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Activity 2 – Eubacteria

The Kingdom Eubacteria consists of prokaryotic organisms. Neither the genetic material, respiratory apparatus, nor
the photosynthetic pigments are localized in discrete bodies on the cytoplasm. The supplementary enclosed
membrane structures are absent in these organisms. Cell membrane, cytosol, genetic material and ribosomes are
Bacteria are a highly diverse group. They may exhibit chemosynthetic, photoautotrophic or absorptive nutrition.
Cellular metabolism may be anaerobic, facultative or aerobic. Cells may be non-motile or motile, moving by gliding
or simple flagella. Organisms may be solitary unicellular, filamentous, colonial or mycelial. Their cells are
maintained by a cell wall. Reproduction is chiefly asexual ( fragmentation and binary fission ) but some exhibit
some forms of conjugation ( sexual ).
This kingdom includes the rod-shaped bacteria, cocci, helical bacteria, spirochetes, actinomycetes, and
cyanobacteria among many others. Most of these bacteria are important decomposers, while the cyanobacteria,
also known as blue-green algae, are important producers.

Fig 1. Ultrastructure of a bacterial cell.

Microscopic and Colonial Characteristics of Bacteria

Table 1. Some characteristic growth features of bacteria.

Colony Shape Margin Elevation

pinpoint circular entire lobate flat raised

rhizoid filamentous erose undulate convex umbonate

Form of growth in agar slants

Cocci Bacillus Sprillum

diplococcus streptococcus loosely-wound spiral

solitary pallisade chain

staphylococcus tetrad tightly-wound spiral

- Photosynthetic ( cyanobacteria )
- Decomposers ( common bacteria )
- Nitrogen fixers (heterocystous cyanobacteria )
- Pathogenic

- Thrive in extreme conditions ( high temperature, high salinity, anaerobic conditions, etc )
- Cell wall composition is not peptidoglycan but pseudopeptidoglycan ( due to the different on sugar
component )
o Methanogens – anaerobic, produces methane from H2 and CO2
o Halophiles – require high salt concentration
o Thermoacidophiles – grow hot ( 80 – 105 °C ), acidic environment like hot springs, geysers,
submarine volcanoes; sulfate as source of energy