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°’!~:.~’::’: ~": ":"74.

DESCRIPTIVE WORDS
.̄-.-.’~ "-: 2~ " ¯
.¢v:;... :.

:d’.~::.z~."V’: ., : . "
~".-:~.~!~..~Vhat.do telling tales, and Writing poetry or reports have in common? They
~d~~:~nd on descriptive words to create v~v~d and accurate ~ma~es m the .readers
;i.i~;::~i~:.A good stock of descriptive words, will bolster the quality of your students’
::;~:./,..::~--,~ri_t.i_iig exercis&: Use the~e lists of adjectives and adverbs to nudge reluctant writers
~:,.’)~;. iritddevelopihgcharacters and. ~etting, or :to help students "retire"_ overused words.
.,’:-::f..:,....~, . ¯ ._
,~.4.:..:._’ .....,..
¯ .
Fear~Anxiety
dreading insecure over~vhe!med tense
afraid panicky terrified
agitated eerie intimidated
restless timid
alarmed embarrassed jealous
jittery scared uncomfortable
anxious fearful
...... ~ : ~ jumpy ..... shaky uneasy
nervous shy upset
bashful " frightened worrying
hesitant ’ on edg~ strained
dangerous
desperate horrified

Distress
displeased hindered puzzled, tormented
afficted touchy
dissatisfied- impaired ridiculous
anguished
distrustful impatient sickened troubled
awkward
disturbed imprisoned ......silly ........=... .........~_n..~_ainly
baffled
¯ .. .
_
T0i~ch
boiling dirty grubby sha~y stinging .
bre_e_zy. d.ry .......................h_a.r.d ...................... .sh_.a_..rp.. .............te.nd_e_r_
... bumpy, dusty hot silky tight
-- chilly . filthy icy slick uneven
.... cold fluffy loose, slimy waxen
Depre, Ssion---Sadness---Gloom
abandoned .-depressed forsaken lo~v ~ruined
desolate gloomy miserable rundown
alien
alienated, despairing glum. " mishandled " isad
" .... despised . grim ¯: ’ : mistreated scornful ..
alone
: despondent" hated .... moody " - sore
a~vful
battered destroyed homeless mournful stranded
discarded hopeless obsolete tearful
blue
discouraged horrible ostracized terrible
bored
Size
immense miniature stupendous
ample elfin
large minute tall
average enormous
little petite tiny
behemoth fat
long pot tly towering
big giant
mammoth prodigious vast
bulky gigantic

Joy~Elafion
enchanted. glorious joyful smiling
amused
enthusiastic good jubilant splendid
blissful
exalted ’ grand magnificent. superb
brilliant "
.calm excellent gratified majestic terrific
cheerful ~ excited great marvelous thrilled
exuberant happy overjoyed tremendous
comical
contented ....fantastic " hilarious..-- pleasant.. . triumphant
Quan~ty
ample¯ . few lots paucity seareity
abundant heavy many plentiful skimpy
chock-full lavish mea~er. ple.nty sp.aring -..
copious - : liberal. mu~h profuse .._sp.arse_ .... . . .
Smell--Taste !
acrid fragrant putrid sour sweet .. . ....
antiseptic fresh ripe spicy. tangy ,: ¯

bitter : juicy " rotten stale .- --tart ... .:


choking medicinal salty sticky tasty .: ....
Sight--Appearance
adorable crinkled foggy motionless skinny
alert crooked fuzzy muddy smop:~y
beautiful crowded glamorous murky sparkling
cr_ystallin
....... ...........................blinding_ i ..................... e gleamin~
................ n
......... ._appy ..............................._spg~_l~ ........................................~ ............................

melodic screech thud


moan shrill thump
mute silent thunderous
noisy snarl tinkle
hiss purring snort voiceless
.. hoarse quiet soft wail
¯ .

;::..ancient daylight late outdated sunrise


....
-..-. annual- decade lengthy periodic, sunset
--"-brief - , dusk long punctual swift
brisk
¯ early modern quick tardy
centuries cons moments rapid twilight
’. 60~itinual evening noon short whirlwind
g.-,:.:’d2~ "-.’.:."~:. ..

i-.i~bil~ ~y-~ondi fion


Y_i.~,.. ~..: ,.. " ..

:-:-~bl~- .. --.. . .~onfident gentle lucky smooth


i a6qua e-., courageous hardy manly spirited
"alive - - ~ curious healthy mighty stable
i)h;Sui’ed ;, daring ¯ heavy modern steady
authoritative determined heroic
.~ . open stouthearted

- Anger--=Hos .t~ty
..... i- 5ifibhtl;c-e ..........evil ......... irr-~ed ...........n~d6 ..................................
aggravated contrary fierce mad savage
-aggressive cool . furious mean severe
:angry ¯ cranky hard nasty spiteful
annoyed creepy harsh obnoxious tense
_arrogant cross hateful obstinate terse
.-belligerent ............cruel . . hostile outraged vicious
Love--Mfection~Goncern ¯
~-.~dmired ...... conscientious ¯ givin~ mellow reliable
. adorable considerate good " " mild ¯ " respectful
affectionate cooperative helpful moral sensitive
agreeable cordial honest neighborly sweet
altruistic courteous honorable nice sympathefie
amiable dedicated hospitable obliging tender
benevolent "-devoted ’ humane open thoughtful
.benign.. em~athetie interested ootimistie tolerant "
Grade 8 R/ELA Curriculum Framework Progress Guide 2007-2008 Prince George’s County Public
Schools

vindictive revengeful; want to get back at someone

At a loss for words to describe a characterin a story? Try selecting dynamic, descriptive words from this list of
Character Traits.
active dissatisfied loquacious
adventurous distressed loving
affectionate doubtful loyal
afraid embarrassed lucky
angry energetic mean
annoyed excited obedient
animated exuberant obnoxious
annoyed expert pessimistic
anxious fair precise
argumentative faithful prodigal
arrogant fanciful punctilious
astonished fearless rash
attention fierce refined
bias6 foolish remiss
bored frank resolute
bossy friendly respected
brave frustrated respectful
brilliant funny retiring
busy gently rowdy
capable giddy sarcastic
careful glamorous saucy
careless gloomy self-reliant
caring glum sincere
cautious grateful slovenly
charming greedy snobbish
clumsy grumpy sociable
comical happy steady
concerned hopful stolid
confident hopeless strict
confused hospitable surely
considerate humble tactful
cooperative humorous timid
courageous ignorant tolerant
cowardly imaginative uncouth
cross impatient unkind
cruel impolite unruly
curious inactive unscrupulous
dangerous independent unselfish
daring industrious unset
dependable innocent useful
determined intelligent vivacious
diligent ealous vulgar
discourage kind weak
disgusted lazy wealthy
dishonest lively witty
dismayed lonely worried
Grade 8 R/ELA Curriculum Framework Progress Guide 2007-2008 Prince George’s County Public Schools

sullen
suave
nervous
hateful
eager
childish
harried
.nosy
poli~
l~zy
.quie~
¯ noisy.
loud
cheer£ul
w~ak
strong.
clumsy
o
absent-mincqed content . fierce. inattentive obscene SuspicioL
convivial flighty incompetent open tactful
accomm. O-.d~ting
adveritu~ous cooperat[ve flippant independent open-minded tactless
affectionate corrupt flirtatious industrious optimistic ¯. taking
afraid courageous foolish indulgent orderly talented
aggressive cowardly forgetful influential organized taste[
ambitious creative forgiving innocent obtspoken teasing
amoral critical frank insensitive passive. thoughtfL:
ang[y ¯ cross ... freethinking insolent. patient tough
animated " -crude. ¯ frenzied intuitive peacemaker trusting
annoyed cruel i friendly irascible permissive trustwortl-
antagonistic cunning , frustrated irritable persuasive " I valorous
anxious curious funny jaunty pessimistic vapid
apprehensive dangerous ; gently jealous pestering vengeful
argumentative daring i qentle . jocular petulant -versatile
arrogant- " deceitful i ~iddv ................ .......................’~:---~Tg~i~::
.l:---joyf_ul
oyful..... piggy
......:: ::~::~-~::: vibrant
::: :-::-::Vl- -el
assertive .-. dependable glib. judicious , ! playful vigorous
~ ¯
astonished dependent gloomy / kind ’ polite violent
attentive depressed glum | knowledgeable -pompous ’ virtuous
blunt destructive ~ pragmatic ~ vivacious
grateful | lazy ¯
bold determine8 grave reckless : vulgar
/ listless
bored devoted greedy long suffering , reluctant , , weepy
|
bossy diligent grouchy lovable remiss whimsica
bragging, disciplined gruff / loving repellent. whinny
brawny -discouraged grumpy reserved ’ wise
I°yal
brave disgusted ~ happy masculine resistant , witty
brilliant dishonest harried materialistic respectful 1; worri~:
bullying dismayed : hateful responsible
maternal
busy dissatisfied headstrong mature ridiculous
capable distressed heartless rigid
mean
careful docile helpful melancholic
rlSr,-~r.9~
careless doubtful helpless mercenary rude
caring dramatic honest merry. sad
cautious dreamy humorous sadistic
meticulous
charming eager sarcastic
idealistic mischievous
cheerful effervescent " idle mocking secretive
childis h egotistical idolizing modest
scruffy
clever embarrassed ignoble self-centered
narcissistic
clumsy emotional ill bred natural selfish
combative encouraging ill humored naughty sedentary
comical energetic illogical needy serious
competent engaging imaginative shortsighted
neglected
concerned excited immature neglectful shy
conforming exuberant imitative silly
nervous
confrontational expert immodest noble sincere
controlled fair impatient social
obedient
confident faithful stingy
impolite oblivious
confused fanciful ,
imposing strict -
obnoxious
considerate fearless impressionable stubborn
obsessed
feminine sullen
inactive obsessive
rds to Describe the Plot

.... Negatiy~
reaJistic
’.
gg:.od pace from scene to scene Uaimpo~lant ~essage
~bddin~ Overbearing
s~penseful
Overworked
so, fishing en~ng frustrating ending Ineffective
sU~-plots tied toge~er welI {;onfuding Sub’@ors Forgetfui
W~ll-developed ide~ ’ ~ketchy ~deas

Words to Describe Characters Wbrd~ to describe the AuthS~-~s Writing Styl~


, :h
POsitive Nega,.tiy_~e Negativ~
Original Stereotyped De~m-~ptive, filled wi~ metaphors ’ Boring, no im.agery
Believable Unbelbvabb Filled with cliches
Well-rounded Lively, Nil of action Slow moving
Multidimensional
"..
who change Static---remain the Poetic or lyrical ’ " Ciodding, jumpy
and grow
Well-developed Flawed

developed by Kylene Bters, School Developme**t Pr.agram


E}uilding $ocia Confidence
When students lack words for talking about selections they’ve read, it’s hard for them to enter into literary conversations. Let them
use this chart* to help them find the words they need to move them past the "It was boring" or "I reallz liked it" stage of conversation.

Words to Describe the Plot Words to Describe the Theme


Positive Negative Positive Negative
realistic unrealistic Important Message Unimportant message
good pace from scene to scene plodding Subtle Overbearing
suspenseful predictable Unique Overworked
satisfying ending frustrating ending Powerful Ineffective
sub-plots tied together well confusing sub-plots Memorable Forgetful
well-developed ideas " sketchy ideas

Words to Describe Characters Words to describe the Author~iWriting Style

Positive Negative Positive Negative


Original Stereotyped Descriptive, filled with metaphors Boring, no imagery
Believable Unbelievable Original Filled with cliches
Well-rounded Flat Lively, full of action Slow moving
Multidimensional who change Static--remain the Poetic or lyrical Clodding, jumpy
and grow the same
Well-developed Flawed

*Chart developed by Kylene Beers, School Development Program


Yale University
TONE WORDS

Ttze tone of a iiterary work is the a~zthor’s attitude ro’/card his or her audience and subject.

accepting impatient
admiring inspired
ambivalent (having conflicting feelings) ironic
amused joyful
angry ..-. judgmental (critical)
apologetic melancholy (very sad)
. bi~er
bored neutral(not feeling for or against)
commanding (bossy) nostalgic (looking back in the past)
condescendi_ag (feeling superior) objective. (impartial)
¯

confident ::- peacef@


confused playfu!
contemptuous (MI of hate) poignant (emotionally touching)
cynical proud
daring resentful
desperate rude
detached (having no emotional involvement) .sarcastic
diplomatic (showing sensitivity to others) satisfied
dreamy scornful (f-uH of hate)
fanciful (imaginative) sentimental (very emotional)
fearful serious
Ilippani: (taking serious matters lightly) shocking. (disturbing)
..

grateful solemn (very serious)


h~fppy (ebullient) somber (dark, gloomy)
hopeful (op -timistic) surprised
hopeless (pessimistic} sympathetic(understanding)
horrific (terrifying) uncaring
humorous (funny) urgent (needing immediate actie.~_) {",
TON-~ and I’~OOD are two different concepts in literature,

¯ E~ne
.~.,~.
expresses the author’s attitude toward his/her subject. POSITIVE MOOD~ NEGATIVE MOOD
¯{~!..A writer can have a tone of,,. ~ger, approval, ~sapproval, pride, - WORDS WORDS
.. ..-~---~e.-.,- ......
:~" ncu~, suspicion, irony, seriousness, h~or, ~us~ment, etc,
Light-hearted Tense.. ..
Playful : Gloomy
" ~ood is the atmosphere or feelings created by a literary work. . Tender Violent
Enl.ightened , ’ Insidious
,, Optimistic Pessimistic
~..~rd~ that de~¢-r.tbe NOOD; Liberating Confining
Warm Cold
Hopeful ’ Hopeless
AdVenturous Grotesque Optimistio Nostalgic" " Kau.nting
Heart-breaking Pessimistic Peaceful Nightmarish
Ca!m Hvartrending Playful Welcoming Hostile
Holy Powerful Harmonious Suspense#d
Cautious
Forebodia~g
¢,;~erful Hopeful Realistic
Vivacious Painful
Horrific Romantic
Confident
Idealistic Sad IdylHc Desolate
Dining Intense Sinister Sympathetic Merciless
~oyful Soothing .Joyous Terrifying
Dark
Light Sorrowful Dignified .Barren
..Depressing Ecstatic Vengeful
Dismal Lighthearted " Spiritual Heartbroken
Empbwered
Mdancholi¢ Spooky.
F~!ciful Morbid Terrifying
FiCtional Mournful Threatening
F6reboding Mysterious Timid’
G~bomy Nasty Tranquil
Ominous Whimsical

,.
Grade 8 R/ELA Curriculum Framework Progress Guide 2006-2007 Prince George’s County Public
Schools

TONE / MOOD WORDS

The tone ofa work shows the writer’s attitude toward his or her subject. A selection may
have one tone throughout or the tone may change several times in a course of a selection,

~s to readers.
Amood is a feeling that a literary, work conve!
Tone Meaning
accusatory blaming other people
amused entertained
angry mad
apologetic sorry

anxious worded or excited


bewilderment confused
bitter angry or hatful
bodng, bored not interested
callous insensilJve
calm relaxed, not excited
candid straightforward; blunt
cheerful happy
contemplalJve thinking; reflective; studying
critical finding fault
cudous wanting to find out
cruel mean; hateful
condescending looking down on others; feeling superior
defensive. defending
defiant going against authority
depressed unhappy; sad
desperate frantic; without many options
depressed unhappy; sad
¯.dete.rmined not giving up
didactic trying to teach something
disappointed unhappy because something went wrong
dramatic theatrical
earnest sincere; honest
¯ eccentric odd; strange; different
egotisljcal self-centered; thinking about self
eloquent expressing in a nice Way; good with words
excited anxious
enthusiastic excited; energetic
envious jealous
fanciful using the imagination
frustrated angry because of not being able to do
something
friendly the way a person treats friends
fearful afraid
funny humorous; amusing
gentle careful

R- 135
Grade 8 PJELA Curriculum Framework Progress Guide 2006-2007 Prince George’s County Public
Schools

gloomy dark; sad; depressed


happy cheerful
honest truthful
hysterical very scared
impersonal not personal
informal relaxed
inspirational encouraging
ironic different than what is expect
irritated annoyed
jovial happy
judgmental judging others; critical
lackadaisical. lazy
.................... lethargic sleepy
lighth~earted happy; carefree
malevolent mean; angry; purposely hateful
malicious purposely hurtful; very mean
melancholy sad
mischievous playing tricks for fun
negative unhappy
neutral not good o~ bad; r, ot for or against
nostalgic wishing for something in the past
objecl~ve without discrimination; fair
opl~m.istic hopeful; cheerful
patie.nt willing to wait
patronizing looking down on others; acting superior
perplexed confused; puzFJed
persuasive trying to convince
)essimistic seeing the bad side of things
~roud full of pride
qui77ical questioning
regret feeling bad about the past
stop being Wdrried
remorseful very sad; sorrowful; regretful
~verent respectful; having honor
rude not polite
¯.sarcastic saying the opposite of what you mean
sentimental thinking about feeling when remembering the
past
sedous ’ not funny
Sincere honest
snobbish acting as though one is better than everyone
else
solemn sad or quiet reflection
stubborn refusing to give
sympathetic understanding of how someone feels
thankful grateful
urgent something must be done soon
vindictive revengeful; want to get back at someone

R- 136
,S T!ON-WORDS "
:.. .

What are transitionsand how are they used? - .


..
..

o transitions are phrases or words used to connect oneidea to the next


o transitions are used by the author to help the readerprogress from one
significant idea to the next "
transitions also show the relationship within ¯a paragraph (or even within a
sentence) between the main idea and the support the author gives for those
,
ideas -
different transitions dodifferent things .... ’ .
¯ ..

" " "Causal,’" or ’"Sequential."


" Adversative,
Transitions may be"Adlditive, "

Adversative Causal Sequential


Additive
Transitions Transitions Transitio£s
Transitions .

o Addition. o. Conflict o Cause~Reason o..Numerical


, Introduction o Emphasis -o Effect/Result o. Continuation
o Reference o Concession o Purpose. o-Conclusion
o Si¯milariR -o Dismissal o Consequence o Di.qression
o Identification o .. Replacement , . Resumption
o ¯ Summation
o Clarification

Additive Transitions: _

These show addition, introduction,.sirnilarity.to other ideas~ etc;


. ..
. ..

Addition"
not: only(this) but
indeed, further, .. as well (as this),, either.. (neither), also.(that) as well,
also, moreover, What is more, as a matter ..
of fact,
to-tell you the
and, furthermore, in addition (to this),, besides (this), truth,
in fact, . actually, to say nothing of,
let alone; much less additionally,-
too,
" hot to mention
nor, alternatively, on the other hand, (this);
-.

_; _
., .
Emphasis"
more besides
.even more,
¯.. . above all,
indeed, importantly, .
..

Concession:

.admittedly,
but even so, nevertheless, even though, on the otherhand,:
.

nonetheless; despite(this), notwithstanding


however, . ..... . (this), .. .. ~"
. .
in spite Of ..regardless (of.
(and) still, .. although, .(this),-. - this),-.. ....

Dismissal"

whichever -: in either in any at any rate


either way, happens, ., event, case, - . -
inany -
whatever.happens, all the same,
in either case, event,
-.

Replacement:
(or) rather, Instead
(or) at least,

Causal [NOT "Casual"] Transitions" r

These transitions signal cause/effect and reason/result,.etc-...


. ..
.

CauselReason: ’
in view of (the inasmuch
for the (simple) reason. being that, for, as,
fact)i. , " - .
that,
owing to (the
because (of the fact),-- see’ing that, as; -"- fact); ~ " ,. ¯
..

due to (the fact that), in that " since, Iorasmuchas,


.. -.

Condition"
..
..

on (the) condition granted (that), if, ’ .... provided that, in case,


(that), .

~s/so long as~. .unless -..:..given that, ...


in the event that,
granting (that),- providing.that, even if, only. if,..- . ..- -.
. .:..-. .. , ~ .~ . . -
~ - . .. - ¯ :
: . -. .~ . . ,.~
.. .’.: . ..- :- . ..:
¯-., ,. ..... :~.. - . ".. ... . . -:.
.-
Introduction"
as an
as, particularly, including, illustration,
such as,
to illustrate
for example, like, in particular, for one thing,
by way of
for instance, especially,. notably, example,

Reference:
with regards to
speaking about considering regarding (this), (this),
(this), (this), ..
’ concerning, onthe subject of thefactthat
as.for (this), -:(this-),: .................. :: ....
(this) ............ " ........ " .................
¯
.

Similarity: ’
¯

in the same by the same token, in a like manner,


similarly, way, ’
equa,,y likewise,

Identification"

that is (to
. namely, specifically, thus,
say), .

Clarification"
in

! mean, .(.to) put (it) anotherway other


that is (to say), ¯
wo.rds,
..

" Adversative Transitions: "


These transitions are used to signal conflict, contradiction concession, dismissal,
etc...

Conflict:
on the other hand,
but, by way. of contrast, while, though (final position),
(and) yet, whereas,
however, conversely, still
in contrast, when in fact,
Resumption"
.

anywaY, --- at any rate,


to get back to the point, to resumeanyhow, .

to return to the subjectl

Summation:
in
as was previously SO, consequently, summary, all
stated,
thus, as_l_bave saidl .to sum up, overall,
~-;;-":;~=~:--~--;~-~=’;-::=:~f=~:~~-:--:;;-=.:~::----:~-;-~T~;~:=
briefly,
as has been mentioned, then, to summarize,to be brief

given these points; in all, on .the Whole, therefore,


as has been noted, hence, in conclusion, in a word,

to put it briefly, in sum, altogether,.:: in shorti

, . .¯ ¯

.
.. ¯ .
¯ ...
EffecfJResuit:
for this
as a result (of .consequently, hence,.¯ reason,
this),
because (of in consequence, so that, accordingly
this),
as a so much (so) so, therefore,
consequence, that,

Purpose:
for fear that, .. so that,
for the purpose of, in the hope that, ..
in order to, lest
.................................. With--this: intention, to ~he. en_._d: t.._ha_t,.
so-as to,-- SO,.
with this in mind, in order that,
.. .

ConSequence:..
¯

¯under those circumstances,


¯
then, in that case, if not,
..
if so, " otherwise ..
that being the easel ¯

Sequential Transitions:
These transitions are used to sigha| a chronological or Iog~ca! sequence.

Numerical:

. in the (first, second, etcl) initially, to start with, first of all thirdly, (&c.)
place,. for a start, secondly,
to begin with, at first,

Continuation:
eventually, next,
subsequently, previously,
after (this), then
before (this), afterWards,

Conclusion"

as a final point, eventually, at last,


to conclude (With) -.

in the end, finally, lastly,


last but not least,

Digression:
"in~entally, ¯ by the way,
to change the topic
TRANSiTiON. WORD L~T
"T~me’~ Transitions
first before. at the beg4nm’ng in the morning
now soon by noon ~n the middle next
after that afternoon after a wh~!e when then
at the same time by the time later about 8:00 P.M.
toward the end at last finally

above below near at the center next to


around beside in front of under between
behind in back of between on the left on
to the north from the w~ndow by the ceiling
outside in the valley over the mountains close

More Transitions
because as a result at this stage during so
meanwhile since the first reason furthermore yet
in the second place therefore most important if
however in fact nevertheless suddenly happily
through this process thoroughly slowly how

"Conc.ludin " Transitions


for the reasons given above in summation-, in short
for the preceding reasons in conclusion to sum up
as you can see in summary without a doubt
in other words as I~ have noted above in any event
consequently on the whole in any case in brief
in the final analysis
Transitional Words Phrases
Transitional words and phrases show how ideas are related. The relationships
may be based on time, space, order of importance, cause and effect, similarity
and difference, or comparison and contrast. The chart below lists words and
phrases that can serve as transitions.

Chronological firs:~ later afterwards


Order second soon meanwhile
always before eventually
f!...n_al_ly_
............. th_e~ ......................... n e~t._w_eek ................................
.............

Spatial in front lowest underneath


Order .... behind above on the left
next to below on the right
nearest outside in the middle
Degree mainly second equally important
strongest third most significant
weakest most important least significant
first " less important ’- best
Comparison similarly than either.., or.
likewise as by comparison
in addition neither.., nor
like outside

Contrast however but nevertheless


by contrast unlike as opposed to
yet instead on the other hand
Cause and since so for this reason
Effect because due to if... then
thus as a consequence as a result
therefore accordingly- owing to ¯

Porffofio Plus
Transition Word List

To show: 1[
additionally
Possible Words to Use
including
addition / continuation: initially
afterwards
again later
likewise
also
and meanwhile moreover
next
as was previously stated
overalt

at length . presently
previously
at the same time
besides second
embracing " _ ...................s~c.e .. ...........
-so-on
encompassing
eventually subseque~ nfly
extending supplimenfing
then
fiarthermore to begin with
in addition while
in conclusion
nevertheless
contrasV. nonethdess
but not withstanding
conversely
despite on the other hand
however on the contrary
regardless,
in contrast
indeed still
inspire of
though
instead yet
namely while

Ias an illustration in other words


exemplification 1 in particular
illustration: ~ for example. that is
~ for instance
then
conclusion / result: as a consequence
therefore
as a result
consequently thus
aence
furthermore
similarity: likewise
also
and in a like manner
as a matter of fact in addition
as well - in the same way
besides in a similar case
similarly.
for example

Prepared by Bill Fatten CMS 2002


E[omonym List (for your reference- keep in your binders)

~aiyle~

accept (to receive) cite (to quote an authority)


except (other than) sight (the ability to see)
site (a place)
affect (to have an influence on)
effect (result) conscious (aware of)
conscience (moral guide)
all read~ ~repared)
descent (a movement down)
allusion (indirect reference) dissent (disagreement)
illusion (erroneous perception)
desert (to abandon)
a lot (TWO words, not one) dessert (the course after dinner)
allot (to apportion)
discreet (rese~wed, respectful)
ascent (a rise) dkserete (individual, distinct)
assent (agreement
elicit (~o bring, ore)
bare (unclothed) ilficit (illegal)
bear (to carry, or an animal)
its (belonging to it)
board (a piece of wood) it’s (contraction of it is)
bor_ed (a state of being)
know (to be certain)
born (brought to life) no (opposite of yes, or not any)
.borne (carried)
lead (heavy metal)
brake (stop) led (past tense: of lead)
break (smash)
lessen (tO make less)
buy (purchase) lesson (something learned)
by (next to)
loose (not tight)
capital (seat of governmem) lose (opposite of win)
capitol (legislative meeting place)
meat (flesh)
censor (to suppress) meet (encounter)
censure (to criticize)
passed (past tense of pass)
past (after, or a time gone by)
Homonym List (for your reference- keep in your binders)

patience (forbearance) their (belonging to them)


patients (persons under medical care) there (the opposite of here)
they’re (contraction of they are)
peace (the absence of war)-
piece (a portion of something) threw (past tense of throw)
through (in one side and out the other)
plain-(easy to see or understand)-
plane (an airborne-vehicle, or a carpenter’s two (following one)-

presence (the state of being at hand)


presents (gifts) waist (the middle of the body)
waste (discarded material)
principal (most important, or the head of a
~hooi) weak (not strong)
principle (basic truth or law) wee.k (Sunday through Saturday)

rai~_ (precipitation) , weather (atmospheric conditions)


reign- (to role) whether (introduces alternatives)
rein (the-str-ap.~r-c~ntrolling an ani_~_l)-
were-.~ast tense plural of to be)
right (correct) wh-ere (a place, Iocatierr)-
--rite (a reli~,~ cer~aony)
write-(to compose-text) which (particNar one)
vdteh (a somerer)
road (a surface for dri-ving)
rode (past tense of ride) who’s (contraction of who is)
-whose (belonging to who)
. scene (where an action.occurs):
seen-(past-partieiple of see) your (belonging to you)
you’re (contraction of you are)
stationary (unmoving)
stationery (writing paper)

straight (unbending)
strait (a water passageway)

than (used for comparison)


then (at that time in the past)
beautiful exquisite

depressed dejected lovely gorgeous

woeful forlorn glamorous stunning

miserable crestfallen elegant striking

sorrowful mournful cute fair

I~sfe~d of ~~ I~s~e~d of ~i~e,


great splendid teeny meager

pleasant superb diminutive puny

marvelous grand compact minuscule

delightful terrific microscopic miniature

superior amazing petite slight

wonderful excellent
delightful congenia~

benevolen~ agreeable

courteous
gracious wc~r~.

considerate cordial

towering enormous glad merry

huge tremendous jovia! ¯ contented

vast massive jubilant pleased

substantial giant jo~ui delighted

gigantic colossal thrilled jolly

mammoth imme~e chee~ul elated

wil-h/ ingenious realize article evil


recall item wrong
bright sharp grasp object immoral
understand device inferior
quick-~vi~ed brainy unfavorable
co~prehend gadge~
knowledgeable brilliant perceive belongings wicked
discern action mischievous
inte{i~gent gifted sere goods a~ul
asce~ain contraption unruly
c~ev~r w~se
" ’ SAT Words

Words to Know .by-the End of Middle Schoo


ARID (adj.)-very dry
Desert regions are arid.
FRAGILE (adj.)-easily broken; frail
I have to wrap that fragile vase in plenty of newspaper so it won’t break during the move.
PRUDENT (adj.)-wise, sensible
It would be very prudent of you to take the SAT class before you take the real SAT.
CREST (n.)-the top of
The crest of the wave was at least eight feet high.
~,ff~r~a~iii~g traVeied acr0~s,Eur0pe this summer, Gerald appeared-to have become quite a cosmopoiitan-
DeFson.
~RADlCATE (v.)-eliminate; wipe out completely; annihilate
Eighting violence with violence will not eradicate the problem of violence in schools.
EXEMPLARY (adj.)-outstanding example of
Because of her exemplary academic performance in all of her classes this year, the Journal wrote a feature
article about Karen.
DESOLATE (adj.)-deserted; empty; Uninhabited; barren
The residents returned to t.heir fire-devastated, desolate town.
EGOIST. (n.)-a self-centered person
Ti-~re-three favor_lie wor-ds .Of-an egoist a~e me, myself, and I.
LOATHE (v:)-te.dislike intensely; to hate; to despise
Most kids bathe.doing-home_work, but the dilige.~t- one-s-do.it an_yway.
~t
REBt~JKE (v..)=._-o. scold; to reprimand
Sarah rebuked her dog for~having chewed .up her new Nikes.
ALLEVIATE (v.)-to relieve by making mere bearable;.!Q lessen
The Tylenol alleviated her headache-but did nothing for her sore throat.
ACUTE_(adj~)-very sharp; severe
The doctor.gave me a prescription to alleviate the-acute pain in-my ka_ee.
APPEASE (v.) to calm .or soothe by giving in to demands
The young mother thought she could appease-her ~/-ing baby-by giVih_,g_ him_aJ.olJi.pqp.
FRUGAL (adj.)-thfifty; careful with money
-Because. he was-frugal for-so many--ye~..:s, Mr. Jeffers had-en__o.ugh money w..hen he-retired
around the_wor_ld.
(:::..OLLABQRATE (v.)-to work to.gether on a project-
Since all the students in that group refused to collaborate on their English project, everyone received an E.
CORERENT (adj.)-clearly thought out or expressed
If you essay is coherent, then you can easily communicate your ideas to your reader.
DIGRESS (v.) -to stray from a subject when you are speaking or writing
The teacher digressed from the topic of the causes of the Civil War and began telling us about a movie he
had seen.
RENOWN (n.)- great fame
Michael Jordan’s renown makes him a superhero in the eyes of children and adults alike.
INFAMY (n.)-dishonor; shame
The seventeen-year-old wanted renown; instead he gained infamy for breaking the law.
SOLITUDE (n.)- isolation; akJn~’nbsS... ..:: .- .. wkh.her~ Korina rarely finds a moment of solitude.
Because s.even other"~eopi~ii~i~::.{i~:k:apaRrtieht‘~: ’ " "
TENACIOUS (adj.)-very persistent; i:esolute; unyielding; very firm
Parents must be tenacious in teaching their children right from wrong if we want to end violence in our
society.
PERIPHERAL (adj.)-of minor relevance or importance
Relatively speaking, academic achievement is paramount to our school’s success while our athletic
success is peripheral.
AUDACIOUS (adj.)-very bold
It was audacious of the teento ride down a very steep hill without a helmet on a bike without brakes.
VORACIOUS (adj.)-can’t be satisfied; ravenous
Many teenagers have a voracious appetite for junk food.
VEHEMENT (adj.)-passionate; ardent; inf_ense .
Elka had a vehement argument with herbest friend, who told everyon.eEIka had cheated on a test when

ZEALOUS (adj.)-filled ~,~i.th enthusiasm, especiaiiy for acause, ideal or goal


The zealous rookie begged the coach to let him play all four quarters.
AIVlENABLE (adj.)-willing to cooperate; agreeable
Her parents were not amenable to the idea of-her s’~aying out past ten o ’clock on a schooi-~i.ght.
BENEVOLENT (adj.)-expressing good will to kindliness
It was benevolent of Mrs. Fisher to allow Maria to retake the US History test she had failed-yesterday.
COALITIO~ (n.)-an alliance; a group, of people with a common cause.
The students formed a coalition to convince the Board of Education to renovate or replace our old,
de~eriora.ting building.
CONFLA..GP-,:ATION (n.)-a huge fire
Fire departrnent_~)~cials say faulty electr-i~l wNng in the-walls of the now demolished house caused the
conflagration,
CONSENSUS (n.):-g_ena.ral agreement
The county government arid the Board of Education have come to a consensus to repta~ BHS with a new
building.
CONSPICUOUS (adj.)-noticeablel obvious
All of your teachers-are required-to place the weekly SAT wo~d-strips in a conspicuous-place in ~.eir
classrooms.
HUMANITARIAN (n.)-a person concerned with helping to improve human welfare.
Rosie O ’Donnell is an exemplary humanitarian because she has donated millions .of dollars to
children’s welfare organizations.
Words You Absolutely, Positively Have to Know
History and Geography:
1. REPUDIATE -to take back or disavow as when Martin Luther refused to repudiate his writings at the Diet
of Worms
2. DISSOLUTION -to dissolve, break apart, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union
3. ANARCHIST -opposes gpvernment-and laws
4. ARID -very dry.
5. ANACHRONISM -a chronological misplacing of events, persons, or objects.
6. DUTY-a tax on imports
7. ENUMERATE -to ascertain the number of; to count.
.8. BUTTRESS-to support, prop up...
....: ~- ...... 9:-~DESICOA-TED-to :be~e~v_.e~:~,-:~_[!.d_~,:P.~rche~:::-- ~ ...........~ -~ ~ ..:--~
~- ---~...........
~- ~. _ ~ - ~ ..... ..... ~-: :: - :~
i0. SOVEREi-GN 4he suFeme ~lei: in:~ ki~d0m.
11. NULLIFY -to make void.
!2. ENLIGHTEN -to inform, instrdct
13. APPEASEMF_NT -to give iato someone’s demands.
14. ELITE -a select group.
15. ETHICS -a code of conduct
16. BIAS -a prejudice, leaning, predisposition to do something
17. EPISTOLARY -an epistle is a letter and an epistolary is a series of letters
18..MATRIARCHAL -rule by women
19; PROLIFERATION-b multi.ply; i~crease, spread rapidly, as the proliferation-of nuclear weapons
20. D~G~lA.-doctrine, set of beliefs Martin Luther challe@:ed-many of the estab%h~-dog.mas of the
Catholic-Chu~r~c,h-
Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots (List !}

ab- from, away


* absence, abdicate -auto- self
-able, -ible capable of being * autocrat, autograph
be-around, about, away
* comfortable, edible
ad- to, toward * beset, behead
* admit, adjoin -bone- good
-al,-ial like, having nature of, act of * benevolent, benefactor
* refusal, congenial bi- two-
* bisect, bipartisan
ami- friend
* amicable, amity, amiable .brew short, bdef
-ance~. -ence act,-quali~, state-ofbeing * brevitT; ab~eviation
circurn- around

* attendant, servant corn- With, together-


* combine, complacent
ante--befo.re
* antediluvian, antedate con- with, together
ant-i.~aga_inst *-convenei convention
* antibiotic, antifreeze centra- against
.aqu- water * contradict, contraband
* aquarium, aqueduct -cred- belief, trust
* credibility, incredible
-ary relating to, one who
*..-temporary, legendary _de- down, from, away, off
-ate to cause to-become *_de~.. "late, detrain.
* invalidate, s~bt.imate- -dern- people
*democrac.y, demago.gue
aud-, audit- hear
* auditorium, audible

I0
Prefixes, Suffixes, and ,Roots (List 2)

.dis- not, apart. -ion,-tiOn; act or state of being


* discharge, disarm
-duc- to lead -ation* subtraction, addition, valuation
* induct, conduct -ity, -ty state or quality of being
* activity, entity
.on little, made of
* earthen., kitten, golden -ire relating to, likely who
* legislative., communicative
on- to put into
* encapsulate, engulf -less without
* guiltless, sugarless
-or doer, maker
* hatter,, logger, complainer -ioc-, 4oqu- talk, speech
* locution, colloquial
.err- wander, stray ..~- ~..

ex- out of; away from -.eluc!date, lucid-, translucen~


* expire, extol, extort -ly used to form adverbs from adjectives
* abstractly,
.fin- end, limit
* final, indefinite

-flu flow
* confluence, superfluous
.fui full of
* boastful, cheerful-
-gen- birth,, kind-, orJgf~
*-ge.~ration, gender
~g~am. write
* telegram, grammatical
-grog- people
~-gregarious, egregious, congr~egation
hypo- under, beneath
* hypodermic, hypocrite
-ic dealing with, caused by, showing
* photographic, symphonic
in-, ira-into, within, not
* incapable, in6ffferent, induce, i.r~epid
inter- between
*iinterdisciplinary, intercede
l~un With Words: l-leteronyrns t’age I o~ ~

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Main Site Guide

Heteronyms

The words homograph, homogram, homophone, homonym, and heteronym are


frequently confused, sometimes even by permissive dictionaries eager to reflect
common usage rather than proper meaning. Homograph and homogram, which are
synonyms, refer to words that are spelled the same but differ in meaning, derivation,
°r pr°nunicati°n"
meaning, H°m°ph°nes
derivation, are w°rdsHomonyms
or spelling. that are pr°n°unced
are words the
thatsame but differ
are both in !i iiiiii
homographs
and homophones: words that are spelled and pronounced the same but differ in
meaning or derivation.

Heteronyms are a type ofhorriograph. They are words that are spelled the same but
differ in meaning and pronunciation. All heteronyms are also homographs, but not
all homographs are heteronyms. Many heteronyms are similar in meaning
(especially a related noun and verb are spelled the same but pronounced differently),
while others are wholly unrelated.

Here is a list of some of the most common heteronyms in the English language:

affect - (ah-FECT) to change; (AF-fecO feeling or emotion


alternate - (ALT-er-ni0 another choice; (ALT-er-NAIT) switch back and forth
appropriate - (ap-PROPE-ri-ATE) to take possession of; (ap-PROPE-ri-iO
suitable
are - (AIR) 100 square meters (a hundredth of a hectare); (AHR) plural present
tense of "to be"
arithmetic- (a-RITH-me-tic) a branch of mathematics; (AIR-ith-MET-ic)
characteristic of arithmetic
attribute - (at-TRIB-ute) to ascribe; (AT-trib-u@ characteristic
axes - (AX-ez) plural of axe; (AX-eez) plural of axis
bass - (BASE) a stringed instrument; (BASS) a fish
bow =. (rhymes with "how") to incline the head in greeting; also, front of a
ship; (rhymes with "tow") weapon that shoots arrows
bowed - (rhymes with "how’d") inclined the head in greeting; (rhymes with
"towed") bent
buffet - (BUF-feO to hit; (bur-FAY, boor-FAY) a meal at which guests serve
themselves from dishes on display
close - (CLOZE) to shut; (CLOHSS) nearby
combine - (COM-bine) threshing machine; (com-BINE) put together
conduct - (CON-duct) behavior; (con-DUCT) to direct or manage

http://rinkworks.corn/w0rds/heteronyms.shtml 7/6/2010
..,
l~un With Words: Heteronyms t~age 2 ot 4

conflict - (CONflict) disagreement or fight; (con-FLICT) to be in opposition


console - (CON-sole) upright case; also, computer terminal; (con-SOLE) to comfort
consort - (CON-sort) companiobn or partner; (con-SORT) to keep company
construct- (CON-struct) something constructed; (con-STRUCT) to assemble
content - (CON-tent) substantive part; (con-TENT) satisfied
contest - (CON-test) competition; (con-TEST) to dispute
contract - (CON-tract) agreement; (con-TRACT) to shrink or to agree on a project
convert - (CON-vert) one whose belief was changed; (con-VERT) to change one’s belief
converse - (CON-verse) opposite; (con-VERSE) to talk
convict - (CON-ricO prisoner; (con-VICT) to fred guilty
crooked - (CROOKD) bended; (CROOK-ed) bent
deliberate - (de-LIB-er-ate) carefully considered; (de-lib-er-ATE) to consider
desert- (DES-ert) arid region; (de-SERT) to leave; also, something deserved
digest - (DIE-jest) collection of published material; (die-JEST) absorb nutrients
do - (DO0) to accomplish; (DOE) musical note
does - (DUZ) performs; (DOZE) multiple female deer
dove - (rhymes with "love’) a bird; (rhymes with "hove") jumped off
drawer - (DROR) compartment that is opened by pulling out; (DRA W-er) one who draws
ellipses - (ee-LIP-sez) plural of ellipse; (ee-LIP-seez) plural of ellipsis
entrance - (EN-trance) entry way; (en-TRANCE) to captivate
evening - (EVE-ning) the time of day between afternoon and night; (EVE-en-ing) making even
excuse - (EX-cuze) to let someone off; (ex-KYEWSS) justifying explanation
house - (HOWSS) building that serves as living quarters; (HOWZ) to provide with living quarters
incense - (1N-tense) substance that produces a pleasant aroma when burned; (in-CENSE) to anger
intern - (IN-tern) a worker in training; (in-TERN) confine to a prescribed area
invalid - (iN-val-id) someone who is sick or disabled; (in-VAL-id) not valid
laminate - (LAM-in-it) a layered construct; (LAM-in-ATE) to construct by layering
lather - (hard "th") foam or suds; (soft "th") one who installs lath (lattice)
lead - (LEED) to guide; (LED) a metallic element
minute - (MIN-i0 sixty seconds; (my-NOOT) tiny
moderate - (MOD-er-it) not excessive or extreme; (mod-er-ATE) to preside over
mow - (rhymes with "cow") pile of hay stored in a barn; (rhymes with "tow") to cut grass
multiply - (MULT-i-PLY) to perform the mathematical operation of multiplication on; (MULT-i-plee) in
a multiple manner
number - (NUM-ber) a discrete value or quantity; (NUM-mer) more numb
nun - (NUN) women in a religious order; (NOON) the fourteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet
object- (OB-jecO thing; (ob-JECT) to protest
overhead - (OVE-er-head) operating expenses; also, an overhead projector; (ov-er-HEAD) high; above
the level of the head
pasty- (PAY-stee) like glue; (PASS-tee) meat pie
pate- (PATE)top of the head; (PAT)porcelain paste; (pa-TAY)a minced food
perfect - (PERfect) flawless; (per-FECT) to make flawless
periodic - (PEER-ee-ODD-ic) occasional; (PURE-eye-ODD-ic) an iodine compound
permit - (PER-mit) document giving permission; (per-MIT) to allow
present - (PREZ-ent). gift; (pre-ZENT) to introduce
primer - (PRIHM-er) elementary book; (PRY-mer) undercoat of paint
produce- (PRO-duce) vegetables; (pro-DUCE) bring forth
project - (PRO-ject) task; (pro-JECT) to forecast; also, to show a movie
protest - (PRO-test) an objection; (pro-TEST) to object
pussy - (PUHS-ee) having pus; (POOH-see) kitten
raven - (RAY-yen) a black bird; (RA V-en) hungry
rebel - (REB-el) one who refuses allegiance or opposes O’e-BEL) to refuse allegiance or oppose
record - (REC-ord) a documented account; (re-CORD) to set down to preserve
recreation - (REC-ree-A-shun) entertaining or relaxing pastime; (REE-cree-A-shun) something that is
remade, recreated

http ://rinkworks.com/words/heteronyms.shtml 7/6/2010


Pun wlttl woras: Heteronyms i’age 5 oI 4

refuse- (REF-yoos) garbage; (ref-YOOZ) to deny


relay - (REE-lay) a race in which members of a team take turns racing; 0*ee-LA 1? to lay again; (rih-
LA I? to pass along
repeat - (RE-peat) repeated television show; (re-_PEA T) to perform again
rerun - (RE-run) repeated television show; (re-RUN) to run again
resign - (re-ZINE) to quit; (re-SIGN) to sign again
resume - (ree-ZOOM) to restart; (REH-zoom-ay) document of professional experience
row - (rhymes with "cow") a fight; (rhymes with "tow") a series of objects; also, to propel a boat with
Oars
sake - (SAKE) purpose; (SAH-kee) alcoholic drink
secreted - (SEE-cret-ed) placed out of sight; (see-CREET-ed) emitted
separate - (SEP-ar-ATE) to set apart; (SEP-reO not joined together
sewer - (SOE-wer) one who sews; (SO0-wer) channel for human waste
slough - (rhymes with "tough") outer layer or covering that is shed; (rhymes with "cow’S) a hole filled
with deep mud or mire; (rhymes with "through") a marsh
sow - (rhymes with "cow ’) a pig; (rhymes with "tow") to plant seed
subject - (SUB-ject) the theme; also, one ruled by another; (sub-JECT) to force upon
suspect - (SUS-pect) one suspected of a crime; (sus-PECT) to have suspicion
tear - (TARE) to rip; (TEER) a drop of the clear liquid emitted by the eye
unionized - (Y-OON-yon-ized) belonging to a union; (un-I-on-ized) not converted into ions
wind - (rhymes with ’find") to coil up; (WINNED) moving air
wound - (WOOND) to injure; (WOWND) coiled up

Sometimes a word changes meaning and pronunciation based on whether the first letter is capitalized or not.
Since the only difference in the way the words are written is capitalization, these words are also heteronyms:

Ares - (AIRS, lower case) multiple units of 100 square meters; (AIR-eez, capitalized) the Greek god of
war
August - (au-GUST, lower case) important; (A U-gust, capitalized) the eighth month of the year
Embarrass - (em-BAR-rass, lower case) mortify; (A UM-bro, capitalized) a river in eastern Illinois
Ewe - (YO0, lower case) a female sheep; (AY-way, capitalized) a member of a people inhabiting
southeast Ghana, southern Togo, and southern Benin.
Job - (JOBB, lower case) task or position of employment; (JOBE, capitalized) the author of one of the
books of the Bible
Lima - (LIE-ma, lower case) a type of bean; (LEE-ma, capitalized) the capital of Peru
Magdalen - (MAG-da-len, lower case) a reformed prostitute; (MA UD-len) a college in Oxford
Male - (MAIL, lower case) of, relating to, or designating the sex that has organs to produce spermatozoa
for fertilizing ova; (MAH-lee, capitalized) the capital of the Maldives
Natal - (’NATE-al, lower case) relating to one’s birth; (na-TAHL, capitalized) a region of southeast
Africa; also, a city in northeast Brazil
Nice - ~ICE, lower case) pleasant; (NEECE, capitalized) a city in France
Polish- (PALL-ish, lower case) shine; (POE-lish, capitalized) from Poland
Rainier - (RANE-ee-er, lower case) more rainy; (ray-NEER, capitalized) a volcanic peak in Washington
Reading - (REED-ing, lower case) observing and comprehending written words; (RED-ing, capitalized)
a borough in south-central England
Worms - (WERMS, lower case) plural of worm; (VORMS, capitalized) a city in southwest Germany

Back to Fun l’Vith ~Vords.

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Word Bank of 200 High-Frequency Writing Words
The words in this word bank are listed in the order of their frequency of use in everyday
writing. Since the is the most frequentlyused word in our language, its number is one in
the word bank. The first 25 words are used in 33% of everyday writing, the first 100
words appear in 50% of adult and student writing, and the first 1,000 words are used in
89% of everyday writing.
Word List from Sitton Spelling Sourcebook Series by Egger Publishing, Inc.
201 feet
1 the 202 land 401 round 601 shape 801 sell 1001 police
2 of 203 side 402 dark 602 eight 802 wire 1002 consider
3 and 204 without 403 past 603 edge 803 rose 1003 dozen
4a 205 boy 404 ball 604 soft 804 cotton 1004 baseball
5 to 206 once 405 girl 605 village 805 spoke 1005 robber
6 in 207 animal 406 road 606 object 806 rope 1006 symbol
208 life 407 blue 807 age 807 fear 1007 support
8 you 209 enough 408 instead i608 minute 808 shore 1008 exactly
9 that 210 took 409 either i609 wall 809 throughout t009 industry
10 it 211 four 410 held 610 meet 810 compare 1010 they’re
11 he 212 head 411 already i611 record 811 movement 1011 beneath
12 for 213 above 412 warm 612 copy 812 exercise 1012 laugh
13 was 214 kind 413 gone 613 forest 813 bread 1013 groceries
14 on 215 began 414 finally 614 especially 814 process 1014 popular
15 are 216 almost 415 summer 615 necessary 815 nature 1015 thank
16 as 217 live 416 understand 616 he’s 816 apart 1016 quarter
17 with 218 page 417 moon 617 unit 817 path 1017 climbed
18 his 219 got 418 animals 618 flat 818 careful 1018 continue
19 they 220 earth 419 mind 619 direction 819 narrow 1019 potatoes
20 at 221 need 420 outside 620 south 820 mental 1020 receive
21 be 222 far 421 power 621 subject 821 nine 1021 design
22 this 223 hand 422 problem 622 skin 822 useful 1022 president
23 from 224 high 423 longer 623 wasn’t 823 public 1023 charge
24 I 225 year 424 winter 624 I’ve 824 according 1024 mistake
25 have 226 mother 425 deeP 625 yellow 825 steel 1025 hospital
26 or 227 light 426 heavy 626 party 826 salt 1026 remain
27 by 228 country 427 carefully 627 force 827 speech 1027 service
28 one 229 father 428 follow 628 test 828 forth 1028 increase
29 had 230 let 429 beautiful 629 bad 829 nation 1029 students
30 not 231 night 430 everyone 630 temperature 830 knowledge 1030 insects
31 but 232 picture 431 leave 631 pair 831 appear 1031 address
32 what 233 being 432 everything 632 ahead 832 ate 1032 sincerely
33 all 234 study 433 game 633 wrong 833 dinner 1033 dollars
34 were 235 second 434 system 634 practice 834 hurt 1034 belong
35 when 236 soon 435 bring 635 sand 835 spend 1035 bottle
36 we 237 story 436 watch 636 tail 836 experiment 1036 flight
37 there 238 since 437 shell 637 wait 837 touch 1037 forget
38 can 239 white 438 dry 638 difficult 838 drop 1038 bicycle
39 an 240 ever 439 within 639 general 839 chair 1039 secret
40 your 241 paper 440 floor 640 cover 840 east 1040 soldier
41 which 242 hard 441 ice 641 material 841 separate 1041 silent
42 their 243 near 442 ship 642 isn’t 842 truck 1042 structure
43 said 244 sentence 443 themselves 643 thousand 843 sing 1043 height
44 if 245 better 444 begin 644 sign 844 column 1044 observe
45 do 246 best 445 fact 645 guess 845 twice 1045 indicate
46 will 247 across 446 third 646 forward 846 particular 1046 railroad
47 each 248 during 447 quite 647 huge 847 shop 1047 knife
48 about 249 today 448 carry 648 ride 848 unless 1048 married
49 how 250 however 449 distance 649 region 849 spot 1049 suggested
50 up 251 sure 450 although 650 nor 850 neither 1050 entered
51 out 252 knew 451 sat 651 period 85t met 1051 magazine
52 them 253 it’s 452 possible 652 blood 852 wheel 1052 agree

http://sch~~~~e~ps~k~2~mi.us/d~n~ey/c~assr~~ms/berry/sitt~n-spe~~ing-activities/4thgrade-sp~.~ 7/6/2010
53 then 254 try 453 heart 653 rich 853 none 1053 fifty
54 she 255 told ,454 real 654 team 854 hill 1054 escape
55 many 256 young 455 simple 655 corner 855 television 1055 threw
56 some 257 sun ,456 snow 656 cat 856 bill 1056 planet
57 so 258 thing 457 rain 657 amount 857 solve 1057 dangerous
58 these 259 whole 458 suddenly 658 garden 858 pressure 1058 event
59 would 260 heai- 459 easy 659 led 859 report 1059 leader
60 other 261 example 460 leaves 660 note 860 farmer 1060 peace
61 into 262 heard 461 lay 661 various 861 count 1061 spelling
62 has 263 several 462 size 662 race 862 trade 1062 chapter
63 more 264 change 463 wild 663 bit 863 chief 1063 swimming
64 her 265 answer 464 weather 664 result 864 month 1064 opportunity
65 two 266 room 465 miss 665 brother 865 clothes 1065 immediately
66 like 267 sea 466 pattern 666 addition 866 doctor 1066 favorite
67 him 268 against 467 sky 667 doesn’t 867 indeed 1067 settled
68 see 269 top 468 walked 668 dead 868 dance 1068 telephone
69 time 270 turned 469 main 669 weight 869 church 1069 repeat
70 could 271 learn. 470 someone 670 thin 870 original 1070 prepare
71 no 272 point 471 center 671 stone 871 enjoy 1071 instance
72 make 273 city 472 field 672 hit 872 string 1072 avenue
73 than 274 play 473 stay 673 wife 873 sister 1073 newspaper
74 first 275 toward 474 itself 674 island 874 familiar 1074 actually
75 been 276 five 475 boat 675 we’ll 875 onto 1075 employee
76 its 277 himself 476 question i676 opposite 876 imagine 1076 review
77 who 278 usually 477 wide 677 born 177 blow 1077 convince
78 now 279 money 478 least 678 sense 878 quick 1078 allowed
79 people 280 seen 479 tiny 679 cattle ~79 law 1079 nobody
80 my 281 didn’t 480 hour 680 million 880 lie 1080 details
81 made 282 car 481 happened 681 anyone 881 final 1081 muscles
82 over 283 morning 482 foot 682 rule 882 rise 1082 model
83 did 284 I’m 483 care 683 science ~83 loud 1083 climate
84 down 285 body 484 low 684 afraid 884 fair
85 only 286 upon 485 else 685 women 885 herself 1084whenever
085 coffee
86 way 287 family 486 gold 686 produce 886 slow 1086 serious
87 find 288 later 487 build 687 pull 887 noise 1087 angle
88 use 289 turn 488 glass 688 son 888 statement 1088 feather
89 may 290 move 489 rock 689 meant 889 hungry 1089 determined
90 water 291 face 490 tall 690 broken 890 join 1090 dictionary
91 long 292 door 491 alone 691 interest 891 tube 1091 ordinary
92 little 293 cut 492 bottom 692 chance 892 rode 1092 extra
93 very 294 done 493 check 693 thick 893 empty 1093 rough
94 after 295 group 494 reading 694 sight 894 twenty 1094 library
95 words 296 true 495 fall 695 pretty 895 broke 1095 condition
96 called 297 half 496 poor 696 train 896 nice 1096 arrived
97 just 298 red 497 map 697 fresh 897 effect 1097 located
98 where 299 fish 498 friend 698 drive 898 paid 1098 program
99 most 300 plants 499 language 699 lead 899 motion 099 pencil
100 know 301 living 500 job 700 break 900 myself 100 tongue
101 get 302 black 501 music 701 sit 901 divide 101 title
102 through 303 eat 502 buy 702 bought 902 supply 1102 enemy
103 back 304 short 503 window 703 radio 903 laid 1103 garage
104 much 305 United 504 mark 704 method 904 dear 1104 lose
105 go States 505 heat 705 king 905 surprise 1105 vegetable
106 good 306 run 506 grew 706 similar 906 gun 1106 parents
107 new 307 book 507 listen 707 return 907 entire 1107 style
108 write 308 gave 508 ask 708 corn 908 fruit 1108 education
109 our 309 order 509 single 709 decide 909 crowd 1109 required
110 me 310 open 510 clear 710 position 910 band 1110 political
111 man 311 ground 511 energy 711 bear 911 wet 1111 daughter
112 too 312 cold 512 week 712 hope 912 solid 1112 individual
113 any 313 really 513 explain 7!3 song 913 northern 1113 progress
114 day 314 table 514 lost 714 engine 914 flower 1114 altogether
115 same 315 remember 515 spring 715 board 915 star 1115 activities
116 right 316 tree 516 travel 716 control 916 feed 1116 article
117 look 317 course 517 wrote 717 spread 917 wooden 1117 equipment

http://sch~e~ps~k~2~mi~us/d~n~ey/c~assr~ms/ben~/sitt~n-spe~ing-activities/4thgrade-sp~ 7/6/2010
Word Bank of 1200 High t’age _~ ot 4

118 think 1318 front 518 farm 718 evening 918 sort 1118 discuss
119 also 319 American 519 circle 719 brown 919 develop 1119 healthy
120 around 320 space 520 whose 720 clean 920 shoulder 1120 perfect
121 another 321 inside 521 correct 721 wouldn’t 921 variety 1121 recognize
122 came 322 ago 522 bed 722 section 922 season 1122 frequently
123 come 323 sad 523 measure 723 spent 923 share 1123 character
124 work 324 early 524 straight 724 ring 924 jump 1124 personal
125 three ~25 I’ll 525 base 725 teeth 925 regular 1125 disappear
126 must 326 learned 526 mount~in 726 quiet 926 represent 1126 success
127 because 327 brought 527 caught 727 ancient 927 market 1127 traffic
128 does 328 close 528 hair 728 stick 928 we’re 1128 yesterday
129 part 329 nothing 529 bird 729 afternoon 929 flew 1129 situation
130 even 330 though 530 wood 730 silver 930 finger 1130 realize
131 place 331 idea 531 color 731 nose 931 expect 1131 message
132 well 332 before 532 war 732 century 932 army 1132 recently
133 such 333 lived 533 fly 733 therefore 933 cabin 1133 account
134 here 334 became 534 yourself 734 level 934 camp 1134 physical
135 take 335 add 535 seem 735 you’ll 935 danger 1135 neighbor
136 why . 336 become 536 thus 736 death 936 purpose 1136 excited
137 help 337 grow 537 square 737 hole 937 breakfast 1137 whisper
138 put 338 draw 538 moment 738 coast 938 proper 1138 available
139 different 339 yet 539 teacher 739 cross 939 coat 1139 college
140 away 340 less 540 happy 740 sharp 940 push 1140 furniture
141 again 341 wind 541 bright 741 fight 941 express 1141 leather
142 off 342 behind 542 sent 742 capital 942 shot 1142 husband
143 went 343 cannot 543 present 743 fill 943 angry 1143 principal
144 old ;344 letter 544 plan 744 deal 944 southern 1144 medicine
145 number 345 among 545 rather 745 busy 945 dress 1145 excellent
146 great 346 able 546 length 746 beyond 946 bag 1146 operation
147 tell 347 dog 547 speed 747 send 947 proud 1147 council
148 men 348 shown 548 machine 748 love 948 neck 1148 author
149 say 349 mean 549 information 749 cool 949 breath 1149 organize
150 small 350 English 550 except 750 cause 950 strength 1150 concern
151 every 351 rest 551 figure 751 please 951 member 115t barbecue
152 found 352 perhaps 552 you’re 752 meat 952 twelve 1152 accident
153 still 353 certain 553 free 753 lady 953 mine 1153 disease
154 between 354 six 554 fell 754 west 954 company 1154 construction
155 mane 355 feel 555 suppose 755 glad 955 current 1155 motor
156 should 356 fire 556 natural 756 action 956 pound 1156 affect
157 home 357 ready 557 ocean 757 pass 957 valley 1157 conversation
158 big 358 green 558 government 758 type 958 double 1158 evidence
159 give 359 yes 559 baby 759 attention 959 till 1159 citizen
160 air 360 built 560 grass 760 gas 960 match 1160 environment
161 line :361 special 561 plane 761 kitchen 961 average 1161 influence
162 set 362 ran 562 street 762 pick 962 die 1162 cancel
163 own 363 full 563 couldn’t 763 scale 963 liquid 1163 audience
164 under 364 town 564 reason 764 basic 964 alive 1164 apartment
165 read 365 complete 565 difference 765 happen 965 stream 1165 worse
166 last 366 oh 566 maybe 766 safe 966 provide 1166 transportation
167 never 367 person 567 history 767 grown 967 drink 1167 frozen
168 us 368 hot 568 mouth 768 cost 968 experience 1168 waste
169 left 369 anything 569 middle 769 wear 969 future 1169 couple
170 end 370 hold 570 step 770 act 970 tomorrow 1170 function
171 along ~71 state 571 child 771 hat 971 drove 1171 connect
172 while 372 list 572 strange 772 arm 972 population 1172 project
173 might 373 stood 573 wish 773 believe 973 finish 1173 pronounce
174 next ~74 hundred 574 soil 774 major 974 station 1174 offered
175 sound 375 ten 575 human 775 gray 975 shook 1175 apply
176 below 376 fast 576 trip 776 wonder 976 stage 1176 improve
177 saw 377 felt 577 woman 777 include 977 oxygen 1177 stomach
178 something 378 kept 578 eye 778 describe 978 poem 1178 collect
179 thought 379 notice 579 milk 779 electric 979 solution 1179 prevent
180 both 380 can’t 580 choose 780 sold 980 burn 1180 courage
181 few 381 strong 581 north 781 visit 981 cent 1181 occur
182 those 382 voice 582 seven 782 sheep 982 electricity 1182 foreign

http://sch~~~~e~ps~k~2~mi~us/d~n~ey/c~assr~~ms/berry/sitt~n-spe~~ing-activities/4thgrade-sp~~. 7/6/2010
word ban~ ol izuu Hlgn rage

183 always 383 probably 583 famous 783 I’d 983 everybody 1183 quality
184 show 384 area 584 late 784 office 984 rate 1184 terrible
185 large 385 horse 585 pay 785 row 985 dust 1185 instrument
186 often 386 matter 586 sleep 786 contain 986 worth 1186 balance
187 together 387 stand 587 iron 787 fit 987 community 1187 ability
188 asked 388 box 588 trouble 788 equal 988 captain 1188 arrange
189 house 389 start 589 store 789 value 989 bus 1189 rhythm
190 don’t 390 that’s 590 beside 790 yard 990 protect 1190 avoid
191 world 391 class 591 oil 791 beat 991 cook 1191 daily
192 going 392 piece 592 modern 792 inch 992 raise 1192 identity
193 want 393 surface 593 fun 793 sugar 993 further 1193 standard
194 school 394 river 594 catch 794 key 994 steam 1194 combine
195 important 395 common 595 business 795 product 995 guide 1195 attached
196 until 396 stop 596 reach 796 desert 996 discover 1196 frighten
197 form 397 am 597 lot 797 bank 997 plain 1197 social
198 food 398 talk 598 won’t 798 farther 998 usual 1198 factory
199 keep 399 whether 599 case 799 won 999 seat 1199 license
200 children 400 fine 800 speak 800 total 1000 accept 1200 recommend

http://sch~~~~e~ps~k12:mi~us/d~n~ey/c~assr~~ms/ben7/sitt~n~spe~~ing-activities/4thgrade-sp~~~ 7/6/2010
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word Grd Recognizes as Sight Word Spells Indep. I Uses Indep. in Sign or Print

measure
everything
isn’[
century
kitchen
~dng
cause
island
led

lady
level
capital
control
break
evening
broken
material
brown
necessary
love
key
cattle
million
minute
brother
lead
thin
team
tail
test

direction
sold
sense
send
teeth
temperature
attention
subject
stone
song

spread
doesn’t
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word Grd Recognizes as Sight Word I Spells Indep. I Uses Indep. in Sign or Print t ,,,

south 620
sugar

son
bad
spent
busy
he’s
happen
contain
clean
farther
h~
inch
include

h~
hole

born
blood
board
equal
cool
nose
object
especially
bought
nor
office
note
hope
garden
gas
general
grown
guess
glad
method
meant
major
interest
meat
meet
force
forest
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word Grd I Recognizes as Sight Word Spells Indep. Uses Indep. in Sign or Print
forward
huge
I’d
coast
fight
fresh
gray
flat
fill

3ick
3eriod
record
various
safe
return
dng
pass
party
region
result
copy
visit
village
wait
total
amount
decide
death
value
dead
wasn’t
wall
deal

edge
3air
comer
31ease
eight
pretty
row
beyond
rule
opposite
bit
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word tFreq. Grd 1 Recognizes as Sight Word Spells Indep. Uses Indep. in Sign or Print
engine 714
pull 687
believe 773
product 795
ride 648
com 708
electric 779
produce 686
practice 634
position 710
662
radio 703
quiet 726
ancient 727
ba~;ic 764
cost 768
sign 644
soft 604
skin 622
sheep 782
afternoon 729
addition 666
action 756
sight 694
thousand 643
afraid 684
-scale 763
sand 635
science 683
beat 791
shape 601
bear 711
bank 797
similar 706
701
section 722
drive 698
sharp 740
wife 673
wouldn’t 721
we’ll 675
desert 796
won 799
770
wrong 633
type 758
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word t Grd Recognizes as Sight Word Spells Indep. Uses Indep. in Sign or Print

--
anyone 681
--
difficult
--
train
--
describe
unit
--

--
age
west
--

--
women
--
weight
wear
--
ahead
you’ll
--
cover
--
wonder
--
yellow
--
yard
cross
--

--
effect
--
raise
--
population
salt
--

--
nation
--
nature
--
breakfast
--
none
--
drove
--
drop
--
neck
--
quick
--
nice
--
burn
--
match
--
push
--
season
--
seat
--
drink
--
purpose
--
dress
--
market
--
bus
--
sell
--
public
--
farmer
--
tomorrow
--
die
--
useful
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word I Grd Recognizes as Sight Word Spells Indep. Uses Indep. in Sign or Print
valley 957
coat
angry
count
particular
hill

path
usual
dear
twenty
twelve
entire
unless
paid
gun
oxygen
guide
clothes
twice
variety
northem
cabin
camp
cook
exercise
share
shook
bread
provide
neither
shop
shore
lie
separate
loud
protect
proper
proud
poem
shot
captain
pressure
shoulder
liquid
process
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word Grd Recognizes as Sight Word I Spells Indep. Uses Indep. in Sign or Print
represent
east
report
month
everybody
nine
regular
dse
pound
mine
rode
motion
rope
rose
noise
met
movement
broke
myself
breath
dust
narrow
mental
member
rate
solution
express
bag
double
electricity
solve
law
indeed
supply
experiment
band
solid
sing
jump
spot
cotton
star
station
statement
slow
careful
1200 High Frequency Wrliting Words
Word I Freq. t Recognizes as Sight Word Spells Tndep. I Uses Tndep. in Sign or Print
sister 873
stage
experience
expect
steam
chief
chair
apart
empty
cent
dinner
doctor
..

stream
hurt
strength
stdng
steel
average
divide
television
familiar
appear
fair
hungry
imagine
army
ate
discover
surprise
finish
accept
final
company
forth
original
enjoy
~w
finger
according
worth.
wire
touch
church
trade
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word l Freq. Grd Recognizes as Sight Word Spells Indep. 1Uses Indep. in Sign or Print
tube

compare
crowd
flower
herself
fear
wooden
speech
southern
spoke
dance
danger
throughout
plain
knowledge
join
spend
sort
laid
further
blow
feed
column
we’re
wet
future
community
current
wheel
alive
onto

settled
escape
beneath
balance
laugh
spelling
silent
barbecue
excited
knife
employee
lose
dozen
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word Freq. Grd l Recognizes as Sight Word Spells Indep. Uses Indep. in Sign or Print
threw
apartment
charge
hospital
potatoes
title
exactly
located

nobody
suggested
excellent
instance
insects
influence
coundl
structure
political
success
students
style
avenue
individual
indicate
evidence
library
.leader
bottle
~ituation
sincerely
license
leather
baseball
service

social
planet
symbol
author
available
disappear
popular
swimming
improve
immediately
audience
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word Freq. I Grd Recognizes as Sight Word I Spells Indep. Uses Indep. in Sign or Print
support
increase
disease
thank
factory
chapter
telephone
discuss
terrible
peace
arrange
article
attached
identity
observe
arrived
conversation
convince
apply

dictionary
review
message
husband
they’re
occur
rough
rubber
citizen
character
model
t-6-~u e
perfect
medicine
pencil
environment
mistake
traffic
rhythm
angle
continue
yesterday
neighbor
parents
climate
remain
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word Recognizes as Sight Wor’d I Spells Zndep. t Uses "rndep. in Sign or’ Pr’int
enemy
determined
connect
required
prevent
opportunity
ability
.activities
address
progress
project
garage
entered
organize
foreign
accident
climbed
concem
dangerous
agree
recently
receive
actually
vegetable
education
muscles
operation
recognize
favorite
condition
altogether
recommend
frequently
design
details
repeat
height
courage
healthy
principal
event
president
motor
newspaper
realize
waste
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
Word Fr~. Grd l Recognizes as Sight Word Spells Indep. Uses Indep. in Sign or Print
college 1139
collect
personal
secret
offered
program
combine
railroad
daughter
frozen
allowed
married
police
standard
extra
industry
magazine
dollars
instrument
avoid
equipment
physical
serious
stomach
fifty
quarter
belong
whenever
ordinary
quality
daily
fumiture
prepare
.whisper
affect
function
coffe.e.
couple
flight
frighten
account
bicycle
forget
construction
consider
groceries
1200 High Frequency Writing Words
.Word I Freq. Grd Recognizes as Sight Word I Spells Indep. Uses Indep. in Sign or Print
pronounce 1173 8
feather 1088 8
worse 1165 8
Multiple Meaning Words

Say fhis: "Many words can have completely different meanings. The
meanings change depending on how they’re used in a sentence."

Use as examples:
- A cold can be how you feel, or it can be something you catch.
- A watch can be something you wear, or it can be something
you do.

Add this: "These words can be confusing because you might think they
mean one thing, but they actually mean something else. Context cues
help us figure out which meaning is correct.".

Provide examples of usingcontext:


- If l say, "My watch is broken," am I talking about something I
wear on my wrist or something I do with my eyes? We know that
I’m talking about something on my wrist because of the context
cue word, broken.
Ask for review: "Can you think of some multiple meaning words? Park is
one. It can be something you do with a car or a place you can go to have
fun. There are lots of others. Trip can be falling over something. What else
t...,.!,~ll I II U~? k~,L..,ll I y~u IIIIIl~ UI VIII~I IIIUIII~I~ II1~11111~ YVOl~b?

Quick DrBI
multiple meaning words in the following sentences:
I bought a stamp
at the post office. The volume on the She could sense
They always stamp television was too that I was upset.
their feet at the loud. Hearing is one of
pep rally. There was a high the most important
volume of traffic senses.
the ball back to on the interstate.
The internet is
the pitcher. There is a lot of flooded with news
He would give a interest in my stories and gossip.
stranger the shirt sister’s art work. Heavy rains
off his back. The money in my flooded the valley.
...O..a.e...sh.Q.u.I.da.’..t..pe.f savings account is
earning some Fresh produce is
mean dogs. an important
interest.
I’m not sure what dietary staple in
you mean by that The man with the many countries.
sentence. cold bought a box Our instructions
My cousin owns of fissue. were to produce a
two pet dogs and There is a lot of book report and
two pet cats. tissue in the staple the finished
-human body. aaaes toaether.
Data Sheet Multiple Meaning Words

Receptive E×pressive
Date of Birth
ID Provide one Provide
ID in incorrect definition when two
~ use given another definitions
Pre-Acadernic
back, park, bat, pet, stamp, hit, roll, top, mean,
mind, ring, rock, stick, wave, bark, pitcher, can,
shake, saw, foot, fall, punch, run, trip
others:

¯ Early E~ementary
bright, light, story, cover, ruler, freeze, side, letter,
line, model, change, scale, odd, even, solid, past,
present, pole, direction, check, point, order, capital,
state, checker, spring, match, draw, seal, bank,
key, force, motion, right, state, character, property,
cycle, border, solution, season, volume, tense,
period, table, inch, degree, clear, second
others:

Late Elementa~
edge, draft, angle, plot, rate, source, court, settle,
organ, credit, atmosphere, report, friction, front,
negative, reason, sense, flood, judge, plane,
interest, depression, product, staple, raise, current,
tip, school, produce, party, film, motion
others:

Advanced
crop, constitution, base, gravity, formula, tissue,
pitch, view, mood, value, market, volume, interest
others:
Multiple Meaning Words

Acfivifies Example Sfafemenfs


Find jokes, such as knock-knock Why are fish so smart?
jokes, or others with multiple Because they live in schools.
Activity meaning words. Look on the What did the dog yell at
internet or in joke books. ]~alk the tree?
about the source of humor. Bark-Bark!
Practice using a dictionary. According to the dictionary,
Find definitions of words with run can mean "to rapidly move
multiple meanings, or try to find one’s legs," or "whata nose
words with multiple meanings does during a cold," or... etc.
on random pages.

Recepfive
~denfify multiple meaning words - Use written sentences containing
multiple meaning words. Ask, "Which word can mean something else?"
For example, "The bark is falling off the tree."
~denfify incorrect usage- Use written sentences containing incorrect
usage of multiple meaning words. Ask, ’Why is this sentence incorrect?"
For example, "The boy grew an extra foot below his knee."
Expressive
Define one - Give one definition of a multiple meaning word. Ask for a
second definition. For example, "One definition of the word ’constitution’
describes a person’s health. What else can constitution mean?"
Define two - Ask for two definitions of a multiple meaning word. For
example, ask, "What are two meanings of the word stick?"

Eugene will identify another meaning of functional multiple meaning words when
given one meaning.
Charlotte will identify two meanings of age appropriate multiple meaning words.
Dayton will provide one definition of age appropriate multiple meaning words
when given another definition.
Pierre will provide two definitions of age appropriate multiple meaning words.

N~cflching card activity - Cards may be pasted onto construction paper or


other opaque surface. Then cut out, turn over, and instruct students to
take turns trying to find matches, exposing two cards per turn. Students
may create additional cards with words specific to them. For home
practice, send matching card papers home. Instruct student to write a
multiple meaning word below each card.
Create a list or matching words with students help. Draw a blank line at
bottom with the word "Signature" next to it. At the top write, "Directions:
Zig Zags Multiple Meaning Words
Directions- Draw lir~es connecting each multiple
meaning word fo two descriptions.

Multiple
Meaning Words

the end of a long


an amount below zero
tip object, like a pencil

the mixture of gas used to wipe a nose


credit
surrounding Earth
used to make
produce purchases with
electrical energy flow
promise of payment

a bit of advice negative the feeling of a


particular situation
fruit, especially from a tissue
store to make something

staple a river’s flow


a small metal object
used to fasten paper the main food source
atmosphere
for a group
letting _others know
who’s responsible current something bad, like a
feeling or reaction
Words with Multiple Meanings
(C) Stop and Think About It! 2001

accent account ace act add address


advance age air alarm applicati~l~ ask
associate attention average atmosphere
baby back bail balance band bar
bare base bat batter bear bearing
beat bed behind bill bit bite
blaze blind block blow bluff board
body bolt bond bore bottom bound
bow box brace brand brush buckle
bum button cabinet cable cake call
cap capital cardinal cart case cast
cause cement center chain chamber chance
change charge charter check chip choice
chorus circle circuit clash claw clear
club coat code colony column compact
compass condition conduct cool copy cord
course court crack crane credit crest
crop cross crown cry culture cure
current cushion cut dab dash date
dead deal deck decoy degree deposit
design detail dial diamond die dip
direct double draft draw dress drop
dry element entry even excuse express
eye face fair fall family fan
fast fault feature feel fence field
figure file fill filter find finish
fit fix flare fiat flight flock
flop flush focus foil follow foot
force forge foul frame free
front fund fuse gag game
gauge gear general get give grade
grain ground gutter
habit hail hall hand harbor hard
head heart heel help hit hitch
hold ]hollow home hood hook horn
house hull ice inflate interest iron
issue jack jam j ar jingle join
joint judge jump junior keep key

http ://www.netrox.net/Mabush!WrdMultMn.html
kick kill king knock knot land
lark last launch law lead league
leave let level lick lie life
light line litter live load lock
lodge long look lot low mad
make mark mask master imat matter
mean meet melt mess mind mine
minor minute miss mix model mold
motion mount move
name natural near need needle negative
nest net neutral nose note notice
number nurse object odd open operate
order organ outfit
pace pack pad page palm panel
paper park part particular party pass
patch pay peak peel peep
pick picture piece pile pin pinch
pipe pit pitch place plain plane
plate play plot plug point pool
pore positive post pound power practice
preserve press pressure pride print project
pump punch push put
quarter race raise ram range rank
rare rate rattle reach read ready
reason record reel reference reflect register
relief reserve resource respect rest retain
return reverse review ride rig right
ring rise rock roll root rope
rough round run
safe sail saw scale school score
scrape scratch screen seal season senior
send service set settle shade
shaft shake shape sharp sheet shield
ship shock short shot shoulder show
shower side sight sign sink sit
skate skin skip slide slip slow
slug smart smooth snap soft soil
sole solid sound space spell spin
spirit spot spread spring square squash
squeeze stab stage stagger stake stalk

http://www.netrox.net/Mabush/WrdMultMn.html
stamp stand staple state station steady
stem stern stick stiff still stir
stock stone strike string strip stroke
stuff subject suit support suspend sweep
switch system
table tackle tag take tap taste
tear temple tend tender tense thread
tick tie tight time title toast
touch trace track trade trail train
trip turn
unit upset use vein vision voice
walk ward warrant wash watch wave
wax way wear web well will
wind word work wound
(C) Stop and Think About It! 2001

http ://www.netrox.net/Nlabush!WrdMultMn.html
Prefixes are word parts added to the beginning of a root or
base word to create a new meaning.

fore~thersi forefront
Suffixes are combinations of letters (such as-ance) or single letters
(such as -s) added to the end of base words or word parts. What
follows is a sampling of common suffixes. Note the parts of speech
they indicate and the examples of words that use them.
Knowi
you fi

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Knov~ing the meanings of common Greek and Latin roots can help
you figure out the meanings of dozens of related words.
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Prefix & Suffix Dictionary


Use these prefixes and suffixes throughout the unit. Then make copies for students.

PRERXES
A prefix is added to the beginning of a base orroot word to change its meaning.

Prefix/Meaning
anti/against, opposite
bi/two
co/together
dis/the opposite of extra- beyond
im/not
mid/middle
mis/wrong
m u Iti/m a n y
over/too much
pre/before
re/back, again
sem i/half
un/not, reverse of
under/below

SUFFIXES
A suffix is added to the end of a base word to change its meaning orpartofspeech.

Noun Suffix/Meaning
-ance, -ence/state of being
-ant, -ent, -er, -or, -ian, -ist/one who
-ion, -tion/act of, result of
-m ent/act of
-ness/quality of being

Adjective Suffix/Meaning
-able, -ible/able to be
-er/more
-est/most
-ive, -ous, -y/having the quality of
-is h/like
-ful/full of
-less/does n’t have

Adverb Suffix/Meaning
-ly, -fully, -wise/in the manner of

Verb Suffix/Meaning
-ate, -ify, -ize/m ake or do
-ing/in the process of doing

Close

...scholastic.com/.../prefixdictionary.htm 1/::[
NameI Date
GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

ost Common Prefixes

anti- against antifreeze


de- opposite defrost
dis-* not, opposite of disagree
en-, era- cause to encode, embrace
fore- before forecast
in-, ira- in infield
in-, im-, i|-, it-* not injustice, impossible
inter- between interact
mid- middle midway
mis- wrongly misfire
non- not nonsense
over- over overlook
pre- before prefix
re-* again return
semi- half semicircle
sub- under submarine
super- above superstar
trans- across transport
un-* not unfriendly
under- under undersea
*Most frequent. The four most frequent prefixes account for 97 percent of prefixed
words in printed school English.

From Teaching Reading Sourcebook: For Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade by Bill Honig, Linda Diamond, and Linda Gutlohn. © 2000 by CORE.
Reproduced by permission of Arena Press.

~ c2 ar 104 commpre
NameI DateI
GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

Most Common Suffixes

-able, -ible can be done comfortable


-al, -ial having p.ersonal
characteristics of
-ed* past-tense verbs hopped
-en made of wooden
-er comparative higher
=er, one who worker, actor
-est comparative biggest
-ful full of careful
-ic having linguistic
characteristics of
-ing* verb form/ running
present participle
-ion,-tion, act, process occasion, attraction
-ation, ition
-ity, -ty state of infinity
-ive, -ative, -itive adjective form plaintive
of a noun
-less without fearless
-ly* characteristic of quickly
-ment action or process enjoyment
-hess state of, condition of kindness
-ous, -eous,-ious possessing the joyous
qualities of
-s, -es* more than one books, boxes
-y characterized by happy
*Most frequent. The four most frequent suffixes account for 97 percent of suffixed
words in printed school English.

From Teaching Reading Sourcebook: For Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade by Bill Honig, Linda Diamond, and Linda Gutlohn. © 2000 by CORE.
Reproduced by permission of Arena Press.

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6128/20:1.0 Greek and Latin Root Words

Greek ~nd Latin Roo~ Words*

Meaning English Words

arch chief, primary or firstll archetype


archaeo ancient/primitive II archaeology I
aster/astra star !1 astronomy
°°~ hear !1 audible

derm skin II dermatologist

dic/dict speak dictionary


!1
~°~ carry II transfer
fix fasten ll affix

geo earth II geography

graph write !1 graphic

herb plants l~ ~ herbaceous


hydro water II hydrate
jur/just law jury

iog/Iogue word/thought dialogue

luc light~ I lucid

manu II hand II ~aooo,


meter/metr measure thermometer
!1 II
oo~ II oo II negate

ocu eye ocular


II II
olig few oligarchy
!1 II

o~,~o i!l bo~ ~ o~opo~

awrsd.org/.../greek_and_latin_root_wo... 1/4
6/28/2010 Greek and Latin Root Words
phys body/nature physical
II !1
pod II ~=oo~-ii podiatrist
proto II first II ~-,-o~,,~
¯ pseudo
scrib/script ~l ~r~ ~l ~r~l~
sect
sol

I struct

I tact

I tele II far o~ II
I ter/terr
vac

ver

I verb -~ II ~r~a~
I vid/vis

Greek arid L~n Prefixes- /- Suffixes*

Prefix/Suffix /~eaning English Words

ad- addict
maternal
ambi- ambidextrous
ante" antecedent
anti - antifreeze
-arium aquarium

auto - autobiography
centi- centimeter
circum- ci rcumvent

con- concer’l"
depar~

deci- decimeter
di- diameter
dis- opposite disable
-dora quality/state freedom
out

hetero- different heterogeneous


awrsd.org/.../greek_a nd_latin_root_wo... 2/4
6/28/20::[0 Greek and Latin Root Words
hypo- I hypoactive

-Jc I poetic
-ile I juvenile

I invalid

inter- interstate

intra- intramurals

-ism catholicism

-ist biologist

macro- macrobioiogist

micro- I microbiologist

milli- millipede

mis- miscarriage

mono- monotheism
nano- nanosecond

neo- neonatology

-ology biology

omni- omniscient

-OUS nebulous

pan- pantheon
pervade
peri - periscope

poly- polygon

post- postpone
pre- precede

pro- progress
reappear
retro- retrogress

sub- submarine

super- supermarket

sym- symbol

-tion preservation

-ular cellular
unwilling

*Most of these prefixes/suffixes/roots are taken from Mr. Hanno’s unit on Greek roots.

Subject and Reference Resources

awrsdlorg/.../greek_and_latin_root_wo... 3/4
Vocabulary

Word Parts
Root Words
Root Meaning Examples
act do, drive action, transaction, react
aud hear audience, auditorium
auto self .... autohio~raph¥,-automobile ...............................................................
bio ’ life ....... biology, biography
cap take, hold capture, capacity
ced go, yield accede, recede, succeed
civ city, citizen civil, civilian
cord heart accord, discord, concord
costa universe cosmic, cosmopolitan
cred believe credit, incredible, credential
dem people democracy, demagogue
dic say, speak dictator, dictionary, predict, verdict
fac, fec, tic make, do factory, affect, fiction
gen born, birth genesis, generate, genealogy
graph write autograph, paragraph, photograph
hereto- different heterogeneous
homo same homonym ¯
loc place dislocate, local, location
man(u) hand manual, manuscript
mit, miss send permit, mission, missile
ped, pede foot pedal, pedestrian, impede
port carry portable, import, transport
spec look, see, appear spectator, suspect, inspect
tele far away telescope, telegraph, television
tract draw, drag attract, contract, distract, tractor
vert turn aversion, divert, vertical
vid, vis see video, provide, visible
voc call vocal, vocation, revoke

© 2007
Grade 8 R/ELA Curriculum Framework Progress Guide 2007-2008 Prince George’s County Public Schools

Root: aqu/a
iVleaning of root:
Sample words using root: aquarium - a water container for .fish; aquatic- relating to water;
aqueduct - a pipeline for water

auto

autocrat - a person who governs with absolute power; autograph - a person’s own signature; automatic -
moving by itself

bio

biography- a life story written by another person; biology - the science of life; biosphere - Earth’s surface
inhabited by living things

bene

benefactor - person who gives money to a cause; beneficial - producing a good effect; benevolent -
showing kindness or goodwill

capt, cept

intercept - to stop or interrupt; recapture - taking something back; captivating - taking hold of

clar

clarification - an explanation; clarify - to make something clear; declare - to state something clearly

CO

coauthor- writer who collaborates with another author; coeducation - educating males and females
together; cohousing - planning your neighborhood in an intentional neighborly fashion
Grade 8 R/ELA Curriculum Framework Progress Guide 2007-2008 Prince George’s County Public Schools

dec/a, deka

decade - 10 years; decathlon - athletic contest that includes 10 disciplines in which each participant
competes; December - formerly the lOth month of the Roman calendar

dict

contradict - to express the opposite of; prediction - a statement foretelling the future; dictate - to speak
out
duc/t

conduct - to lead musicians in playing music; educate - to lead to knowledge; deduction - a subtraction of
an amount

enn/i, anni

bicentennial - of or relating to an age or period of 200 years; centennial - of or relating to an age or period
of 100 years; perennial -lasting through many years.

fac/t

artifact - an object made by a person; factory - a place where things are made; malefact - a person who
does wrong.

fract, fray

fracture - a break; fragile - easy to break; fragment or fraction - a part or element of a larger whole;

¯ geo

geography - study of the earth’s surface; geology - study of the structure of the earth; geoponics - soil
based agriculture.
Grade 8 R/ELA Curriculum Framework Progress Guide 2007-2008 Prince George’s County Public Schools

hydr/o

hydrate - to add water to; hydrophobia - intense fear of water; hydroponics - growing plants in liquid
nutrient solution; hydraulic - operated by force created by a liquid.

icon/o

icon - an (often religious) image, in modern usage a simplified graphic of high symbolic content; iconology
- science of symbols and icons; iconoclast - someone who destroys religious images and traditional
beliefs.

Jud

judgment- a decision of a court of law; judicial- having to do with judges or courts of law; judiciary - a
system of courts of law.

Kilo

kilobyte- 1,000 bytes; kilometer- 1,000 meter; kilograms - 1,000 grams.

Liber

liberate - to set free; libertine - a person with a free, wild lifestyle; liberty - freedom.

mand

command - an order or instruction; demand - a hard-to-ignore order; mandate - an official order.

noun, nunc

announce - to declare in public; denounce - to proclaim harsh criticism; enunciate - to speak or declare
something clearly.
Grade 8 R/ELA Curriculum Framework Progress Guide 2007-2008 Prince George’s County Public Schools

Ortho

orthodontist - a dentist that straightens teeth; orthopedic - a doctor concerned with the proper alignment
of the bones; orthography - the correct way of writing.

phil/o

philanthropist - one who loves humanity; philology - the love of words; philosophy - the love of wisdom;
bibliophil -loving books.

Quart

quarter, one fourth; quart - a fourth of a gallon; quartet - a musical composition or group involving 4 voices
or instruments.

Rid

deride - to make fun of someone; ridicule - to make fun or mock; ridiculous - silly, causing laughter.

tact, tang

contact - a state in which two things touch; tactile - relating to the sense of touch; tangible - able to be
touched; intact - with nothing missing,

Uni

unicycle - a vehicle with one wheel; unilateral - decided by only one person or nation; unique - the only
one of its kind; unison - as one voice.

Vac

evacuate- to empty a dangerous place; vacant - empty, not occupied; vacation - a time without work.
Grade 8 R/ELA Curriculum Framework Progress Guide 2007-2008 Prince George’s County Public Schools

xedo/I

xerophyte - a plant that grows in dry climate; xerography - a dry photocopying process; xeric - requiring
small amounts of moisture.

zo/o

zoology - study of animals; zooid - resembling an animal; zooplankton - minute floating aquatic animals.