You are on page 1of 66

College of Engineering Education

In Partial Fulfillment for CE537A

Construction Methods & Project

M-F 1:30 – 3:30

Submitted By:
Group 2
Aranquez, Mary Amiel
Batindaan, Lorraine
Costin, Kevin
Eronico. Sharmaine Reca
Hibionada, July John
Luchavez, Mikee
Luy, Sheena Lann
Rollorata. Joann Rio
Roxas, Janne Dominique
Tan, Brian Yves

Submitted To:
Engr. Jose Condonar, Jr.

September 7, 2018
Joann Rio Rollorata
Brian Tan

WOOD CONSTRUCTION………………………………………………….......
Sheena Lann Luy
Sharmaine Reca Eronico

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION……………………………………………….
Mary Amiel Aranquez

CONCRETE FORM DESIGN………………………………………………….

Mikee Luchavez

MASONRY CONSTRUCTION…………………………………………………
Kevin Costin
July Hibionada

STEEL CONSTRUCTION……………………………………………………..
Lorraine Batindaan
Janne Dominique Roxas
What is Foundation?

Foundation is part of a structural system that supports and anchors the superstructure
of a building and transmits its loads directly to the earth. It is the lower portion of the
building usually located below ground level, which transmits the loads of the super
structure to the supporting soil. A foundation is therefore that part of the structure
which is in direct contact with the ground to which loads are transmitted.

What are the Functions of Foundation?


Foundation distributes the loads of the super structure, to a larger area so that the
intensity of the load at its base (i.e. total load divided by the total area) does not exceed
the safe bearing capacity of the sub-soil.


Foundations distribute the non-uniform load of the super structure evenly to the sub
soil. For example, two columns carrying unequal loads can have a combined footing
which may transmit the load to sub soil evenly with uniform soil pressure. Due to this,
unequal or differential settlements are minimized.


Foundation provide leveled and hard surface over which the super structure can be

It anchors the super structure to the ground, thus imparting lateral stability to the super
structure. The stability of the building, against sliding and overturning, due to horizontal
forces (such as wind, earthquake etc.) is increased due to foundations.


It provides the structural safety against undermining or scouring due to burrowing
animals and flood water.
Special foundation measures prevent or minimize the distress (or cracks) in the super
structure, due to expansion or contraction of the sub soil because of moisture
movement in some problematic soils.

Design Procedures for a Building Foundation


On the building plan, the position of columns and loadbearing walls should be marked,
and any other induced loadings and bending moments. The loads should be classified
into dead, imposed and wind loadings, giving the appropriate partial safety factors for
these loads.


From a study of the site ground investigation (if available), the strength of the soil at
various depths or strata below foundation level should be studied, to determine the
safe bearing capacity at various levels. These values – or presumed bearing values
(from any standards or codes) in the absence of a site investigation – are used to
estimate the allowable bearing pressure.


The invert level (underside) of the foundation is determined by either the minimum
depth below ground level unaffected by temperature, moisture content variation or
erosion – this can be as low as 450 mm in granular soils but, depending on the site
and ground conditions, can exceed 1 m – or by the depth of basement, boiler house,
service ducts or similar.


The foundation area required is determined from the characteristic (working) loads
and estimated allowable pressure. This determines the preliminary design of the types
or combination of types of foundation. The selection is usually based on economics,
speed and buildability of construction.
Settlement calculations should be carried out to check that the total and differential
settlements are acceptable. If these are unacceptable then a revised allowable
bearing pressure should be determined, and the foundation design amended to
increase its area, or the foundations should be taken down to a deeper and stronger

Types of Foundation and their Uses

Following are different types of foundations used in construction:

1. Shallow foundation

Shallow foundations are those founded near to the finished ground surface; generally,
where the founding depth (Df) is less than the width of the footing and less than 3m.
These are not strict rules, but merely guidelines: basically, if surface loading or other
surface conditions will affect the bearing capacity of a foundation it is 'shallow'. Shallow
foundations (sometimes called 'spread footings') include pa ds ('isolated footings'), strip
footings and rafts.

Shallows foundations are used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to
support the imposed loads; they are generally unsuitable in weak or highly
compressible soils, such as poorly-compacted fill, peat, recent lacustrine and alluvial
deposits, etc.

Types of Shallow Foundations:

1.1 Individual Footing or Isolated Footing

The most common type of foundation used for building construction. This foundation
is constructed for single column and also called as pad foundation.
The shape of individual footing is square or rectangle and is used when loads from
structure is carried by the columns. Size is calculated based on the load on the column
and safe bearing capacity of soil.

Rectangular isolated footing is selected when the foundation experiences moments

due to eccentricity of loads or due to horizontal forces.

1.2 Combined Footing

Combined footing is constructed when two or more columns are close enough and
their isolated footings overlap each other. It is a combination of isolated footings, but
their structural design differs.

The shape of this footing is rectangle and is used when loads from structure is carried
by the columns.

1.3 Strip footings and Wall footings

Strip foundations are used to support a line of loads, either due to a load-bearing wall,
or if a line of columns need supporting where column positions are so close that
individual pad foundations would be inappropriate.
1.4 Raft or Mat Foundations

Raft or mat foundations are the types of foundation which are spread across the entire
area of the building to support heavy structural loads from columns and walls.

2. Deep foundations

Deep foundations are those founding too deeply below the finished ground surface for
their base bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions, this is usually at
depths >3 m below finished ground level. They include piles, piers and caissons or
compensated foundations using deep basements and also deep pad or strip
foundations. Deep foundations can be used to transfer the loading to a deeper, more
competent strata at depth if unsuitable soils are present near the surface.

Types of Deep Foundations:

2.1 Piles

Are relatively long, slender members that transmit foundation loads through soil strata
of low bearing capacity to deeper soil or rock strata having a high bearing capacity.
They are used when for economic, constructional or soil condition considerations it is
desirable to transmit loads to strata beyond the practical reach of shallow foundations.
In addition to supporting structures, piles are also used to anchor structures against
uplift forces and to assist structures in resisting lateral and overturning forces.

Pile foundations are used in the following situations:

When there is a layer of weak soil at the surface. This layer cannot support the weight
of the building, so the loads of the building have to bypass this layer and be transferred
to the layer of stronger soil or rock that is below the weak layer.
When a building has very heavy, concentrated loads, such as in a high-rise structure,
bridge, or water tank.

Pile foundations are capable of taking higher loads than spread footings.

There are two fundamental types of pile foundations (based on structural behavior),
each of which works in its own way.

What are Piles Made of?

Piles can be made of wood, concrete, or steel.

In traditional construction, wooden piles were used to support buildings in areas with
weak soil. Wood piles are still used to make jetties. For this one needs trees with
exceptionally straight trunks. The pile length is limited to the length of a single tree,
about 20m, since one cannot join together two tree trunks. The entire city of Venice in
Italy is famous for being built on wooden piles over the sea water.

Concrete piles are precast, that is, made at ground level, and then driven into the
ground by hammering. Steel H-piles can also be driven into the ground. These can
take very heavy loads, and save time during construction, as the pile casting process
is eliminated. No protective coating is given to the steel, as during driving, this would
be scraped away by the soil. In areas with corrosive soil, concrete piles should be

How Piles are Constructed

Piles can be either cast-in-place or precast driven piles.

Cast-in-place piles are made in the following steps:

 hammer a thin-walled steel tube into the ground
 remove all earth left inside the tube
 lower a steel reinforcement cage into the tube
 cast the pile by pouring wet concrete into the tube
The thin walled steel tube is called the casing, and only serves to form a secure mould
for casting concrete that is free from earth and debris. It has no structural role to play
after the casting is complete.

Precast Driven Piles are first cast at ground level and then hammered or driven into
the ground using a pile driver. This is a machine that holds the pile perfectly vertical,
and then hammers it into the ground blow by blow. Each blow is is struck by lifting a
heavy weight and dropping it on the top of the pile - the pile is temporarily covered
with a steel cap to prevent it from disintegrating. The pile driver thus performs two
functions - first, it acts as a crane, and lifts the pile from a horizontal position on the
ground and rotates it into the correct vertical position, and second, it hammers the pile
down into the ground.
Piles should be hammered into the ground till refusal, at which point they cannot be
driven any further into the soil.

2.2 Piers and Caissons

A caisson foundation also called as pier foundation is a watertight retaining structure

used as a bridge pier, in the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships.
It is a prefabricated hollow box or cylinder sunk into the ground to some desired depth
and then filled with concrete thus forming a foundation.

Caisson foundation is most often used in the construction of bridge piers & other
structures that require foundation beneath rivers & other bodies of water. This is
because caissons can be floated to the job site and sunk into place.

Caisson foundations are similar in form to pile foundations, but are installed using a
different method. It is used when soil of adequate bearing strength is found below
surface layers of weak materials such as fill or peat. It is a form of deep foundation
which are constructed above ground level, then sunk to the required level by excavating
or dredging material from within the caisson.

Caissons (also sometimes called “piers”) are created by auguring a deep hole into the
ground, and then filling it with concrete. Steel reinforcement is sometimes utilized for
a portion of the length of the caisson.
Caissons are drilled either to bedrock (called “rock caissons”) or deep into the
underlying soil strata if a geotechnical engineer finds the soil suitable to carry the
building load. When caissons rest on soil, they are generally “belled” at the bottom to
spread the load over a wider area. Special drilling bits are used to remove the soil for
these “belled caissons”.

The caisson foundations carry the building loads at their lower ends, which are often
Slope Stability - is the resistance of inclined surface to failure by sliding or

Factors Affecting Slope Stability in Open Excavation

 Types of soil
 Time during which the excavation is required to be open
 Allowable degree of risk of slipping which is determined based on the existing
structures and new constructed buildings around the excavation area.

In order to understand the principal modes of slope failure, It is necessary to

understand the basic concept of soil strengths. The soil identification procedures
included the classification of soil into cohesionless and cohesive types. Cohesive Soil,
shear strength is provided primarily by the attraction between soil grains.Cohesionless
Soil is one whose grains do not show any tendency to stick together.

Stability of Slopes for Excavation in Different Soil Types

Excavation Slope Stability in Cohesive Soil

Normally Consolidated Soil

It is theoretically proven that, open excavations in ordinary compacted soil with vertical
wall can stand without the need for any supports provided that the excavation wall
height does not surpass critical height.

In the case of exceeding the critical height, the stability of the soil would vary with time
due to variations in pore water pressure behind the face of the excavation wall after
release of lateral pressure.

The critical height of an open excavation is calculated by dividing four times undrained
shear strength of soil over its density.

If it is required to have stable excavation in normally consolidated soft to firm clay for
considerably long time, then the safety factor is specified based on the severity of
the risk that imposed by major slip.

The use of low safety factor would be adequate unless the major slip of the excavation
wall leads to the loss of life and damaging properties at the vicinity of the construction
For deep excavations, it is specified to take the expense of removing considerable
mass of slipped clay from the excavated area into consideration while the safety factor
of the excavation is evaluated.

Finally, it is recommended to place the soil, which removed from excavation, away
from the top of the slope since it could increase the possibility of the slippage.
Therefore, this factor is also required to be considered while the safety of the
excavation is analyzed.

Stiff Clay

It can stand almost vertically with small soil mass fall due to erosion and frost damage
from sandy lenses in the clay. However, if pocket lenses of water bearing sand and
gravel are present in clay or when the excavation is dug steeply and cuts fissures in
the clay, then a major risk would be highly likely and hence the excavation is massively

It is proven that, the spread of fissures in stiff clay would pose serious issues to the
stability of slope in excavations. This is because the pore water pressure variations
cannot be anticipated when the overburden pressure is removed.

The slope slippage in stiff fissured clay is either small falls due to crumbling or slipping
along fissure plan or rotational shear slide of sizable mass of clay soil. When the
slipping does not impose server risks to the surrounding structure, then it would
acceptable to use a slope of 1:0.5.

This slope will not eliminate the risk of slippage completely but the fallen soil mass
should be smaller and clearing operation should not be difficult. If the slipping creates
serious risks to the structures close to the excavation area, then a slope of 1:2 to 1:2.5
should be adopted or the face of excavation wall should be supported using suitable

Finally, if the excavation is not open for long time, then it is advisable to use a sheet
layer such as polyethylene or tarpaulin to the steeply excavated face to prevent the
penetration of water into the trench wall and destabilize the excavation.

Excavation Slope Stability in Cohesionless Soil

Dry sand and gravel

They are cohesion less soil that able to stand at a slope equal to their angle of repose
disregard of the excavation depth.

Damp sands and sandy gravel

These are partially cohesive soil that able to stand vertically for a period of less than
a month.

The slope stability in this type of soil may be kept through the use of protective layer
like cement mortar to the surface.

Factors such as erosion due to surface water and wind or degradation die to
construction works are the sources of instability of steep slopes in such soil.

Water bearing sand

As far as water bearing sand is concerned, open slope excavation in such soil is
substantially unstable specifically steep slope in which water seeps from the
excavation wall face at the toe and soil would collapse at the wall upper part till the
stable angle is realized which ranges from 15-20 degree.

The stability of water bearing sand is more problematic when thin layer of silt or clay
are present.

This is because clay or silt layer may bleed from the face and consequently jeopardize
the stability of other strong layers.

Dry silt soil

It can stand vertically and the depth of excavation of more than 15m with slight
cementing on the face can be achieved.

If such slopes are not cemented, then vibration would easily disturb their stability.
Another undesired factor that lead to destabilize slopes in silt is the erosion due

So, stability of slopes in wet silt is considerably difficult because erosion due to water
lead to the collapse of the excavation until a stable angle is reached.

Excavation Slope Stability in Rocks

The stability of vertical slopes in rocks is not free from problems since it is dependent
on the angle of bedding plane and the extent of shattering of shattered or deteriorated

If the bedding plane slope is steep and toward the excavation area, then the slope
would be unstable especially in the presence of ground water that lubricator rock
planes and hence facilitate slipping.
However, if the slope of bedding plane is away from the excavation area or horizontal,
then vertical slope of the excavation wall would be stable.

With regard to shattered rocks, it could lead to the collapse of the excavation wall. For
example, of the disintegrated rock falls, then the intact rock rest on the shattered one
would fall as well and eventually total collapse are likely to occur.

Embankment Failure During Construction

Most soil encountered in construction exhibit a combination of two soil extremes. That
is their shear strength is from combination of inter granular friction and cohesion.

Theoretically, a vertical excavation in a cohesive soil can be safely made to a depth to

a function of the soil’s cohesive strength and its angle of internal friction. The depth
can range from under 1.5m for soft clay and 5.5 m for medium clay. In practice,
however, the theoretically safe depth of unsupported excavation in clay can be
sustained for a limited time. As the clay is excavated, the weight of the soil of the cut
causes the sides of the cut to bulge with an accompanying settlement of the soil at the
top of the cut. Subsidence of the soil at the top of the cut usually results in the formation
of tension cracks on the ground surface.

Preventing Embankment Failure

Side slopes may be stabilized by cutting them back to an angle equal or less than the
angle of repose of the soil or by providing lateral support for the excavation. Both side
and bottom stability may be increased by dewatering the soil surrounding the
excavation. To protect more permanent slopes, such as highway cuts, retaining walls
are often used. Slopes of a cohesive soil may be strengthened by increasing shearing
resistance along the potential slip plane. Another technique for reinforcing slope is
called soil reinforcement. Soil reinforcement involves embedding high tensile strength
non-biodegradable elements in compacted soil mass.


OSHA safety guidelines that are properly communicated and enforced protect

1.Keep heavy equipment away from the trench edges

2.Remove or minimize all surface obstacles at the worksite that may create a Hazard

3.Keep all excavated soil and other materials at least 2 feet from the trench edge
4.Inspect trenches at the start of each shift

5.Inspect trenches after rain or other water intrusion

6.Prohibit workers from working under suspended or raised loads and materials

7. Inspect trenches after any occurrence that could change conditions in the trench

8.Wear appropriate protective equipment correctly

9.Wear provided high visibility clothing if exposed to vehicular traffic.

10.Only workers that have been trained properly and understand its potential hazards
must be allowed to operate the excavation and trenching equipment.

Protecting Workers From Other Hazards Associated with Excavating and


1.Keep all materials and equipment that could fall or roll into an excavation at least 2
feet from the edge of excavations, or use retaining devices, or in the best case
scenario, use both if possible.

2.Provide warning systems such as mobile equipment, barricades, hand or

mechanical signals, or stop logs to alert operators to the presence of the edge of an

3.Provide scaling to remove loose rock or soil, or install protective barricades or other
equivalent protection.

4.Prohibit employees from working on the faces of sloped or benched excavations at

levels above other employees (unless you provide the employees at the lower levels
adequate protection from the hazard of falling, rolling, or sliding material or equipment.

5.Prohibit employees from standing under loads being handled by lifting or digging

6.Prohibit workers from standing near vehicles being loaded or unloaded.

7.Assign a competent worker to test any excavation deeper than 4 feet or where an
oxygen deficiency or hazardous atmosphere is currently present or could reasonably
be expected. This could include a landfill or any place where hazardous substances
are stored nearby. These areas should be tested before an employee is allowed to
enter it, and on a regular basis throughout the duration of the project.

8.If a hazardous atmosphere in the trench is confirmed, the employer must provide
proper respiratory protection or ventilation, and employees must be required to use
it. Emergency rescue equipment breathing apparatus, safety harness and line, and
basket stretcher must also be provided and readily available.

Sloping and Benching

Sloping- a method of protecting employees from caveins by excavating to form sides

of an excavation that are inclined away from the excavations so as to prevent cave-

Benching- Rather than excavating a flat trench face, benching leaves steps on the
side of the excavation

OSHA provides slope information based on the maximum allowable slope. To use
the maximum allowable slope, site conditions must be ideal If any signs of distress
are observed, the actual slope is required to be less than the maximum allowable
slope. Signs of distress that OSHA lists are:

 Development of fissures in trench face

 Appearance of stress cracks
 Material slumping from face
 Bulging or heaving of the trench bottom
 Spalling or raveling

Simple Sloping Systems for TYPE A Soil

For TYPE A soil and a trench depth of less than 20 feet, the
steepest maximum allowable slope is 53 degrees from the horizontal. This
translate to a 0.75H: 1V incline
Maximum Allowable Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 0.75 x Depth (V)

Steepest Actual Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.25 x Depth (V)

For TYPE A soil and a trench depth of less than 12 feet for a trench open 24 hours or
less, the steepest maximum allowable slope is 63 degrees from the horizontal. This
translates to a 0.5H: 1V incline and is shown below.

Maximum Allowable Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 0.5 x Depth (V)

Steepest Actual Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.0 x Depth (V)

Simple Sloping System for TYPE B Soil

For TYPE B soil and a trench depth of less than 20 feet, the steepest
maximum allowable slope is 45 degrees from the horizontal. This translates
to a 1H: 1V incline.
Maximum Allowable Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.0 x Depth (V)

Steepest Actual Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.5 x Depth (V)

Simple Sloping System for TYPE C Soil

For TYPE C soil and a trench depth of less than 20 feet, the steepest
maximum allowable slope is 34 degrees from the horizontal. This translates to a
1H: 1.5V incline and is shown below.

Maximum Allowable Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.5 x Depth (V)

Steepest Actual Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 2.0 x Depth (V)

Bench Systems for Type A Soil

For simple bench systems in TYPE A soil and a trench depth of less than 20
feet, the steepest maximum allowable slope is 53 degrees from the horizontal.
This translates to a 0.75H: 1V incline
Maximum Allowable Slope

Cutback distance (H) = .75 x Depth (V)

Steepest Actual Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.25 x Depth (V)

For multiple bench systems in TYPE A soil and trench depth of less than
20 feet, the steepest maximum allowable slope is 53 degrees from the horizontal.
This translates to a 0.75H: 1V incline

Maximum Allowable Slope

Cutback distance (H) = .75 x Depth (V)

Steepest Actual Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.25 x Depth (V)

Bench Systems for TYPE B Soil

For simple bench systems in TYPE B soil and trench depth of less than 20
feet, the steepest maximum allowable slope is 45 degrees from the
horizontal. This translates to a 1H: 1V incline.
Maximum Allowable Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.0 x Depth (V)

Steepest Actual Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.5 x Depth (V)

For multiple bench systems in TYPE B soil and a trench depth of less than
20 feet, the steepest maximum allowable slope is 45 degrees from the horizontal. T
his translates to a 1H: 1V incline and is shown below.

Maximum Allowable Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.0 x Depth (V)

Steepest Actual Slope

Cutback distance (H) = 1.5 x Depth (V)

Shoring and Shielding

Shoring is the provision of a support system for trench faces used to prevent
movement of soil, underground utilities, roadways, and foundations. Shoring or
shielding is used when the location or depth of the cut makes sloping back to the
maximum allowable slope impractical. Shoring systems consist of posts, wales, struts,
and sheeting. There are two basic types of shoring, timber and aluminum hydraulic.

Hydraulic Shoring

a prefabricated strut and/or wale system manufactured of aluminum or steel. Hydraulic

shoring provides a critical safety advantage over timber shoring because workers do
not have to enter the trench to install or remove hydraulic shoring.

Pneumatic Shoring

Pneumatic shoring works in a manner similar to hydraulic shoring. The primary

difference is that pneumatic shoring uses air pressure in place of hydraulic pressure.
A disadvantage to the use of pneumatic shoring is that an air compressor must be on

Shielding Types

Trench Boxes

are different from shoring because, instead of shoring up or otherwise supporting the
trench face, they are intended primarily to protect workers from cave-ins and similar


Dewatering of excavations are required at construction sites generally for foundation

works. Various methods for dewatering of excavations are described.

Firm and sound working conditions are indispensable when construction of buildings,
powerhouse, dams, and other structures has to be executed. These structures not
only require a dry base for their foundations but also a good water-table-stability in the

Dewatering of any excavated area is done in order to keep the excavation bottom dry,
to prevent the leakage of water or sand and to avoid upheaval failure. Dewatering
could turn out to be a herculean task if one doesn’t adopt the right method.

The different methods available for dewatering of excavations at constructions sites

are not necessarily interchangeable as each one has a narrow range of applications
therefore adopting the right method of dewatering for a particular ground condition is
always a critical and a difficult decision to make.

Minor amount of water can always be pumped out by creating a sump but when other
factors like continuous seepage, excessive smudge come into play one has to resort
to a bit of sophistication.
There are four important dewatering methods one should be aware of:

 Wellpoint method of dewatering,

 Eductor wells,
 Open sump pumping and
 Deep wellpoint method

Wellpoint method of dewatering

1) A series of wells of required depth are created in the vicinity of the excavated area
from where the water has to be pumped out.
2) Riser pipes or dewatering pipes are then installed into those closely spaced wells
which on the surface are connected to a flexible swing pipe which is ultimately
appended to a common header pipe that is responsible for discharging the water away
from the sit.
3) One end of the header pipe is connected to a vacuum pump which draws water
through notches in the wellpoint.
4) The drawdown using this method is restricted to around five to six meters below the
wellpoint pump level
Eductor Wells Method of Dewatering Excavations

The method is very similar to the wellpoint method of dewatering; the only difference
lies in the usage of high pressure water in the riser units instead of vacuum to draw
out water from the wellpoints.

Open Sump Pumping Method of Dewatering Excavations

This is the most common and economical method of dewatering as gravity is the main
playing force. Sump is created in the excavated area into which the surrounding water
converges and accumulates facilitating easy discharge of water through robust solid
handling pumps.

Deep Well Method of Dewatering Excavations

Just like the wellpoint method, wells are drilled around the excavated area, but the
diameter of wells in this case varies between 150-200mm. By creating deep wells
around the vicinity, the ground water is made to fall into them under the influence of


Is the process of injecting a grouting agent into soil or rock to increase its strength or
stability, protect foundations, or reduced ground water flow.

Pressure Grouting is the process of pumping a cement or chemical grout into soft or
weak strata of soil or voids. This grout fills these voids, thus stabilizing and
strengthening the soil. Pressure Grouting has many applications. One of these
includes support for existing structures or where foundations have shifted.

Common Grouting Patterns include blanket grouting,curtain grouting,and Special


Blanket Grouting - covers a large horizontal area, usually to a depth of 15m or less

Curtain Grouting - produces a linear deep, narrow zone of grout that may extend to a
depth of 30m or more

Special Grouting - is grouting employed for a specific purpose, such as to consolidate

rock around a tunnel, or provide additional foundation support.

Grouting Methods

Slurry Grouting- involves the injection of slurry consisting of water and a grouting agent
into soil or rock

Chemical Grouting- involves the injection of a chemical into soil.

Compaction Grouting- is the process of injecting a very stiff mortar grout into a soil to
compact and strengthen the soil.

Injecting Methods

The principal method for injecting grout into rock involves drilling and the inserting an
injector pipe equipped with expandable seals into the hole. Grout is then injected to a
desire depths. Methods of injecting grout into the soil include driving an injector pipe
into the soil, placing a sleeve port tube into the soil, and jet grouting.



Wood is a hard fibrous material made from trees. Wood is one of the oldest
construction material still being used. From houses to boats and other shelters, as well
as furniture and decor, the construction industry has exploited the potential of wood to
the fullest. Wood is favoured as a material because of the wide variety of properties
depending on the type.
Wood materials and properties
Types of Woods

 Hardwood - produced from deciduous (leaf-shedding) trees

 Softwood - comes from conifers (trees having needlelike or scalelike leaves)
which are primarily evergreens

Moisture Content

The moisture content of lumber is the weight of moisture in the wood divided by the
oven-dry weight of the wood and then expressed as a percentage. If moisture content
is above 30% then the wood is in its natural state thus there are no changes in size
and strength properties. If moisture content is below 30%, the wood shrinks and its
strength properties increase.

Structural Wood

Lumber is any wood that is cut into a size and shape suitable for use as a building
Timber is broadly classified as lumber having a smallest dimension of at least 5 in.
(12.7 cm).

“Classification of Structural Lumber”

 Board - lumber less than 2 in. (5 cm) thick
 Dimension - lumber at least 2 in. (5 cm) but less than 5 in. (12.7 cm) thick and
2 in. (5 cm) or more wide.
 Beam and Stringer - lumber at least 5 in. (12.7 cm) thick and 8 in. (20 cm)
 Post and Timber - to lumber is square in cross section, at least 5 in. (12.7 cm)
in thickness and width.

Lumber may be either rough or dressed.

 Rough lumber has been sawn on all four sides but not surfaced (planed
smooth or dressed).
 Dressed lumber has been surfaced on one or more sides.


The allowable stresses for dimensioned lumber are determined by the wood species,
moisture content, and grade. Allowable stresses should be adjusted for duration of
load and wet conditions. Some typical values of allowable stress are shown below.
Wood Preservation

Over time, wood would be damage by decay or by wood-boring insects. Chemical

treatment is the principal method used for wood preservation to provide protection by
against decay and insect damage.

“Principal Wood Preservatives”

 Creosote - to protect railroad ties and utility poles
 Pentachlorophenol - poles and posts are often treated
 Copper Azole (CA) - for framing components of residential and commercial
 Alkaline Copper Quaternary (ACQ) - for framing components of residential and
commercial buildings.
 Sodium Borates (SBX) - only for above-ground applications that are
continuously protected from liquid water

Fire-Retardant Treated Wood

The use of fire-retardant wood often reduces the cost of wood structures due to
fire insurance rates. It also provides additional termite and decay resistance to the
wood. Chemical substances are applied into a wood in order to improve its
characteristics and impart new properties. When the wood temperature reaches that
of a fire, a chemical reaction occurs. In this reaction, the fire-retardant chemical reacts
with the combustible gases and tars normally generated by a wood fire and converts
them to carbon char, carbon dioxide, and water.
Glued Laminated Timber

Glued laminated timber, also called glulam, is a type of structural engineered

wood product comprising a number of layers of dimensioned lumber bonded together
with durable, moisture-resistant structural adhesives. The layers of wood is composed
of wood that is 2 in. (5 cm) or less in thickness.

Ply Wood

Plywood is a wood structural material formed by gluing three or more thin layers of
wood (veneers) together with the grain of alternate layers running perpendicular to
each other. The usual size of plywood sheets is 4 ft by 8 ft (1.2 m by 2.4 m) and its
3 1
thicknesses of 8 in. (1.0 cm) to 1 8 in. (2.9 cm).

Other Wood Products

 Laminated veneer lumber - is similar to plywood but consists of thin veneer

about 1.6 to 2.5 mm thick with all plies and grains parallel to the length.
 I-joists or wood I-beams - consist of plywood or oriented strand board webs
bonded to sawn wood or laminated veneer lumber flanges.
 Parallel strand lumber (PSL) - is produced by cutting logs into long strands,
drying them, and treating them with a resin adhesive.
 Laminated strand lumber - is produced by a process similar to that used for
parallel strand lumber but uses wood strands about 12 in. (305 mm) long.
 Particleboard - is produced in sheets by bonding wood chips together with
 Waferboard - is similar to particleboard except that it is manufactured from
larger wood chips.
 Oriented strand board - is built up in layers like plywood. However, each layer
consists of wood strands bonded together by a resin.

Frame Construction
Platform Frame Construction

A light timber frame for buildings in which a platform is constructed at each

floor and the studs for the next floor are erected on this platform usually with
an intervening soleplate.
Balloon Frame Construction

Exterior wall studs extend all the way from the sill to the top of the second floor wall.

Foundation and Floor Construction

Platform frame construction supported by foundation walls. The floor joists are lapped
and rest on top of the girder. The use of a header joist (or band) to close off the exterior
end of joists. Board or plywood subflooring may be used as shown.
Framing Details

Framing is a rigid structure formed of relatively slender pieces, joined so as

to surround sizable empty spaces used as a major support in buildings. Framing
anchors or joist hangers may be used in place of a ledger strip to support joists. Below,
The load on the top of the window opening is carried by a header, which is in turn
supported by double studs at the sides of the opening. Note the use of let-in braces
(braces notched into the studs) to reinforce the wall at building corners. Plywood
panels may be used as sheathing at building corners to replace corner braces.

Roof construction

Joist and Rafter Framing - rafters are notched where they rest on wall plates and are
held in place by nailing them to the wall plates or by the use of metal framing anchors.
The collar beam shown is used to assist in resisting wind loads on the roof.
Handling and Erecting Roof Trusses

Short trusses (under 40 ft or 12 m) can usually be erected by hand. Longer trusses

should be lifted into place using a crane or forklift together with appropriate slings or
spreader bars. Do not use a plain hook hooked directly onto the top chord of the truss.
Such a procedure applies a twist to the truss which may damage the truss. In addition,
the hook may slide laterally and any slack in the lifting line will release the hook. The
crane operator should swing loads slowly and smoothly and avoid jerks when starting
or stopping. Proper lateral bracing of trusses during erection is critical to safety and
the structural integrity of the roof.

Truss Damage and Repair

Damage may occur:

 when the assembly is struck by a forklift or when carelessly unloaded.
 unbanded trusses are handled carelessly during repositioning, erection, or
 when they roll over or “domino” by falling against each other during erection
before being properly braced

Any damaged truss should be inspected by an engineer to determine repair needed.

Dominoed trusses should not be repaired because hairline cracks which are difficult
to detect often occur.


Exterior frame walls are most often covered with wood or plywood siding or a masonry
veneer applied over sheathing.

“Types of Wood Siding”

Plank-and-Beam Construction

Plank-and-beam construction (or post-and-beam construction) is a method of framing

in which flooring and roof planks (usually nominal-2-in. lumber) are supported by posts
and beams spaced up to 8 ft apart.

TIMBER CONSTRUCTION is a traditional construction method that primarily use

timber for structural members. It is commonly seen and used for buildings and bridges.
For buildings, the term heavy timber construction originally identifies as a multistory
structure. Such structures were widely used for industrial and storage purposes.
Major types of timber bridges structures:
 Trestle Bridge - a type of bridge that is made up of short platforms that are
supported by tripod-like frames also known as trestle.
 Truss Bridge - a type of bridge whose main element is a truss which is a
structure of connected elements that form triangular units.
 Arch Bridge - a type of bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a
curved arch.

FASTENINGS are devices used to attach any wood structures firmly or securely in
Common types of fasteners:
 Nails
 Wood Screws
Major Types of fasteners:
 Bolts
 Lag-Screws
 Spikes
 Dowels
 Drift-Bolts/Drift-Pins

Major Factors that controls the allowable strength of fasteners:

 Lumber Species
 Angle of the Load
 Size of the Member
 Distance of the Fasteners from the edge
 Spacing of Fasteners

CONNECTORS are metal devices that is used to join wooden members.

Major types of Timber Connectors:
 Split-ring Connectors - also known as timber rings are round, metal rings that
are inserted into precut grooves between two overlapping timber members.
 Toothed-Ring Connectors – are similar to split-rings except they have
corrugated metal edges that pierce the wood faces.
 Shear Plates - Specially designed for heavy shear loads in timber to steel
connections, but may be used for demountable timber to timber connections.

NOTCHING is a shearing process used in a press so as to cut vertically down and

perpendicular to the surface, working from the outside edge only of the work piece.
To calculate the safe vertical reaction (Rv), it is formulated by using this formula:
Rv = 2Fvbde^2/3d
Rv – safe vertical end reaction (lb)
Fv – allowable shear stress (psi)
b – width of the beam (in.)
d – depth of the beam (in.)
de – depth of beam above notch (in.)
If the notch is curved or beveled over a distance greater than de then use this formula:
Rv = 2Fvbde/3
BORING or WOOD BORING is a cutting operation to produce round holes in wood
by using bore bits. Boring is either vertical, parallel or at an angle to the wood grain
direction or panel plane.
The most commonly used manmade material on earth. It is an important
construction material used extensively in buildings, bridges, roads and dams and in
any vertical and horizontal structures.
Cast-in-place concrete, also known as poured-in-place is a concreting
technique which is undertaken in the concrete components finished position, and is
preferred choice for concrete slabs and foundation, as well as components such as
beams, columns, walls and roofs.
It is typically transported to site in an unhardened state, often using a ready
mixed truck

Is a construction product produced by casting concrete in a reusable mold or
“form” which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction
site and lifted into place.
Refers to concrete that while providing an aesthetic finish to the building also
serves a structural function. Architectural effects are achieved by shape, size, texture
and color used.


Concrete construction involves;
* Transporting and Handling
* Placing and Consolidating
* Finishing and Curing
Transporting and Handling
A number of different items of equipment are available for moving concrete from
the mixer to its final position. Equipment commonly used include;
* wheelbarrows
* buggies
* chutes
* conveyors
* pumps
* buckets
* truck
Wheelbarrow – a small hand propelled vehicle usually with just one wheel.
Chute – a channel down which materials are guided.
Conveyor – consist two or more pulleys, with endless loop carrying the conveyor
Placing and Consolidating
Placing – The contractor has a wide range of choices of methods for lacing concrete
depending on the size and type of project and special jobsite conditions. Among the
most common methods are: depositing from the ready mix truck; transporting by
wheelbarrow or buggy; depositing from a conveyor; placing by crane and bucket; and
Consolidation/Consolidating – is the process of removing entrapped air from fresh
concrete in the form. Manual methods are frequently inadequate and some sort of
vibration converts stiff concrete into a fluid mass that is compacted as entrapped air
rises to the surface and escapes.
Finishing – is the process of bringing the surface of concrete to its final position and
imparting the desired surface texture, it includes screeding, floating, troweling and

Concrete formwork is essentially the frame or mold holds wet concrete in place
while it sets. There are two types of formwork;

* Temporary formwork – is a reusable and removed from around the concrete once it
is set. Generally made from timber, steel, plywood or plastic.
* Permanent formwork – is that stays in place and is never removed and an example
for this is Insulated Concrete Forms (ICFs).


The basic theory of the design concrete work that has required strength to resist
failure and does not deflect in structural design. Unless commercial forms are used,
this will usually involve the design of wall, column, or slab forms constructed of wood
or plywood. In such cases, After the design loads have been established, each of the
primary form components may be analyzed as a beam to determine the maximum
bending and shear stresses and the maximum deflection that will occur. Vertical
supports and lateral bracing are then analyzed for compression and tension loads.


Wall Formwork originally comprised of squared timbers and boards. This has
resulted in modular systems which are characterized by a wide range of applications
and long service life. Based on the respective construction, a distinction is made
between girder wall formwork and panel formwork.


Column Formwork is to be designed to be able to accommodate relatively high

fresh concrete pressures as comparatively small cross-sections are concreted quickly.
Therefore, the joints in particular are to be formed very carefully and tightly sealed.


A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings. Horizontal

slabs of steel reinforced concrete, typically between 4 and 20 inches (100 and 500
millimeters) thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner
slabs are also used for exterior paving.


A slab is a structural element, made of concrete, that is used to create flat

horizontal surfaces such as floors, roof decks and ceilings. A slab is generally several
inches thick and supported by beams, columns, walls, or the ground.


Formwork must be designed to resist lateral loads such as those imposed by

wind, the movement of equipment on the forms, and the placing of concrete into the
forms. Most lateral loads are live loads whose main component is a horizontal force
acting on the structure. Typical lateral loads would be a wind load against a facade,
an earthquake, the earth pressure against a beach front retaining wall or the earth
pressure against a basement wall.



In very general terms, 'sheathing' is a covering or supporting structure that has

a similar function to the sheath of a blade; that is, it acts as a cover or case.

In the construction industry, the term ‘sheathing’, or 'sheathing board' can be

used to refer to a layer of board or panel material that forms a part of floor, wall and
roof assemblies. The outer sheathing board strengthens the assembly, provides a
surface for other materials to be applied to and may give some degree of weather
resistance. The materials most commonly used for sheathing include; engineered
timber, plywood, gypsum and oriented strand board (OSB).


A joist is a horizontal structural member used in framing to span an open space,

often between beams that subsequently transfer loads to vertical members. When
incorporated into a floor framing system, joists serve to provide stiffness to the subfloor
sheathing, allowing it to function as a horizontal diaphragm.


A timber or other support for cross members in floors.


In architecture, a deck is a flat surface capable of supporting weight, similar to

a floor, but typically constructed outdoors, often elevated from the ground, and usually
connected to a building. The term is a generalization of decks as found on ships.

A joist is a structural member that spans horizontally between the foundations
of a building, or between walls or structural beams. In combination with other joists it
provides support for a ceiling and/or floor. Joists are often associated with small scale
or domestic construction.


The stringer design utilizes runners – wood components that run the full
length of the pallet. The top deck is fastened to the top edge of the stringers.



Model building
codes require all exterior walls of a non-engineered or conventionally constructed
wood-framed structure to be braced against lateral loads from wind or earthquakes.

Braced Column:

*Braced column may be considered braced in a given plan if lateral stability of the
structure as a whole is provided by walls or bracing.
*In braced frames lateral loads like wind, earthquake, etc are resisted by some special
arrangement like shear wall, bracings or special supports.
*Braced columns have zero value of sway.
*Most of the steel structures are designed by this method.
*Braced columns are more resistant to Earthquake than unbraced column.

Unbraced Column:

*Unbraced column may be considered unbraced in a given plan if lateral stability of

the structure as a whole is provided by columns only.

*Unbraced columns are designed to resist lateral loads.

*Unbraced columns are subjected to sway.


For elevated floor or roof slab forms, lateral bracing may consist of cross braces
between shores or inclined bracing along the outside edge of the form similar to that
used for wall forms. The following example illustrates the method of determining the
design lateral load for slab forms.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid
in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units
themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone
such as marble, granite, travertine, and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass
block, and adobe. Masonry is generally a highly durable form of construction.
However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the
pattern in which the units are assembled can substantially affect the durability of the
overall masonry construction. A person who constructs masonry is called a mason or
Brick Masonry
Types of bonds in brick masonry wall construction are classified based on
laying and bonding style of bricks in walls. The bonds in brick masonry is developed
by the mortar filling between layers of bricks and in grooves when bricks are laid
adjacent to each other and in layers in walls.
Masonry Terms:
Course is a horizontal layer of brick in the plane of the wall.
Wythe is a vertical section one brick thick.

Header is a brick placed with its long axis perpendicular to the direction of the
wall. Headers are used to bond two wythes together.
Bed Joint is a horizontal layer of mortar (or bed) on which bricks are laid.
Head Joints are vertical mortar joints between brick ends.
Collar Joint is a vertical joint between brick wythes. The usual thickness of
mortar joints is 1 ⁄4 in. (6 mm) for glazed brick and tile and either 3 ⁄8 in. (10
mm) or 1 ⁄2 in. (13 mm) for unglazed brick and tile.
Troweled Joint is formed by cutting off excess mortar with the trowel and then
compacting the joint with the tip of the trowel. Troweled joints include the flush
joint, the struck joint, and the weather joint.
Tooled Joint is formed by using a special tool to compact and shape the mortar
in the joint. The two most common tooled joints are the concave joint and the
V-joint. Tooled joints form the most watertight joints.
Raked Joints are formed by removing a layer of mortar from the joint with a
special tool. Raked joints are often used for appearance but are difficult to make
completely watertight.

Brick Positions:

Names of Cut Brick:

Elements of a Brick Wall:

Mortar Joint Finishes:

Brick is manufactured in a number of sizes and shapes.
Pattern Bonds
Structural bonding of masonry units is accomplished by the adhesion of mortar
to masonry and by interlocking the masonry units or by embedding ties in the
mortar joints. The manner in which the masonry units are assembled produces
a distinctive pattern referred to as pattern bond. The five most common pattern
bonds are the running bond, common bond, Flemish bond, English bond, and
stack bond. Running bond uses only stretcher courses with head joints
centered over stretchers in the course below. Common bond uses a header
course repeated at regular intervals; usually every fifth, sixth, or seventh
course. Headers provide structural bonding between wythes. Flemish bond
alternates stretchers and headers in each course with headers centered over
stretchers in the course below. English bond is made up of alternate courses of
headers and stretchers, with headers centered on stretchers. Stack bond
provides no interlocking between adjacent masonry units and is used for its
architectural effect. Horizontal reinforcement should be used with stack bond to
provide lateral bonding.
Reinforced Brick Masonry
The term reinforced brick masonry (or RBM) is applied to brick masonry in
which reinforcing steel has been embedded to provide additional strength.
Notice the construction is basically the same as that of a cavity wall except that
reinforcing steel has been placed in the cavity and the cavity was then filled
with Portland cement grout. Prefabricated reinforced brick panels are now
being used to provide special shapes in wall construction. Such panels may be
rapidly erected in the field, even during inclement weather.

Bond Beams and Lintels

A bond beam is a continuously reinforced horizontal beam of concrete or
masonry designed to provide additional strength and to prevent cracking in a
masonry wall. Bond beams are frequently placed at foundations and roof
levels but may be used at any vertical interval specified by the designer
Lintels are short beams of wood, steel, stone, or reinforced brick masonry
used to span openings in masonry walls.

Concrete masonry units are classified as concrete brick, concrete tile, solid
load-bearing concrete block, hollow load-bearing concrete block, and hollow non-load-
bearing concrete block. Concrete block that is glazed on one or more surfaces is
available. Such units are used for their appearance, ease of cleaning, and low cost.
Solid concrete block must have at least 75% of its cross section made up of concrete.
Block having over 25% of its cross-sectional area empty is classified as hollow block.
The usual hollow concrete block has a core area making up 40 to 50% of its cross
Concrete block may also be laid without mortar joints. Either standard or ground
block may be stacked without mortar and then bonded by the application of a special
bonding material to the outside surfaces. In this case, the bonding agent provides
structural bonding as well as waterproofing for the wall. The time required to construct
a concrete block wall using this method may be as low as one-half the time required
for conventional methods. In addition, the flexural and compressive strength of a
surface bonded wall may be greater than that of a conventional block wall. There are
also special types of concrete block made with interlocking edges to provide structural
bonding as the units are stacked without mortar.
Reinforced Concrete Masonry
Reinforced concrete masonry construction is used to provide additional
structural strength and to prevent cracking. At the top of the wall a concrete
bond beam is created by filling U-shaped block (called lintel block or beam
block) with reinforced concrete. Vertical reinforcement is provided by placing
reinforcing steel in some of the block cores and filling these cores with concrete.
Additional horizontal reinforcement is obtained from reinforcing steel placed in
the mortar joints. This type of construction is appropriate for areas of high
design loads, such as earthquake and hurricane zones.

Pattern Bonds:
The running bond is probably the most common pattern bond used in concrete
masonry as it is in brick masonry. However, a number of other pattern bonds
have been developed to provide architectural effect.
In addition to brick and concrete, masonry units of stone and clay tile are also
available. Load-bearing structural clay tile is used in a manner similar to concrete
block. However, structural clay tile is seldom used in the United States today, and only
a small quantity of glazed structural clay tile is currently being manufactured in this
country. Stone and architectural terra-cotta are used primarily as wall veneers.

Stone Masonry

Clay Tile Masonry


Most of the buildings are to be constructed with 75% of brickwork specially (In
the Asian countries). So it is very important to us to know how many materials are
required for the building to be constructed.
Estimating the number of bricks required for a masonry wall involves five steps:
1. Calculating the net surface area of the wall,
2. Calculating the surface area of one brick as positioned (including the
mortar joint),
3. Dividing the wall area by the surface area of one brick,
4. Multiplying this number by the number of wythes of wall thickness
5. Adding an amount for waste.

The gross surface area of the wall is calculated in square feet (sq. m) and the
area of openings is subtracted to give the net surface area of the wall. The surface
area of the brick as positioned (including the mortar joint) is calculated. Dividing the
wall net surface area by the surface area of one brick (including the mortar joint) yields
the number of bricks per wythe for the wall. The number of bricks per wythe is then
multiplied by the wall thickness (number of wythes). A factor (usually 2–10%) must be
added for waste.

A similar procedure can be used to
calculate the quantity of mortar required
for a particular wall. First, the volume of
mortar required for a single brick is

Volume per brick (cu in. or m3) = (t) (W) (L + H + t)

t = joint thickness (in. or m)

W = brick width/depth (in. or m)
L = brick length (in. or m)
H = brick height (in. or m)
Multiplying the mortar required per brick by the number of bricks and adding a
waste factor (usually about 25%) yields the mortar required per wythe.

When the wall is more than one wythe thick, we must multiply by the number of
wythes and add the volume of mortar needed to fill the gap between wythes.

The volume of mortar between wythes is simply the product of the joint thickness
times the net area of the wall. Again a waste factor must be added.


Sand should be clean and well graded. The best mortar workability is obtained
when the sand contains particles of all sizes from very fine to coarse. Harsh mortars
are produced by sand having insufficient fines while excess fines will result in mortar
having good workability but lower strength and high porosity. Machine mixing is
recommended but in any case, mixing should continue for at least 3 min. Mortar that
has stiffened from evaporation may be retempered by adding additional water and
remixing. However, to avoid the possibility of using mortar that has stiffened due to
hydration, mortar should be discarded 2 1⁄2 hours after initial mixing.
Concrete masonry units should be stored and laid in a dry condition. Brick
having adsorption rates greater than 20 g of water per minute should be wetted before
being placed to reduce its absorption rate. However, such brick should be allowed to
dry after wetting so that it is in a saturated, surface-dry condition when laid.
Masonry units should be placed with joints of the specified width. Brick should be laid
with full bed and head joints.
Adequate bonding must be provided where masonry walls intersect, between
the wythes of cavity walls or multiple-wythe walls, and between units in stack bond
construction. Bonding may be provided by masonry bonding units, by corrosion-
resistant metal ties, or by truss or ladder-type masonry reinforcement. The size and
spacing of bonding specified by the designer must be used. Care must also be
exercised to ensure that expansion joints are properly filled with elastic material and
kept clean of mortar and other rigid materials.
Masonry grout is a fluid mixture of cement, sand, and water or cement and
water. It may also contain various admixtures. Grout may be used to fill reinforced
bond beams, bond together adjacent masonry wythes and their reinforcement, and
bond together masonry units and steel reinforcement placed in the hollow cores of
masonry units.
Self-consolidating grouts use a superplasticizing admixture to produce an
extremely fluid grout capable of easily filling small spaces within masonry units. The
procedures for protecting grout in hot or cold weather conditions are similar to those
described next for masonry construction. However, for air temperatures of 25˚ F (–4˚
C) or below, grout should be protected by insulating blankets or heated enclosures for
48 h after it is placed unless only Type III cement is used in the grout.

Bonding of Bricks and Reinforcement Masonry Grout

Concrete masonry units must be dried to the specified moisture content before
use. After drying, they should be stored off the ground and protected from rain. The
top of exposed concrete and brick masonry under construction should be protected
from rain by covering with a waterproof material whenever work is stopped. Masonry
walls that are saturated by rain during construction may require months to completely
dry out and will undergo increased shrinkage during drying.
During hot weather, the workability of mortar and the length of time that it
remains workable may be considerably reduced. The following recommendations
have been made for reducing the effects of hot weather on masonry construction.
1. Ensure that sand is moist; sprinkle sand piles if necessary to maintain
2. Store masonry units, mixing equipment, and materials in shaded areas.
3. Cover mortar boxes and dampen mortar boards.
4. Use wind breaks to protect construction areas.
5. Cover masonry walls with protection at the end of work

Wind breakers Mortar Boxes


1. Do not lay glass masonry units. Since the units absorb little water, the mortar
may be damaged by freezing.

2. Heat sand and/or water to obtain a mortar temperature of 40˚–120˚ F (4˚– 49˚
C) at time of mixing. However, do not heat sand or water above 140˚ F (60˚ C).

3. The use of an admixture to lower the mortar freezing point is not recommended.

4. Do not place masonry on a frozen base or bed, since proper bond will not be
developed between the bed mortar and the frozen surface. If necessary, thaw
the supporting surface by careful use of heat. Do not lay wet or frozen masonry

5. For air temperatures below 20˚ F (–7˚ C), use a heated enclosure and maintain
a temperature above freezing within the enclosure.


1. Protect newly laid masonry by covering it with a weather-resistant membrane
or insulating blanket for 24 h after placing.
For air temperatures of 20˚ F (–7˚ C) or below, keep newly laid masonry above
freezing using heated enclosures or other heating methods for at least

Covering of Masonry for Protection

Elements of Steel Construction

Structural steel construction is a specialized task that is usually performed by

specialty subcontractors. However, construction managers and inspectors must
understand the principles and procedures involved. The process of steel construction
can be broken down into the three major elements of advanced planning, steel
fabrication and delivery to the job site, and field operations.
Advanced planning includes divisioning the steel and planning shipping and
erection procedures. Divisioning is the process of dividing a structure into units (called
divisions) which are used to schedule the fabrication and delivery of structural steel
members to the job site. Since divisioning is determined by the order in which the
structure will be erected, it must be performed as a joint effort of the steel fabricator
and the erection manager. When planning shop fabrications procedures, the size and
weight of large members must be checked against plant capacity, transportation size
and weight limits, and the capacity of erection equipment. In planning erection
procedures, the type of equipment to be utilized and the procedures to be followed are
determined by the type of structure being erected and the anticipated site conditions.

Fabrication is the process used to manufacture steelwork components that will,

when assembled and joined, form a complete frame. The frame generally uses readily
available standard sections that are purchased from the steelmaker or steel
stockholder, together with such items as protective coatings and bolts from other
specialist suppliers.
Field operations include receiving and unloading, sorting (or “shaking out”),
inspecting, storing, and erecting the steel. The process of unloading steel to a
temporary storage area and then moving it from storage to the point of erection is
called yarding. Structural steel members are often carelessly handled during
unloading at the job site. They may be thrown off the truck or railcar and stacked up
in a manner that will cause distortion in the member and damage to its paint. Such
practices must be avoided. In unloading long flexible members and trusses, double
slings should be used to avoid bending the member. If the steel has not been
inspected at the fabrication shop, it must be inspected after unloading for conformance
to the shop drawings and the tolerances specified in Table 15–1. Camber and sweep
of beams are illustrated in Figure 15–1. In any case, members must be checked at the
job site for possible shipping and unloading damage. Shaking out steel is the process
of sorting it out by identifying each member, and storing it in such a manner that it can
be easily obtained during erection. Code numbers are often painted on the members
to facilitate identification during erection. Steel should be stored off the ground on
platforms, skids, or other supports, and protected from dirt, grease,and corrosion.
Types of Steel
The type of steel contained in a structural steel member is designated by the
letter A followed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
designation number. The principal types of structural steel include:
• A36 Carbon Structural Steel. •A572 High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel. •A588
Corrosion-Resistant High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel.

Steel strength is designated by the symbol F y , which indicates the minimum

yield point of the steel expressed in thousands of pounds per square inch (ksi), pounds
per square inch (psi), or megapascals (MPa).TypeA36 steel has a yield strength of 36
ksi (36,000 lb/sq in. or 248.2 MPa). The high-strength steels (types A572 and A588)
are available in yield strengths of 42 ksi (289.6 MPa) to 65 ksi (448.2 MPa).
Weathering steel is a type of steel that develops a protective oxide coat on its surface
upon exposure to the elements so that painting is not required for protection against
most atmospheric corrosion. That natural brown color that develops with exposure
blends well with natural settings. However,care must be taken to prevent staining of
structuralelements composed of other materials which are located in the vicinity of the
weathering steel and thus exposed to the runoff or windblown water from the
weathering steel.

Standard Rolled Shapes There are a number of rolled steel shapes produced
for construction which have been standardized by the American Society for Testing
and Materials. Figure 15–2 illustrates five major section shapes. Alist of standard
shapes and their AISC designations is given in Table 15–2. Note that the usual
designation code includes a letter symbol (identifying the section shape) followed by
two numbers (indicating the section depth in inches and the weight per foot).
Designations for angles, bars, and tubes are slightly different, in that the numbers used
identify principal section dimensions in inches rather than the section depth and
Built-Up Members
Girders are used when regular rolled shapes are not deep enough or wide
enough to provide the required section properties. Plate girders (Figure 15–3a)
normally consist of a web and top and bottom flanges. Stiffeners may be added if
needed to prevent buckling of the web. Box girders are constructed using two webs
as shown in Figure 15–3b. Open-web steel joists (Figure 15–4) and joist girders are
other forms of built-up steel members. These are lightweight open trusses that are
strong and economical. They are widely used for supporting floors and roofs of
buildings. Bar joists are steel joists whose diagonal members consist of steel bars.
Standard open-web steel joist designations include K, LH, and DLH series. All are
designed to support uniform loads. K series are parallel chord joists that span up to
60 ft (18.3 m) with a maximum depth of 30 in. (76 cm). Series K uses steel with a yield
strength of 50 ksi (345 MPa) for chords and either 36 ksi (248 MPa) or 50 ksi (345
MPa) for webs. Series LH (longspan joists) and DLH (deep longspan joists) joists are
available with parallel chords or with the top chord pitched one way or two ways
(Figure 15–5). The standard pitch is 1⁄8 in./ft (1 cm/m) to provide drainage. Longspan
and deep longspan joists are normally cambered to offset the deflection of the joist
due to its own weight. They use steel with a yield strength of either 36 or 50 ksi (248
or 345 MPa). Series LH joists span up to 96 ft (29.3 m) with a maximum depth of 48
in. (122 cm). Series DLH joists span up to 144 ft (43.9 m) with depths to 72 in. (183
Joist girders, Series G, are similar to open-web steel joists except that they are
designed to support panel point loads. Series G girders use steel with a yield strength
of 36 to 50 ksi (248 to 345 MPa), span up to 60 ft (18.3 m), and have a maximum
depth of 72 in. (183 cm). Joist girders and open-web steel joists are available with
square ends, underslung ends, or extended ends.
Castellated steel beams are created from standard rolled shapes by shearing
one side and then joining two sections together to create the shape. Beams such as
these are deeper and have a higher strength/weight ratio than do standard rolled
sections. The open portions of the web also facilitate the installation of building utilities.

Erection Procedure

The usual steel erection procedure employs three crews (a raising crew, a fitting
crew, and a fastening crew) which operate in sequence as erection proceeds. The
raising crew lifts the steel member into position and makes temporary bolted
connections that will hold the member safely in place until the fitting crew takes over.
OSHA safety regulations use the term
structural integrity to indicate the ability of a structure to safely stand up during erection
and has prescribed specific safety measures to ensure structural integrity. For
example, the erection deck cannot be more than eight stories above the highest
completed permanent floor. Neither can there be more than four floors or 48 ft (14.6
m) of unfinished bolting or welding above the highest permanently secured floor (not
necessarily completed floor). The fitting crew brings the member into proper alignment
and tightens enough bolts to hold the structure in alignment until final connections are
made. The fastening crew makes the final connections (bolted or welded) to meet
specification requirements.

Lifting Equipment

The mobile crane and tower crane are often used for handling steel and lifting
it into final position. There are also a number of other lifting devices which are often
used in steel construction. The gin pole is one of the simplest types of powered lifting
device. Two or more of these may be used together to lift large pieces of equipment
such as boilers or tanks. A guy derrick is this is probably the most widely used lifting
device in high-rise building construction. An advantage of the guy derrick is that it can
easily be moved (or jumped) from one floor to the next as construction proceeds. A
heavy-duty lifting device called a stiffleg derrick. Stiffleg derricks may be mounted on
tracks to facilitate movement within a work area.


Under AISC standards the vertical (or plumb) error cannot exceed 1 unit in 500 units of height
and the centerline of exterior columns cannot be more than 1 in. (2.5 cm) toward or 2 in. (5
cm) away from the building line in 20 stories.

Coping or Blocking- the name applied to notching beams to provide necessary clearance
when beams connect to columns or other beams.

Guy ropes and Supports- used in the process of bringing steel into alignment.
The lateral bracing of longspan and deep longspan joists during erection is
especially critical. For these joists, it is required that hoisting cables not be released
until a minimum number of lines of bridging have been installed:
 one line for spans to 60ft (18.3m),
 two lines for spans of 60 to 100ft (18.3to30.5m)
 all lines for spans over 100 ft (30.5 m).
Note: Joists should be completely braced before any loads are applied.

The three principal systems used for connecting steel members:
 bolting
 riveting
 welding
Note: Riveting is now seldom used for making field connections or for shop
Interference-Body or Interference-Fit bolts-Bolts that are driven into place and use oversize
shanks to prevent turning during tightening.

Tension Control Bolts or Tension Set Bolts-Bolts that incorporate a torque control
groove so that the stem breaks off under a specified torque.

Two of the methods for tightening standard high-strength bolts:

 Turn-off-nut method - widely used to obtain the minimum preload tension force
specified for bolts in slip-critical connections. This method consists in first snug-
tightening the bolts. This first step is achieved with a few impacts of a pneumatic
impact wrench or the full effort of a person using a spud wrench to bring the
connected surfaces into firm contact with each another.

 calibrated wrench method- may only be performed after all steel plies in a
connection have been drawn into firm contact, i.e. snug-tightened. Failure to do
so will result in inadequate bolt pretension and loose connections.

Note: When tightening a high-strength bolt by either the turn-of-nut method or the
calibrated wrench method, the bolt is first brought to a snug condition.
Installation for tension control bolts
After bolts have been installed finger-tight, the installation tool is placed over
the bolt end so that it engages both the bolt spline and nut. The installation tool holds
the bolt spline to prevent the bolt from rotating while torque is applied to the nut. When
the torque on the nut reaches the required value, the bolt spline will shear off at the
torque control groove.

Welding is another specialized procedure that must be accomplished properly
if adequate connection strength is to be provided.
Major types of Structural Welds:
 Fillet Welds
 Groove Welds
 Plug or Rivet Welds
As stated earlier, steel erection is a very hazardous construction task. As a
result, a number of safety requirements have been developed. The use of protective
equipment is a must.

Hardhats and gloves are standard requirements for steel erection. Eye protection must
be provided for workers engaged in welding, cutting, and chipping operations, as well
as for those working nearby. Employees working above ground level require protective
measures against falls. Temporary floors and scaffolds with guard rails should be
provided whenever possible. If these are not feasible, lifelines and safety belts must
be used. Where the potential fall exceeds 25 ft (7.6 m) or two stories, safety nets
should also be used. When used, safety nets should be placed as close under the
work surface as practical and extend at least 8 ft (2.4 m) beyond the sides of the work

Weather is responsible for many of the hazards at the steel erection site. High and
gusty winds may throw workers off balance and cause steel being lifted to swing
dangerously. Tag lines must be used for all hoisting operations. Since steel workers
will be walking on members shortly after they are lifted, care must be taken to prevent
the surfaces of members from becoming slippery. Wet and icy surfaces are obvious
hazards. Structural members should be checked to ensure that they are free of
hazards such as dirt, oil, loose debris, ice, and wet paint before being hoisted into

Dienemann, F. (n.d.). Boring - Course: Manual woodworking techniques. Trainees'

handbook of lessons. Retrieved from nzdl:

Stewart, S. (n.d.). What is a Trestle Bridge? Retrieved from

Truss Bridge - Types, History, Facts and Design. (2018). Retrieved from History of

Bridge Engineering. (n.d.). Retrieved from Encyclopedia Britannica:

Burns, M. B. (n.d.). Arch Bridge Facts. Retrieved from

Erde-Wollheim, N. (n.d.). Split Rings. Retrieved from Portlad Bolt and Manufacturing

Shear plates. (n.d.). Retrieved from TECO Building Products:

Heritage Builders Ltd. (2017, June 19). Designing Buildings Wiki. Retrieved 9 6,
2018, from Designing Buildings Wiki:

Construction Methods and Management (S. W. N UNNALLY.Consulting Engineer,

Professor Emeritus, North Carolina State University)
Nunnaly, S.W. (2007). Masonry Construction. Construction Methods and
Management. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle, River, New Jersey.