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Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

3.2 Reinforced Concrete Slabs Slabs are divided into suspended slabs. Suspended slabs may be divided into two

groups:

(1)

slabs supported on edges of beams and walls

(2) slabs supported directly on columns without beams and known as flat slabs. Supported slabs may be one-way slabs (slabs supported on two sides and with main reinforcement in one direction only) and two-way slabs (slabs supported on four sides and reinforced in two directions). In one-way slabs the main reinforcement is provided along the shorter span. In order to distribute the load, a distribution steel is necessary and it is placed on the longer side. One- way slabs generally consist of a series of shallow beams of unit width and depth equal to the slab thickness, placed side by side. Such simple slabs can be supported on brick walls and can be supported on reinforced concrete beams in which case laced bars are used to connect slabs to beams.

wh ich case laced bars are used to connect slabs to beams. Figure 3.2-1: One –way

Figure 3.2-1: One –way slab, two-way slab, ribbed slab, flat slab, solid flat slab with drop panel, waffle slab

In R.C. Building construction, every floor generally has a beam/slab arrangement and consists of fixed or continuous one-way slabs supported by main and secondary beams.

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Sabah Shawkat Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Figure 3.2-2: Solid flat slab, soli d flat slab

Figure 3.2-2: Solid flat slab, solid flat slab with drop panels

The usual arrangement of a slab and beam floor consists of slabs supported on cross- beams or secondary beams parallel to the longer side and with main reinforcement parallel to the shorter side. The secondary beams in turn are supported on main beams or girders extending from column to column. Part of the reinforcement in the continuous is bent up over the support, or straight bars with bond lengths are placed over the support to give negative bending moments.

placed over the s upport to give negative bending moments. Figure 3.2-3: Types of the reinfo

Figure 3.2-3: Types of the reinforced concrete slab systems

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

3.2.1 Flat Slabs Flat plate is defined as a two-way slab of uniform thickness supported by any combination of columns, without any beams, drop panels, and column capitals. Flat plates are most economical for spans from 4,5 to 7,5m, for relatively light loads, as experienced in apartments or similar building.

-A flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab supported directly on and built monolithically with the columns, the flat slab is divided into middle strips and column strips. The size of each strip is defined using specific rules. The slab may be in uniform thickness supported on simple columns. These flat slabs may be designed as continuous frames. However, they are normally designed using an empirical method governed by specified coefficients for bending moments and other requirements which include the following:

1. There should be not less than three rectangular bays in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

2. The length of the adjacent bays should not vary by more than 10 %.

of the adjacent bays should not vary by more than 10 %. Figure 3.2.1-1: Post punching

Figure 3.2.1-1: Post punching behaviour of slab- critical section

The general layout of the reinforcement is based on the both bending moments (in spans) and bending moments in addition to direct loads (on columns).

is ba sed on the both bending moments (in spans) and bending moments in addition to

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Figure 3.2.1-2: Combined punching shear and transfer of moments

Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Figure 3.2.1-2: Combined punching shear and transfer of moments Figure 3.2.1-3
Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Figure 3.2.1-2: Combined punching shear and transfer of moments Figure 3.2.1-3

Figure 3.2.1-3

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Sabah Shawkat Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Figure 3.2.1-4
Sabah Shawkat Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Figure 3.2.1-4

Figure 3.2.1-4

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

3.2.1-1 Analysis and Design of Flat Plate

2017

To obtain the load effects on the elements of the floor system and its supporting members using an elastic analysis, the structure may be considered as a series of equivalent plane frames, each consisting of vertical members – columns, horizontal members - slab.

Such plane frames must be taken both longitudinally (in x-direction) and transversely (in y direction) in the building, to assure load transfer in both directions.

For gravity load effects, these equivalent plane frames can be further simplified into continuous beams or partial frames consisting of each floor may be analysed separately together with the columns immediately above and below, the columns being assumed fixed at their far ends. Such a procedure is described in the “Equivalent Frame Method”. When frame geometry and loadings meet certain limitations, the positive and negative factored moments at critical sections of the slab may be calculated using moment coefficients, termed “Direct Design Method”. These two methods differ essentially in the manner of determining the longitudinal distribution of bending moments in the horizontal member between the negative and positive moment sections. However, the procedure for the lateral distribution of the moments is the same for both design methods.

of the moments is the same for both design methods. Figure 3.2.1.1-1: Steel shear –heads, steel

Figure 3.2.1.1-1: Steel shear –heads, steel plats joined by welding

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Since the outer portions of horizontal members (slab) are less stiff than the part along the support lines, the lateral distribution of the moment along the width of the member is not

Uniform. The procedure generally adopted is to divide the slab into column strips (along the column lines) and middle strips and then apportion the moment between these strips and the distribution of the moment within the width of each strip being assumed uniform.

the distribution of the moment within the width of each strip being assumed uniform. Figure 3.2.1.1-2:

Figure 3.2.1.1-2: Moments and frames

the distribution of the moment within the width of each strip being assumed uniform. Figure 3.2.1.1-2:

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

Figure: 3.2.1.1-3

2017

Example: 3.2-1 Design and calculation of Flat Plate

Geometric Shapes

Slab thickness

h d  300mm The geometry of the building floor plans:

l 1  7.7m

l k  2.3m

l 2  3.6m

Construction height of object:

k v  2.850m

Dimensions columns:

b

s  400mm

h s



b s

l y  7.7m

The peripheral dimensions of the beam:

h o  0.5m

b o  0.30m

beam: h o  0.5  m b o  0.30  m Figure: 3.2.1-1 Load

Figure: 3.2.1-1

Load calculation

Load per area

Reinforced concrete slab thickness of 300 mm

q do



h d

25

kN

3

m

1.35

q do

10.125

kN

m 2

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

floor layer:

q

1d



kN

3

2

1.4

q 1d

m

Live load (apartments):

kN kN

v

d



2.0

m 2

1.5

v d

3

m 2

Total load on 1 m 2 of slab:

q

d



q

do

q

1d

v d

q

d

 

kN

4.2

 

m 2

kN

17.325

m 2

Force load Peripheral masonry thickness of 400 mm YTONG:

F

1



10

kN

3

m

k

v

l y

 400mm1.35

F 1 118.503kN

Total load acting on the console:

F 1d



F 1

F 1d 118.503kN

2017

Investigation replacement frame in the X-axis Frame 1:

Calculation model

 kN 2017 Investigation replacement frame in the X-axis Frame 1: Calculation model load calculation Figure:

load calculation

Figure: 3.2.1-2

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

Load width in a direction perpendicular to the x:

zs x



l y

Load in the x-direction:

q

dx



q

d

zs x

q

dx

133.403

kN

m

Calculation of internal forces

Moment on a console:

M k



F 1d l k

q

dx

l k

2

2

Moment of inertia:

Transverse replacement frame:

I

p



l y h d

3

12

I

p

0.017m 4

M k 625.407kN m

Central girders replacement of frame:

I st



I p

column:

I s



1 b

12

s

h s

3

I

s

5.208

10 3

m 4

Bending stiffness:

Transverse replacement frame:

K p



I

p

l

1

1000

kN

rad m 2

K p

2.25

kN

m

rad

Central girders replacement frame:

K

st



Column

K

s



I st



l 2

1000

kN

rad m 2

I

s

k

v

1000

kN

rad m 2

K st

K s

4.813

kN

m

rad

1.827

kN

m

rad

2017

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Sabah Shawkat Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Figure: 3.2.1-3  9  1  1 0

Figure: 3.2.1-3

9  1

10  1

M 1010'  1

M 910  1 M 10'10  1

M 108 

1

M 911  1

M 109  M 97  1

1

M 1012  1

Primary moments in node 9:

M 97o  0kN m

Primary moments in node 10:

M

910o



1

12

q

dx

l 1

2 M 911o  0kN m

1 2 M   q  109o dx l 1 12 1 2 M
1
2
M

 q
109o
dx
l 1
12
1
2
M

 q
1010ò
dx
l 2
12
Give
M 97 kN m
M 97o
M 910 kN
M 108 kN
m
M
910o
m
M
108o

K

s

 

K

K

p

s

M 1012 kN m M 10'10 kN m

M 1012o 1012o

1012  kN  m M 10'10  kN  m M 1012o  M 10'10o

M

10'10o

K

s

K

st

2

M 108o  0kN m

M 10'10o

 

M 1012o  0kN m

M 1010ò

 rad

3

9

2

 rad

9

3

10

M 911 kN m

9 2   rad  9 3  10 M 9 1 1  kN
9 2   rad  9 3  10 M 9 1 1  kN

M 911o

K

p

2

K

s

10

K st

 rad

2

9

K p 2   K s 10 K st     rad 

 rad

10

 radM 109 kN m M 109o  

rad

rad

10

 rad

9

 rad

10

 rad

10

M 1010' kN m

M 1010ò

Equilibrium conditions:

Node 9

kN m M

M k

M

97

910

kN m M

911

kN m 0kN m

conditions: Node 9  kN  m M M k  M 97  910 

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

M

v

109 kN m M



1012

kN m M



M

911



M

1010'

kN m M

109



M

1012



M

1010'

108

kN m 0kN m

M 1012  M 1010' 108  kN  m 0  kN  m 



M

108



9



10



M

10'10

Find

M 97 M 910



2017

The calculated moments of individual members of equilibrium conditions:

M

M

M

M

M

910

10'10

1010'

911

109

( 1.0)





v

v

(

(

9 0)

5.0)





v

( 2.0)

v ( 3.0)



v

kN m

kN m

kN m

kN m

kN m

M 910  691.408kN m

M 10'10 282.659kN m

M 1010'  282.659kN m

M 911 26.401kN m

M 109 545.787kN m

The computation of shear forces in the individual members:

V 910o

V 109o

l 1



 

q

dx

2

V 910o

 

M 910

M 109

910



V

910o

l 1

910 532.511kN

 

M 910

M 109

 



V

109o

l 1

V

V

V 109

V

V

V

V

109  494.688kN

l 1

1010ò

4

1010' V 1010ò

1010' 256.8kN





q

dx

Maximum moment between 9-10 Mmax

l 1 a   V 910 V 910  V 109 a 2 M
l 1
a

V 910
V 910
 V 109
a 2
M

V
910 a  M
q
max
910 
dx 
2

Maximum moment between 10-10 Mstr

M

str



V

1010'

l 1

4

M

1010'

q

dx

 

 

l 2

2

2

2

v

 

0

0

39.601

1

-691.408

2

26.401

3

545.787

4

-105.251

5

-282.659

6

-157.877

7

7.223

8

-28.797

9

282.659

a 3.992m

M max 371.423kN m

M str  4.431kN m

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Sabah Shawkat Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Figure: 3.2.1-4 Transformation moments for the part co lumned

Figure: 3.2.1-4

Transformation moments for the part columned strip and between the columns

M

M

a

c'





M 910

M 910

M

max

M b



1.25 M c 

Moments over support:

p

M

0.75



p

1a

M

a

M 2a  172.852kN m

M

2b



1

p

M

b

M

109 M a  691.408mkN

M b 545.787mkN

M str

1.25 M c' 464.278kN m M c  5.539kN m

M 1a  518.556kN m

M 1b



p M b

M 2b 136.447kN m

M 2a 

p

M

1

M 1b 409.34kN m

a

Positively support moments:

m 0.60

M

3c



M

c' m

M 3c 278.567kN m

M 4c



M

c'

1

m

M 4c 185.711kN m

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Sabah Shawkat Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Figure: 3.2.1-5 Dimensioning of the reinforcement: Material

Figure: 3.2.1-5

Dimensioning of the reinforcement:

Material characteristic of concrete f ckcyl and steel fyk

f yd  375MPa

f cd  12MPa

The top reinforcement for moments:

effective height:

d



h d

3cm

width, which act the moment

b



l y

2

b 3.85m

Column strip M 1a :

M 1a  518.556kN m

d 0.27m

A st

M 1a

b d 2

f cd



bd

f cd

A st



f cd 12MPa

 0.047

bd

f cd

MN

2

100 cm

M 1a  0.518MNm

b 3.85m

0.154

A st

2

59.252cm

A st

3.85

2

15.39 cm

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

Among the columned strip M 2a :

M 2a  172.852kN m

d 0.27m

A

st

M 2a

b



d 2

f

cd

bd

f

cd

MN

2

100 cm

Column strip M 1b :

f cd 12MPa

 0.0143

A st

17.95

2

cm

M 2a  0.172MNm

b 3.85m

0.051

A st

3.85

2

4.662 cm

2017

M

1b 409.34kN m

M 1b  0.409MNm

d

0.27m

f cd 12MPa

b 3.85m

A

st

M 1b

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

2

100 cm

 0.0359

A st

2

44.857cm

Among the columned strip M 2b :

M 2b 136.447kN m

f cd 12MPa

A

st

M 2b

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

2

100 cm

b 3.85m

 0.0114

A st

2

14.283cm

The lower reinforcement for moments:

0.121

A st

3.85

2

11.651 cm

M 2b  0.136MNm

d 0.27m

0.04

A st

3.85

2

3.71 cm

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

Column strip M 3c :

M 3c 278.567kN m

b

A

3.85m

st

M

3c

b



d 2

f cd

bd

f

cd

MN

2

100 cm

d 0.27m

 0.024

A st

2

31.06cm

M 3c  0.278MNm

f cd 12MPa

0.083

A st

3.85

2

8.068 cm

Among the columned strip M 4c :

M

4c 185.711kN m

d 0.27m

M

4c

b

d 2

f cd

M 4c  0.185MNm

f cd 12MPa

b 3.85m

0.055

 0.0158

A st



bd

f

cd

MN

2

100 cm

A st

2

19.809

cm

Investigation replacement frame in y Frame 2

Calculation Model

2017

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Sabah Shawkat Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Load calculation Figure: 3.2.1-6 q 2d  q d

Load calculation

Figure: 3.2.1-6

q 2d



q d

1

2

l 1

l 2

Calculation internal forces

Support part:

M a



1

12

q

2d

l y

2

Among the supports:

q

2d

97.886

kN

m

M a  483.64kN m

M c'



1

16

q

2d

l y

2 M c' 362.73kN m

a magnification between support:

M

c



M

c'

1.25

M c 453.412kN m

Transformation moments for the part columned strip and among columned

support t of Ma2

p

0.75

M

a2



1

p

M

a

Between the support of M c

m

0.6

M a1

M c1





p

M a M a1  362.73kN m

M a2  120.91kN m

m M c

M c1 272.047kN m

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

M

c2



1

m

M

c

M c2 181.365kN m

Dimensioning of reinforcement

Upper reinforcement of moment:

Effective depth:

d



h

d

3cm

Column strip M 1a :

The width on which acting the moment:

b



l 1 l 2

4 4

Column strip M 1a :

M 1a 0.518MNm

A

st

M 1a

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

b 2.825m

d 0.27m

 0.0668

2

100 cm

Between the column strip M 2a :

f cd 12MPa

0.21

A st

2

61.206cm

M 2a 0.172MNm

A

st

M 2a

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

d 0.27m

f cd 12MPa

 0.0203

0.07

2

100 cm

A st

2

18.645cm

b 2.825m

b 2.825m

2017

Sabah Shawkat

Column strip M 1a :

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

M c1 0.272MNm

A st

M c1

b d 2

f cd



bd

f cd

MN

d 0.27m

 0.0327

2

100 cm

Between column strip M 2a :

M c2 0.181MNm

A st

M c2

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

d 0.27m

2

100 cm

 0.021

f cd 12MPa

0.11

A st

2

29.994cm

f cd 12MPa

0.073

A st

2

19.77cm

Investigation extreme frame replacement

Calculation Model:

b 2.825m

b 2.825m

2017

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Sabah Shawkat Cabinet of Structural Engineering 2017 Calculation of load: From the slab:   q

Calculation of load:

From the slab:

q 3do



q

d

l k

l 1

2

Figure: 3.2.1-7

q

3do

106.549

kN

m

Peripheral masonry thickness of 400 mm YTONG:

F

1



10

kN

3

m

k

 400mm1.4

v

Total load replacement frame:

q

kd



q

3do

F 1

Calculation of internal forces

Moment of the end strip:

F 1

q kd

15.96

kN

m

122.509

kN

m

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Support bending moment:

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

M

ka



1

12

q

kd

l y

2 M ka  605.295kN m

Between the column bending moment:

M

kc



1

16

q

kd

l y

2

M kc 453.971kN m

2017

Transformation moments for the part columned bands and among columned columned strip width:

b p3



l k

l 1

2

Moments over support:

b p3 6.15m

M

M

M

exta

inta

k3a







M

ka

4

1

2

l k

b

p3

M

1

ka

M exta

p

M

inta

Between the column moments:

M exta  264.509kN m

M

k4a



p

M inta

M k3a  85.197kN m

M

M

M

extc

intc

k3c







M

kc

4

1

2

l k

b

p3

M

1

kc

M extc

m

M

intc

M extc 198.382kN m

M

k4c



m M intc

M k3c 102.236kN m

M k4a  255.59kN m

M k4c 153.354kN m

Design the reinforcement to the reinforced concrete slab The top reinforcement for moments:

Sabah Shawkat

effective height:

d  d 3cm

Column extreme strip M exta :

width which act moment

b



l k

b

2.3m

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Column extreme strip M exta : see diagram B3-B3.3

M exta  0.265MNm

d 0.24m

f cd 12MPa

M exta

 0.050

 0.166

b d 2

f cd

A st



bd

f

cd

MN

2

100 cm

A st

2

33.716cm

Column strip inside M k4a :

b

2.3m

width, which acts moment, see diagram B3-B3.3

 

l 1

b



b 1.925m

 

4

M k4a  0.256MNm

A st

M k4a

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

2

100 cm

d 0.24m

 0.0596

Among the columned strip M k3a :

width, which acts moment

f cd 12MPa

 0.192

A st

2

33.07cm

b 1.925m

A st

1.925

2

17.179 cm

Sabah Shawkat

 

l

1

b



b 1.925m

 

4

M k3a  0.085MNm

A st

M k3a

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

2

100 cm

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

d 0.24m

 0.0173

f cd 12MPa

 0.064

A st

2

9.641cm

The lower reinforcement for moments:

Column extreme strip M extc :

width, which acts moment, see diagram B3-B3.3

b



l k

b

2.3m

M extc 0.198MNm

A st

M extc

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

2

100 cm

d 0.24m

 0.0375

Column strip inside M k4c :

width, which acts moment

b



l

1

4

M k4c 0.153MNm

b 1.925m

d 0.24m

f cd 12MPa

0.125

A st

2

24.893cm

f cd 12MPa

b 1.925m

A st

1.925

A st

2.3

b

2

5.008 cm

2.3m

2

10.823 cm

b 1.925m

2017

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

A st

M k4c

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

 0.0343

2

100 cm

Among the columned strip M k3c :

width, which acts moment

 

l 1

b



b 1.925m

 

4

See diagram B3-B3.3

M k3c 0.102MNm

d 0.24m

0.115

A st

2

19.049cm

f cd 12MPa

A st

M k3c

b d 2

f cd



bd

f

cd

MN

 0.0218

2

100 cm

0.077

A st

2

12.136cm

A st

1.925

2017

2

9.896 cm

b 1.925m

A st

1.925

2

6.304 cm

Sabah Shawkat

Cabinet of Structural Engineering

2017

Example 3.2-2: In the example we are considering reinforced concrete slab flat, floor slab thickness is hd = 0.3m, Column diameter (round column) d =0.50 m, the maximum force applied one column at Nd= 1800 kN.

d