
Revised: 24 May 2018
 Accepted: 2 July 2018
DOI: 10.1002/ese3.216
RESEARCH ARTICLE
KEYWORDS
double diode model, IVcurve reconstruction, parameter extraction, silicon PV cells
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original
work is properly cited.
© 2018 The Authors. Energy Science & Engineering published by the Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
within [Rlow
s ,Rs ]. The obtained value of Rs serves as new
upp
The authors of11 also use the approximation
lower bound Rlow s for the actual double diode model’s Rs. If eVoc ∕(ni VT ) >> eRs Isc ∕(ni VT ), i = 1,2 from15 which considerably
there’s no root in [Rlow
s ,Rs ] the lower bound for Rs remains
upp
simplifies the expressions for Is1, Is2, and Equations (16) and
unaltered. (28). Since the nonlinear equation for Rs anyway can only
Since the positivity of the other parameters is ensured for be solved numerically we do not apply these approxima
s ,Rs ], the photo current Iph fulfills Iph > Isc as can
Rs ∈ [Rlow
upp
tions. Moreover, though not mentioned in Ref.,11 the two
be checked from Equation 4. Iph therefore provides no further dimensional equation system exhibits a trivial solution for
restriction on the possible range of Rs. Rs = (Voc − Vm )∕Im and arbitrary Rsh which has to be consid
ered an artifact of the above approximations.
Determining a unique value of Rs relied on demanding the
3  A P P ROX IMAT E CON D IT IONS approximate condition Equation (28) to be exactly fulfilled. In
what follows, we will refer to this approach as 1/Rshmethod.
Any serial resistance Rs ∈ [Rlows ,Rs ] together with the corre
upp
One may assume that other approximate conditions can also
sponding Rsh (Equation 17), Is2 (Equation 7), Is1 (Equation 6), be used to determine Rs. We therefore consider the following:
and Iph (Equation 5) forms a physically meaningful set of In the doublediode model as described by Equation (1), the
double diode parameters reproducing the input circuit pa IVcurve I(V) and its derivative I ′ (V) are monotonously de
rameters (Voc ,Isc ,Vm ,Im). Without further consideration, one creasing. Thus, the slope of a secant is bounded by the slope
could therefore readily chose for example the arithmetic of the tangents at its intersection points, that is, for V1 < V2
mean Rhalf
s ≡ (Rs + Rs )∕2 as Rs to be consistent with the
upp low
I(V1 ) − I(V2 ) �
data sheet specifications. We will call this approach Rhalf s I � (V1 ) ≥ ≥ I (V2 ) (30)
V1 − V2
method.
For reasons that will be explained in more detail in chap
ter 1, we will also investigate the parameter set arising from In the nearly linear regime of the IVcurve around V = 0 we
the lowest possible serial resistance which will consequently can approximate
be called Rlow
s method. I(V1 ) − I(V2 ) I � (V1 ) + I � (V2 )
Aside from randomly choosing a serial resistance within ≈ (31)
V1 − V2 2
s ,Rs ], one could also try to find an additional, fifth con
upp
[Rlow
dition to determine Rs. In,11 an approximate expression for
the slope of the IVcurve at V = 0 is used For V1 = −Iph Rs, I( − Iph Rs ) = Iph and V2 = 0, I(0) = Isc we
get
dI 1
≈− (28) Iph − Isc I � ( − Iph Rs ) + I � (0)
dV V=0

Rsh
−Iph Rs
≈
2 (32)
which can be applied to Equation 14 to yield the condition
Is Isc Rs Is Isc Rs Although this approximation is usually very well fulfilled for
( )
1
0 = (Rsh − Rs ) + 1 e VT + 2 e 2VT ≡ C1∕Rsh (29)
all Rs ∈ [Rlow
s , Rs ], it turns out that reaching an exact equal
upp
Rsh VT 2VT
ity is often impossible. However, exchanging Iph in the de
Inserting the explicit expressions of Rsh (Equation 17), Is1
nominator of the left hand side with Isc results in a solvable
(Equation 6), and Is2 (Equation 7) gives a nonlinear equation
condition for Rs within the physically allowed range
for Rs whose solution uniquely determines the double diode
model parameter set. I � ( − Iph Rs ) + I � (0) −Isc Rs
It is worth noting that the determination of the double diode 0= ≡ C2tan (33)
2 Iph − Isc
parameters using Equation 28 gives the same numerical val
which we denote 2tangsmethod.
ues as the method of,11 but the algorithm of the present work
Using Equation (14) the derivatives are explicitly given
differs in various aspects. In,11 Rsh is not explicitly expressed
by
as function of Rs from Equation (16), but a twodimensional
equation system for Rsh and Rs consisting of Equations (16) −N1 −N2
and (28) is solved with the NewtonRaphson method. Finding I � ( − Iph Rs ) = , I � (0) = (34)
1 + Rs N1 1 + Rs N2
convergent initial values for both Rsh and Rs is therefore essen
with
tial and requires some effort and case distinctions. We prefer
the single equation for Rs whose roots are restricted to a finite 1 Is Is
range by physical considerations and can then determined by N1 = + 1+ 2 (35)
Rsh VT 2VT
bracketing procedures (eg, bisection or Brent’s method).
SULYOK and SUMMHAMMER 5

1 Is Is and an irradiance of 1000 W/m2 with an air mass 1.5 spec
N2 = + 1 A2sc + 2 Asc trum) and has been kindly provided by the S’tile company,
Rsh VT 2VT (36)
Poitiers, France.
From the full curve we can extract the double diode pa
Inserting these expressions into Equation (33) together
rameters by a LevenbergMarquart fit. All data points are
with the formulas for Rsh (Equation 17), Is1 (Equation 6),
equally weighted in the fit routine since their measurement
Is2 (Equation 7), and Iph (Equation 5) we obtain a nonlinear
uncertainties can be assumed to be of the same order of
equation determining Rs.
magnitude. The optimal parameter set is thus determined by
It has to be noted that different approximations involving
minimizing the quadratic distances of the theory curve to the
the derivative of the IVcurve, for example simply equating
measured data points. The normalized root mean square error
the slope of the secant with the slope of the IVcurve at V = 0,
percentage (nRMSE [%]) is given by
are conceivable, but condition Equation (33) yielded the best
results when testing the algorithms.
� ∑
1 N
N
(t − mi )2
i=1 i
nRSME [%] = � × 100 (37)
1 ∑N 2
m
4  CA S E ST U DY N i=1 i
To illustrate and compare the parameter extraction schemes, where N is the number of data points, mi are the measured
we apply them to the S’tile sunrays quarter cell, a 39 × 156 values and ti the theoretically expected values. As shown in
mm2 multicrystalline silicon PV cell. The IVcurve consist Table 1, the double diode parameters obtained from the fit
ing of about 60 points (see Figure 2) was recorded under routine indeed give the lowest nRMSE. From these optimal
standard testing conditions (STC, cell temperature of 25∘C double diode parameters, the circuit parameters (Voc ,Isc ,Vm ,Im
) can be calculated and used as input for the extraction algo
rithms. The quality of the different extraction methods will be
(0, Isc)
(Vm, Im) judged by how close each of them can reproduce the underly
ing “optimal” double diode parameters.
Isc = 2.1597 A
By inserting the circuit parameters (Voc ,Isc ,Vm ,Im) into
Vm = 0.50907 V measured IVdata Equations (26), (17), and (5), Is2, Is1, Rsh, and Iph can be
current [A]
Im = 1.99625 A
Voc = 0.6238 V
points expressed as functions of Rs only. In Figure 3, we dis
Levenberg
Marquardt fit
play the graphs of these functions. Is2 is plotted from
FF = 75.428%
N = 16.7% zero to (Voc − Vm )∕Im = 57.49 mΩ and exhibits a root at
Rs = 19.11 mΩ serving as upper bound Rs . Is1 is positive
upp
Rs [mΩ]
Rsh [Ω] Iph [A]
factor as high serial/low shunt resistance pairs. This coun ones obtained from the full IVcurve. The quality of the pa
terintuitive behavior is compensated by an increased photo rameter reproduction can be evaluated by the mean relative
current Iph and a decreased recombination current Is2 for the distance between derived ( pi) and full IVcurve ( p(full)
i
) pa
high serial/low shunt resistance case. rameters which we denote as error E1
In the Rhalf
s method, Rs is set to (Rs + Rs )∕2 = 16.2 mΩ
low upp
5 (full)
and the remaining double diode parameters are calculated 1 ∑ pi − pi 
E1 = , pi = {Rs ,Rsh ,Iph ,Is1 ,Is2 } (38)
from Equations (17) and (5 7). The results are listed in 5 i=1 p
(full)
i
Table 1.
To get the parameter set of the 1/Rshmethod the root of
Since changes in the parameters are not linearly reflected
Equation (29) for Rs ∈ [Rlow
s + ϵ,Rs ] has to be determined.
upp
by the curve we also introduce another error measure E2. It
To avoid numerical problems due to the pole of Rsh at
is evaluated from the difference between the IVcurves cal
s we increased the lower bound of the search interval
Rs = Rlow
culated from the reproduced parameters (I(V)) and the full
by a small positive real number ϵ = 10−12. Bisection yields the
curve fit (I (full) (V)). The behavior near the maximum power
root Rs = 16.8 mΩ (see left panel of Figure 4) which fixes the
point (roughly Vm ± 10%) is of particular interest, for exam
rest of the parameters given in Table 1.
ple when calculating the maximum power point for an entire
For the 2tangsmethod, the root of Equation (33) has to
module consisting of an arbitrary number of serially or paral
be determined. It is given by Rs = 14.2 mΩ (see right panel of
lel connected cells. We define
Figure 4) and the related remaining double diode parameters
are listed in Table 1. 1
1.1Vm
I(V) − I (full) (V)
The 1/Rshmethod gives a serial resistance above Rhalf E2 =   dV (39)
s 0.2Vm ∫0.9Vm I (full) (V)
whereas the root of the 2tangsmethods lies below Rhalf
s near
the lowest possible value of Rs. For the investigated cell, the which gives the mean relative distance between the points
2tangsmethod yields doublediode parameters closer to the of the full IV
data fitted curve and the curve from the
0
1/Rsh Rs [mΩ] F I G U R E 4 Approximate conditions
condition –2x10–7 for the circuit parameters Isc = 2.16A,
2tangs Vm = 0.509V , Im = 1.996A, and Voc = 0.624V
–4x10–7 condition of the S’tile sunray quarter cell at STC:
–6x10–7 1/Rshmethod as given by Equation (29) (left
panel), 2tangsmethod Equation (33) (right
Rs [mΩ] panel)
SULYOK and SUMMHAMMER

7
reproduced parameters. For the investigated cell, the second of the different methods. The published double diode pa
error measure of the 2tangsmethod lies one order of magni rameters have to be taken as reference quantities pi in
(full)
Extraction
Model equation Isc method a
Vm
Im
Initial Initial
Voc p.s.
parameter set
Electrical
parameters Extraction
method b
Double diode parameter space Double diode parameter space
F I G U R E 5 General scheme for judging the quality of a parameter extraction algorithm: Initial double diode parameters are obtained either
from literature or complete IVcurve fits. Using Equation (1), the basic equation of the double diode model, the electrical circuit parameters
(Voc ,Isc ,Vm ,Im) can be calculated which serve as input for the extraction methods. Each method yields different double diode parameters and the
proximity to the original set indicates the reproduction quality
E1 [%]
80
1/Rshmethod
60
Rshalfmethod
40 2tangsmethod
20
0
Jof
Jof ysD_
Jof ysD_ .K3
Jof sD_ .K10
CN a L
TL1 705
Jof sD_ .J7
SG 5005 41J5
S‘ti 05
AE sD_ 9
mo full c
mu icryst er ce
Sie PQ 40 .P4
S‘ti crys
mu eo ll ce
Kyo nsM 50
mo quar cell
mu qua cell
F I G U R E 6 Parameter reproduction
G
17
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
me
1
le
le
no ell
lti c Sol ll
no ter
lti N . fu ll
lt
90 0
cer 50
ut ar
t.
rt
S
S
S.K
S
0
/
measurements
9

8 SULYOK and SUMMHAMMER
E2 [%]
0.35
0.30
1/Rshmethod
0.25
Rshalfmethod
0.20 2tangsmethod
0.15 Rslowmethod
0.10
0.05
Jof
Jof ysD_
Jof ysD_ .K3
Jof ysD_ .K10
CN a L
Jof ysD_ .J7
SG 5005 41J5
AE ysD_ .K9
TL1 705
mu o qua r cell
Sie Q 40 .P4
S‘ti 005
mu ryst r ce
Kyo nsM 50
mo ull c
mu i Neo ull ce
S‘ti ocrys l
mo uar ell
F I G U R E 7 IVcurve reproduction
GP
17
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
Ph
me
1
le f 0
le q t. c
n
n
ltic rte
lt
lti c Sol ll
9
cer 50
ut a r
double diode parameters obtained
cel
A4
te
el
.f
S
S
S
S
S
0
0
/
l
measurements
ll
9
The mean values of errors E1 and E2 displayed in Table 2. T A B L E 2 Parameter extraction for 16 real cells, average errors
It can be concluded that the best parameter reproduction is of the different extraction schemes
achieved by the 2tangsmethod. The only exception is the Error Rhalf 1/Rsh 2tangs Rlow
TL190050 cell from.15 It is therefore investigated in detail
s s
750 2tangsmethod (less than 1‰) where multiple roots occurred for the 2tangs
500 method we took the largest one for Rs. Despite the good per
formance of the 2tangsmethod, for reproducing the original
250
IVcurve, the Rlow
s method beats all the other approaches, but
0
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0
behaves badly as far as parameter reproduction is concerned.
Parameter reproduction Error E1[%] From investigating both real and numerically generated
cells the following observations from the case study can be
F I G U R E 8 Histograms of the parameter reproduction error E1 confirmed: The conditions provided by the electrical circuit
(Equation 38) for 10 000 numerically generated cells
parameters can be used to express Rsh, Iph, Is1, and Is2 as func
tions of Rs whose roots can be found numerically. Within the
3000 physically allowed range of Rs thereby determined, shunt re
2500
1/Rshmethod sistance and recombination current decrease with increasing
Rshalfmethod Rs, photo current and saturation current increase. The 2tangs
Frequency
2000
2tangsmethod
1500
Rslowmethod
method yields a serial resistance in the lower range of the
1000 physically allowed values accompanied by high, but still re
500 alistic shunt resistance whereas the serial resistance obtained
0
from the 1/Rshmethod usually lies in the upper range of the
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 spectrum and goes along with a lower shunt resistance. Cell
Parameter reproduction Error E2 [%O]
design is no trivial task and not all cell parameters can be
F I G U R E 9 Histograms of the IVcurve reproduction error E2 independently optimized. However, shunt resistances typ
(Equation 39) for 10 000 numerically generated cells ically arise from the nonideal manufacturing process and
grownin material defects,23 rather than poor solar cell de
sign. Therefore, the higher shunt resistances values obtained
T A B L E 4 Mean values of the parameter reproduction errors of
the different extraction schemes for 10 000 numerically generated cells
from the 2tangsmethod can be assumed to be closer to the
actual parameters for presentday cells.
Error Rhalf
s 1/Rsh 2tangs Rlow
s
T A B L E A 1 Double diode parameters and error measures for the cell studied in10 under AM1 illumination and with T = 299.4◦K. The
corresponding electrical circuit parameters fed into the algorithms are Isc = 117.5 mA, Vm = 470.7 mV, Im = 108.0 mA, and Voc = 583.7 mV yielding a
fill factor of 74.13%
Literature Rhalf
s 1/Rsh 2tangs Rlow
s
Parameters
Rs [mΩ] 264 305 323 276 256
Rsh [Ω] 2550 352 239 977 ∞
Iph[mA] 117.5 117.6 117.6 117.5 117.5
Is1[nA] 0.0129 0.0147 0.0155 0.0134 0.0126
Is2[𝜇A] 0.38 0.22 0.14 0.33 0.41
Errors
E1[%] 0.0 31.7 39.3 16.4 ∞
E2 [‰] 0.0 1.88 2.84 0.49 0.31
T A B L E A 2 Double diode parameters and error measures for the cell studied in 10 under AM1 illumination and with T = 317.5◦K. The
corresponding electrical circuit parameters fed into the algorithms are Isc = 121.3 mA, Vm = 415.8 mV, Im = 109.7 mA, and Voc = 529.1mV yielding a
fill factor of 71.11%
Literature Rhalf
s 1/Rsh 2tangs Rlow
s
Parameters
Rs [mΩ] 272 310 338 292 265
Rsh [Ω] 2040 258 140 459 ∞
Iph [mA] 121.3 121.4 121.6 121.4 121.3
Is1 [nA] 0.0352 0.0402 0.0442 0.0378 0.0344
Is2 [𝜇A] 2.08 1.18 0.45 1.61 2.23
Errors
E1 [%] 0.0 31.7 44.4 22.9 ∞
E2 [‰] 0.0 1.36 2.60 0.69 0.21

12 SULYOK and SUMMHAMMER
T A B L E A 3 Double diode parameters and error measures for the T A B L E A 5 Double diode parameters and error measures for the
cell studied in 10 under AM1 illumination and with T = 330◦K. The cell studied in10 with T = 316.5◦K and illumination of 40% AM1. The
corresponding electrical circuit parameters fed into the algorithms are corresponding electrical circuit parameters fed into the algorithms are
Isc = 123.3 mA, Vm = 379.4 mV, Im = 109.9 mA, and Voc = 491.8 mV Isc = 44.7 mA, Vm = 403.9 mV, Im = 40.3 mA, and Voc = 500.5 mV
yielding a fill factor of 68.78% yielding a fill factor of 72.85%
Literature Rhalf
s 1/Rsh 2tangs Rlow
s Literature Rhalf 1/Rsh 2tangs Rlow
s s
Parameters
Parameters
Rs [mΩ] 272 306 341 294 260
Rs [mΩ] 317 400 513 324 255
Rsh [Ω] 910 200 99 288 ∞
Rsh [Ω] 1700 641 304 1521 ∞
Iph [mA] 123.3 123.5 123.7 123.4 123.3
Iph 44.7 44.7 44.8 44.7 44.7
Is1 [nA] 2.72 3.09 3.50 2.95 2.60 [mA]
Is2 [𝜇A] 6.08 3.65 9.42 4.55 6.85 Is1 [nA] 0.345 0.384 0.441 0.348 0.317
Errors Is2 [𝜇A] 1.26 0.83 0.20 1.23 1.56
E1 [%] 0.0 28.9 45.6 22.0 ∞ Errors
E2 [‰] 0.0 1.01 2.27 0.62 0.30 E1 [%] 0.0 26.8 51.3 3.2 ∞
E2 [‰] 0.0 1.20 3.20 0.09 0.76
T A B L E B 1 Double diode parameters and error measures for the TL190050 cell studied in 15 with T = 323.15◦K and under AM1
illumination. The corresponding electrical circuit parameters fed into the algorithms are Isc = 905.8mA, Vm = 414.6 mV, Im = 792.3 mA, and
Voc = 531.7 mV yielding a fillfactor of 68.2%
Literature Rhalf
s 1/Rsh 2tangs Rlow
s
Parameter
Rs [mΩ] 31.17 26.14 44.74 7e4 0
Rsh [Ω] 19.92 24.80 10.32 46.41 46.41
Iph [A] 0.9072 0.9067 0.9097 0.9058 0.9058
Is1 [nA] 2.466 2.091 3.564 0.215 0.737
Is2[𝜇A] 28.31 33.91 11.33 60.83 60.83
Errors
E1 [%] 0.0 15.13 39.30 87.86 87.86
E2 [‰] 0.0 0.61 2.55 1.91 1.91
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.