Britain’s institutions and
movement of the crustal plates is termed universities.
“plate tectonics.”
E) As for Bertolt Brecht, he rebelled against
D) When two plates grind together, one of high culture and bourgeois values, but he
them is sometimes buried under the other also protested against the pretentious
in a process known as “subduction.” elitism of his contemporaries.
E) As the continents began to drift apart,
populations became geographically
isolated in different environmental
conditions and began to diverge along
separate evolutionary pathways.

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215. The development of genetic engineering has 216. One of the causes of World War II was the
stemmed from the discovery of DNA in the failure to create lasting, binding standards
1950s. By the 1990s, several laboratories in for peace and security in Europe in particular
the West were engaged in the most and in the world at large. Diplomats spent
ambitious medical research ever attempted: the 1920s, trying to restore such standards.
the mapping of the human genome, that is, Some put their faith in the legal and moral
the entire architecture of chromosomes and authority of the League of Nations. ----
genes contained in basic human DNA. ---- For Throughout the decade, a number of leading
instance, infertile couples could now European statesmen tried to reach a set of
conceive through out-of-body medical agreements that would stabilize the peace
procedures. and prevent rearmament.

A) As a new form of knowledge in an age of A) Despite the good faith of many statesmen
global interconnection, genetic involved, none of these agreements
engineering has forced many nations to carried any real weight.
make changes in their laws and B) Economic conditions in Europe were
regulations concerning medical practices. another important cause of renewed
B) In Africa, Latin America, and elsewhere, conflict.
political chaos, imbalances of trade, and C) Others saw disarmament as the most
the practices of some pharmaceutical promising means of guaranteeing peace.
companies have often resulted in
D) Politicians feared international relations
shortages of medicine.
would be undermined by the growing
C) As AIDS became a global health crisis in imbalance of power in Europe.
the 1980s, international organizations
E) Moreover, the economic depression of
recognized the need for an early, swift,
the 1930s contributed in several ways to
and comprehensive response to future
the coming of the war.
outbreaks of disease.
D) Through this process and alongside it,
genetic engineers developed methods to
alter the biology of living things, including
E) Moreover, genetically engineered human
growth hormone is required by some
children to overcome growth deficiencies.

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217. Youth culture in America in the 1950s and 218. ---- Like the French Revolution, they brought
1960s owed much to the hybrid musical style down not only a regime, but an empire. Like
known as “rock and roll.” During the 1930s the French Revolution, they gave way to
and 1940s, the synthesis of music produced violence. And again like the French
by whites and African Americans in the Revolution, they had sweeping international
American South found its way into northern consequences. These revolutions and the fall
cities. Indeed, from the 1950s onwards, of the Soviet Union marked the end of the
black rhythm and blues musicians and white Cold War, which had structured
Southern performers found much wider international politics and shaped the
audiences through the use of new everyday lives of millions of people since the
technology, such as electric guitars, better end of World War II.
equipment for studio recording, and wide-
band radio stations in large cities. The blend
A) The Iron Curtain had established one of
of styles and sounds and the cultural daring
the most rigid borders in European
of white teenagers came to create rock and
roll. ----
B) The Eastern European revolutions of 1989
and the subsequent collapse of the Soviet
A) This new music was exciting, sometimes Union were a revolutionary turning point.
aggressive, but full of energy and with
C) The collapse of the Soviet Union opened
great appeal for young listeners.
up both Russia and its former imperial
B) Much of the new “mass culture” of the dominions.
1960s depended on the spending habits
D) In the 1970s and 1980s, the Eastern
and desires of the new generation.
European nations faced serious financial
C) The postwar desire to break with the past difficulties.
created further impetus for change in
E) The Czechs staged demonstrations against
every sense, including politics.
Soviet domination towards the end of
D) In the 1950s, governments rather than 1988
markets determined how consumer goods
would be distributed.
E) By the mid-1950s portable radios were
being sold in the United States and

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219. Nineteenth-century liberals had confidence 220. In ancient Egypt most people were poor,
in science. Not only did science deliver living in crowded conditions in simple mud-
technological and material progress, but it brick dwellings. During the period of
also confirmed liberals’ faith in the power of prosperity, however, skilled artisans, such as
human reason to uncover and command the jewellers, goldsmiths, and the like, could
laws of nature. ---- Evolutionary theory, elevate themselves and enjoy nicer
psychology and social sciences all introduced surroundings. ---- The vast majority of
visions of humanity that were sharply at Egyptians, however, were peasants who, as
odds with conventional liberal wisdom. At unskilled labourers, provided the brute force
the same time, artists and intellectuals necessary for agriculture and construction.
mounted their own revolt against Beneath them were slaves, typically captives
nineteenth-century conventions. Morals, from foreign wars rather than native
manners, institutions, and traditions: all Egyptians.
established values and assumptions were
under question.
A) There can be little doubt that the massive
investment of labour and wealth required
A) Geologists have always challenged the to build the great pyramids put grave
Biblical account of creation. strains on Egyptian society.
B) These upheavals in the world of ideas B) The pyramids were in fact raised by tens
unsettled older conceptions of of thousands of peasant workers, who
individuality. most probably participated willingly in the
C) Towards the end of the century, however, building projects.
scientific developments defied these C) Governmental control over the lives of
expectations. individual Egyptians was very strict, and
D) The scientists of the time held the view the number of administrative officials
that the world had been formed over employed by the state was quite high.
millions of years. D) Potters, weavers, masons, bricklayers,
E) The implications of Darwin’s writings brewers, merchants, and schoolteachers
went far beyond the domain of the also enjoyed a higher standard of living.
evolutionary sciences. E) Gender divisions may have been less
clearly defined among the peasantry than
they were among the elites.

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221. In antiquity, Miletus was a centre for 222. Efforts to identify a single personality profile
speculative thinking and philosophy. of the “helpful person” have not been very
Beginning in the sixth century B.C., a series successful. Rather, it appears that particular
of thinkers known as “the pre-Socratics” personality traits and abilities dispose
raised serious questions about the people to help in specific types of situations.
relationship between the natural world, the For instance, a study revealed that adults
gods, and men. The most famous of the pre- with a high need for approval were more
Socratics were Thales, Anaximander, and likely to donate money to charity than those
Anaximenes, who represented the so-called individuals who were low in need for social
Milesian School. They seem to have been approval, but only when other people were
remarkably familiar with Babylonian watching them. ----
astronomy. ---- In other words, through their
observations, they began to formulate
A) In contrast, empathy means feelings of
rational theories to explain the physical
sympathy and caring for others, in
particular, sharing vicariously or indirectly
in the suffering of others.
A) The Milesians were very active in Egypt, B) As expected, the people in the high-
where they founded many colonies which empathy condition experienced
became their main trading outposts. significantly greater empathy, as reflected
B) Stimulated by the cosmopolitanism of in self-ratings of sympathetic and
their city, they also began to rethink their compassionate feelings.
place in the human world. C) Presumably, this shows that people high in
C) Calculating and observing the movements a need for approval are motivated by a
of the heavens, they sought physical desire to win praise from others and so
explanations for what they saw. act in a helpful manner only when their
D) After the Persian conquest of Anatolia, good deeds are likely to be noticed.
many of the Milesian philosophers fled to D) Further insights into personality and
Sicily and southern Italy. helpfulness come from studies of
E) Miletus had long been a part of the Greek individuals who regularly donate their
world, but Babylonian influences also services for the sake of being more
shaped Milesian culture in important helpful.
ways. E) Finally, women are more likely than men
to be the primary caregivers for the
family, thus making them appear to be
more helpful and empathetic.

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223. Lance Armstrong had already made one 224. It is difficult to relate skin colour directly to
huge comeback: Diagnosed with testicular genetic inheritance. Dennis Barber, a white
cancer in 1996, he was given less than a 50% bank manager from Staffordshire, recently
chance of survival. Not only did he make it discovered that he is the direct descendant
through, but he got back on his bike, picked of a black African slave who was brought to
up his cycling career and proceeded to win England in the 18th century. ---- It has been
seven Tour de France titles in a row, from estimated that one in five white British
1999 to 2005. ---- But what Armstrong did people has a direct black ancestor and that
need was the support of his Astana they could presumably pass on their genes
teammates forced to choose between the to the next generation as well.
veteran Armstrong and a young rival,
Spanish star Alberto Contador.
A) Despite his white appearance, Dennis
carries genes that could result in his own
A) He needed to stop both smoking and descendants being born with dark
drinking if he wanted to get back to his features.
days of glory. B) However, Dennis’ father decided to settle
B) An ugly duel emerged and matters got down in Europe and marry an English
worse after an opponent went ahead of woman.
Armstrong in the Alps and went on to win C) In fact, slavery is the primary reason why
the race. there is no agreement about whether
C) Europe is the centre of a wide range of genes play a role in one’s skin colour.
sports such as tennis, volleyball and D) It is only natural that Dennis had white
basketball and competition is fierce there. skin, since there is no evidence in science
D) Cycling, however, is more commonly linking genetics and skin colour.
practised as a hobby rather than a E) Biologists can account for the differences
professional sport throughout the world. between the English and the Africans that
E) In Europe, claims of drug use had followed they enslaved.
the American and he was out to prove
that he didn’t need drugs for these series
of successes.

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225. Countries engage in international trade 226. The environment, whether it is natural or
because they benefit from doing so. ---- artificial, is the most fundamental ingredient
Thus, trade plays a vital role in achieving of the tourism product. However, as soon as
such an essential task since it frees each tourism activity takes place, the
country’s residents from having to consume environment is inevitably changed or
goods in the same combination in which the modified, either to facilitate tourism or
domestic economy can produce them. If the through the tourism production process. —
US specialized its production but did not Such considerations are treated with much
engage in international trade, US residents greater respect than they were during the
would have large quantities of wheat and first two-thirds of the last century. Relatively
soybeans but no coffee or bananas. little research has been undertaken within a
standardized framework to analyze
tourism's impact on the environment.
A) Any country that attempted to achieve
selfsufficiency by producing everything
consumed would face a difficult task. A) Therefore, the Great Wall of China, and
B) We can easily see the benefits from trade the Taj Mahal have been preserved in
along with productive specialization at the such a way that tourism cannot do any
individual level. harm to them.
C) The gains from trade arise because it B) Environmental preservation and
allows countries to specialize their improvement programmes are now an
production by allocating resources to their integral part of many development
most productive uses. strategies.
D) The fact that political boundaries divide C) So, it may be questionable as to whether
the world into nation-states does not alter it is wise to spare large amounts of funds
trade’s potential for expanding output. on tourism.
E) In market-oriented economies, existing D) Tourism is responsible for high levels of air
firms make most consumption decisions and noise pollution through the
besides controlling production patterns. transportation networks and leisure
E) The problems associated with littering
present significant danger to wildlife as
well as being unsightly and expensive to

Sayfa 85 / 93
227. — We can hardly avoid commercial 228. Aboriginal occupation of Australia goes back
advertising designed to influence us. at least 40,000 years and probably longer.
Interestingly, most people consider that they While there are significant differences in
are less likely to be influenced than others aboriginal occupation of space and the
by advertisements. This has been called "the meaning they attach to the environment,
third person effect". For example, if we see there are also some common threads.
an ordinary product being advertised by Traditional aboriginal culture is very
using attractive models in an unusual interesting in that it invests very little
setting, we suppose that we (and those like meaning in architecture or artificial spatial
us) are wiser than others to the tricks of the structures. — There is a bond between one's
advertising industry. In reality, we are just as "country" and its sacred places which house
susceptible. the spirit of certain species for which one
has responsibilities.
A) Advertising can easily change the market
conditions. A) Australia was invaded by Britain, initially
B) We cannot keep away from the influences as a means of banishing what was
of our friends. perceived to be a genetically criminal
C) People are not oblivious to the persuasion
attempts of advertising. B) The majority of the aboriginal paintings
that are currently popular on the world art
D) Education programmes help young people
market are landscapes.
avoid such tricky commercials.
C) Nevertheless, most of the land to which
E) It is generally accepted that people like
aboriginal people still spiritually belong,
attractive products.
legally belongs to someone else.
D) Aboriginal culture and identity is,
however, profoundly rooted in landscape
form and natural structures.
E) However, Ayer's Rock, this enormous and
beautiful rock, has become the dominant
geographical symbol of Australia

Sayfa 86 / 93
229. More than 80 renowned German scientists 230. No independent African state has a chance to
and artists took refuge in Turkey from the follow an independent course of economic
Nazi persecution in the 1930s and 1940s. — development. ---- This situation will not
Among them were the Berlin Opera director change unless they have a unified policy
Carl Ebert, the composer Paul Hindemith, working at the continental level. The first
philosophers and orientalists such as Ernst step towards a cohesive economy would be
von Aster and Helmut Ritter. Close ties a unified monetary zone, with an agreed
developed amongst various universities in common parity for all African countries.
the two countries as a result and these
persist today. The German Academic
A) The common defence system in the
Exchange Service awards various
African Union ensures stability and
scholarships in Turkey. Professors and
security throughout the continent.
students teach and study in both countries.
B) They can begin to ascertain whether in
reality they are the richest.
A) Germany had always produced scientists
C) The hour of history that brought Africans
who were renowned for their pioneering
to this assembly is a revolutionary hour.
D) Many of the countries that have tried this
B) These were the worst years for those
have been almost ruined.
people who suffered immensely under the
E) Communities and families trade with and
Nazi regime.
support one another successfully across
C) They worked in and also helped to develop
the boundaries.
and establish Turkish universities.
D) Turkey was a country that accepted
people from Germany during the Nazi
E) Many of them visited Istanbul because of
its rich history.

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231. Home entertainment spending, which 232. In our modern world, celebrities may serve
includes DVD sales and film rentals, has been an important social function. In a highly
falling since hitting a peak in 2004, but it mobile, industrial society, celebrities may be
remains an important part of a film’s the only friends we have in common with
revenue. According to some information our new neighbours and co-workers. They
services, the death of that market is provide a common interest and topic of
somewhat overblown. The DVD market conversation between people who
peaked much earlier than studios would otherwise might not have much to say to
have liked, but the overall viewing of the one another, and they facilitate the types of
video at home continues at the same rate as informal interaction that help people
ever. It is a much more mixed market become comfortable in new surroundings. ---
between DVD, video streaming and rental -
services. ---- For example, DVD sales of the
movie Avatar totalled $600 million, and
A) Teenagers in particular seem to be prone
another $57 million was spent
to learning how to dress, manage
relationships, and be socially successful by
A) Aon s rteundtiion gw tihlle t tuning into popular culture.
ympoicvaiell.y take 40% of DVD sales and B) Research published in 2007 reveals that
rentals, and that can generate some young people even look to celebrities for
healthy sums. learning life strategies to help them cope
B) A big name actor can expect an up-front with difficulties.
payment, so $10-$20 million would not be C) Hence, keeping up with the lives of actors,
unusual. politicians and athletes can make a person
C) Popping a DVD into the TV set at home is more socially adept during interactions
no substitute for seeing a film in a cinema. with strangers.
D) What makes movies popular in a short D) On the contrary, the intense familiarity
time is the cast they have rather than with celebrities provided by the media
DVDs that are available soon after release. initiates the same gossip mechanisms for
E) A producer can be thought of as the chief in-group members.
executive of the film who shepherds it E) Adopting the role of the self-righteous soul
from the script page to the premiere. who refuses to participate in gossip at
work or in other areas of your social life
will be self-defeating.

Sayfa 88 / 93
233. For years, researchers have been trying to 234. Logic as an academic discipline was invented
figure out the best ways of making plants by Aristotle and is concerned with argument,
produce biofuels. But there is a fundamental validity, proof, definition and consistency.
problem: photosynthesis, the process by Undoubtedly, even before formal logic was
which plants convert sunlight into stored recognized, people were reasoning in
chemical energy, is highly inefficient. Plants consistent and logical ways. ---- During the
turn only 1-3% of sunlight into Middle Ages, Arabic and European cultures
carbohydrates. ---- However, plants have also contributed to the field. During the
many advantages. They absorb carbon nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there
dioxide at low concentrations directly from were numerous developments in
the atmosphere, and each plant cell can mathematical logic.
repair itself when damaged.
A) Aristotle taught many subjects including
A) Biofuels are gaining increased public and syllogism, an argument in the form of two
scientific attention, driven by factors such premises and a conclusion.
as high oil prices. B) To introduce formal logic to students, it is
B) That is one reason why so much land has useful to explain that logic examines how
to be devoted to growing plants to arguments are constructed.
produce biofuel. C) Therefore, Aristotle, the Father of Logic,
C) In 2010, worldwide biofuel production referred to inductive logic as “a passage
reached 100 billion litres, and biofuels from individuals to universals”.
provided 3% of the world’s fuel for road D) There are several kinds of logic, the most
transport. common of which are deductive and
D) In the future, scientists might create a inductive logic.
black plant that would absorb all incoming E) Nevertheless, Aristotle was the first
sunlight. philosopher to identify and formalize rules
E) A government project is aimed at for this branch of philosophy.
cultivating fast-growing grasses to produce
vegetable oil for the first time in history.

Sayfa 89 / 93
235. Eating too much fatty food, exercising too 236. Four hundred years after he was born, the
little and smoking can raise your future risk 17th century Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi
of heart disease. ---- Previous studies have is making a long-overdue international
linked exposure to environmental pollution comeback. Explorer, peace broker, tax
to an increased risk of heart problems, but collector, war chronicler and mystic, Evliya
the two analyses now show that poor air spent 40 years travelling in the Middle East.
quality can lead to a heart attack or stroke His 10-volume Seyahatname is an epic
within as little as a few hours after exposure. travelogue that provides a fascinating
Scientists found that people exposed to high account of everyday life in the 17th century.
levels of pollutants were up to 5% more ---- UNESCO decreed him Man of the Year in
likely to suffer a heart attack within days of 2011 and the recent publication of An
exposure than those with lower exposure. Ottoman Traveller allows English-language
readers to discover his masterpiece.
A) This can be reduced, however, if you
exercise outside in the fresh air. A) Though previously little known outside of
B) Heart disease is reversible if the Turkey, Evliya is finally going global.
underlying disease can be treated. B) You can still feel the joy of Evliya’s journey
C) But there is another factor that can across Turkey’s vast and unspoiled
trigger heart problems more immediately. countryside.
D) The risks are relatively low for people who C) This work was also appreciated by
“smoke socially” and have lower foreigners, particularly English speakers.
cholesterol levels. D) Evliya loved eating and wrote in detail of
E) Strict regulation of pollutants may not the regional specialties he sampled.
only improve air quality but could also E) One can trace the early stages of Evliya’s
become necessary to protect public journey from Istanbul to Mecca.

Sayfa 90 / 93
237. Living in a country with the world’s highest 238. As some economic studies have shown, the
murder rate, Hondurans have grown grimly longer a person is unemployed, the harder it
accustomed to untimely deaths. ---- A fire in becomes for him or her to find a job. Many
a prison in Comayagua may have been the companies are reluctant to hire those who
world’s deadliest prison fire ever. Rescue have not worked for a long time. There are
crews said they had no way to save the 6,7 million Americans not officially counted
prisoners, because they could not find the as part of the labour force, who say they
guards with the keys to release the inmates would like to work. ----
from the overcrowded prison.
A) In Western Europe, where it is hard to fire
A) Therefore, the national prison director has people, employers are more cautious.
admitted the system is failing and needs a B) A company should reform its working
lot of investment. conditions if employees are not very
B) The cause of the disaster has not been productive.
determined, but officials suggest it might C) Not all unemployment is equal, as there
have been a protesting inmate setting his are better and worse ways to be without a
mattress alight. job.
C) Yet even they were shocked on February D) Integrating these people into the economy
15th to hear reports of a further cruel will be a long and expensive undertaking.
consequence of the country’s high crime
E) Likewise, there are not big differences
between the unemployment rates of
D) However, the scale of the tragedy became Europe and the US.
clear when the Honduran President called
it “a day of deep pain”.
E) Honduran inmates suffered from
malnutrition, poor sanitation and
insufficient medical care, and they had
access to weapons.

Sayfa 91 / 93
239. Most measurements of happiness are by 240. Everything in the factories of the future will
standardized questionnaires or interview be run by smarter software. Digitization in
schedules. It could also be done by informed manufacturing will have as widespread an
observers – those who know the individual effect as in other industries that have gone
well and see them regularly. ---- Yet, another digital, including photography, publishing
form of measurement is to investigate a and films. Such effects will not be confined
person’s memory and check whether they to large manufacturers, either. ---- Launching
feel predominantly happy or unhappy about new and innovative products will become
their past. Finally, there are some crude but easier and cheaper for them.
ever-developing physical measures looking
at everything from brain scanning to saliva
A) The materials being used to make things
are changing faster than they were in the
A) It should be kept in mind that such tests B) In addition, it will allow things to be made
might be misleading in many cases. economically in much smaller quantities.
B) Findings suggest that ancestors of Finnish C) Nonetheless, companies are also
people made use of such methods. optimistic about a manufacturing revival.
C) There is also experience sampling, where D) In fact, these developments will empower
people report how happy they are many
smaller firms and individual
times a day.
D) Being objective in this process is more
E) As such, companies from all over the
important than being an observer.
world use China and India as low-wage
E) A question still remains unanswered: to workshops.
what extent can one express happiness on
a sheet of questions?

Sayfa 92 / 93
241. ---- This is not the case, and evidence for 242. Stephen Hawking, the famed theoretical
early learning and remembering comes from physicist diagnosed with Lou Gehrig’s
several studies. In one, infants only a few disease, lost the ability to speak thirty years
hours old learned to turn their heads right or ago. In the meantime, a computerized voice
left, depending on whether they heard a generated by an infrared sensor inside
buzzer or a tone. In order to taste a sweet Hawking’s mouth has allowed him to
liquid, the baby had to turn to the right communicate. According to a recent report,
when a tone sounded and to turn to the left however, the muscles controlling the device
when the buzzer sounded. In only a few have been deteriorating, limiting him to as
trials, the babies were performing without little as one word per minute. ---- This is a
error. horrifying prospect for the scientific
community that has benefitted greatly from
his findings. But a new device recording
A) It was once thought that infants could
brain functions at an unprecedented level of
neither learn nor remember.
detail was developed and has been proposed
B) Infants can discriminate differences in
to improve Hawking’s ability to
taste shortly after birth.
communicate once again.
C) Newborn infants could distinguish human
voices from other sounds.
A) Such devices can be used to monitor the
D) Newborn babies may not remember what
sleep pattern and the disorders of the
they have just learned.
E) Pre-birth experiences in the uterus help
B) The sensor in the mouth is an effective
infants to learn and remember.
way to continue communication with
people unable to speak.
C) Without a new means of communication,
Hawking runs the risk of being rendered
D) The muscles in the mouth can be kept
under control by using a great variety of
E) Thanks to recent developments,
researchers are now able to keep the
disease under control as in Hawking’s

Sayfa 93 / 93

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