Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

Explanation of causes of soil Erosion

The Chain of Explanation

Sir MushrafTalpur

prepared by:
Mansoor Ali Soomro

Department Of SDSC

MSc Final 2018 in Rural Development (Distance Learning Program)


This presentation is prepared about the chain of explanation regardingsoil erosion.Erosion is the
process by which the surface of the Earth gets worn down. Erosion can be caused by natural
elements such as wind and glacial ice. Soil erosion is second only to population growth as the
biggest environmental problem the world faces and Pakistan’s diverse geography contributes to
the wide varieties in climatic conditions in different agro-ecological zones of the country.In
Sindh, out of total geographical area of 14104 square km, 5.7 million hector land is cultivated,
which is rapidly degrading leading to decline in agriculture product and seriously affecting the
livelihood of rural communities.. The riverine forests are rapidly deteriorating because of the
reduced flow of water. This presentation consist on six parts and their sub topics that will clear the
about the issues of soil erosion.

The main objective of this assignment is to provide some information conceptthe soil erosion.

The physical features of the land are such that this stretch lies lower than the higher ground.

Discus the causes and impacts of soil erosion.

Role of Soil erosion in the agriculture.


The transition from a traditional farming system to a low external input sustainable system is
accompanied by a set of changes in soil chemical properties and processes that affect soil fertility

Traditional agricultural systems have led to a continuing degradation of soil resources, particularly
from the chemical point of view, resulting in a loss of agricultural productivity reflected in lower
yields and higher environmental problems. The adoption of some typical farming practices for
sustainable crop production include avoiding of cutting and burning or removing of the native
vegetation, use of trees as temporary and permanent shade, use of cover crops and reducing the
use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, which cause fundamental differences in the quantitative
and qualitative flow of soil nutrients. These changes affect the availability of nutrients for growing
crops either directly by contributing to the availability of nutrients or indirectly by influencing the
physical and chemical environment of the soil.

The 3 main principles to control erosion are to:

1. Use land according to its capability.

2. Protect the soil surface with some form of cover.
3. Pontrol runoff before it develops into an erosive force.

What are the main causes of soil erosion?

Below are some of the main causes of soil erosion.

 Water runoff and rainfall intensity. This process begins when the raindrops break down the soil
making it vulnerable to movement. ...
 The slope of the land. ...
 Soil texture. ...
 Deforestation. ...
 Wind. ...
 Land tillage. ...
 Overgrazing. ...
 Harsh climatic conditions.

What are the 4 main causes of erosion?

The main causes of erosion are due to:

 Water.
 Wind.
 Glaciers.
 People.

How does water cause soil erosion?

The impact from the raindrops loosens topsoil, allowing small fragments to detach. If the

rainfall continues, water gathers on the ground, causing water flow on the land surface,

known as surface water runoff, which carries soil away and deposits it elsewhere. There are

different types of soil erosion caused by water.

What are the factors affecting soil erosion?

The key climatic characteristics influencing erosion processes in a given territory include

atmosphericprecipitation, wind, air temperature, air humidity and solar radiation. The
factors having a direct effect on soil erosion are atmospheric precipitation (water erosion) and wind (wind
How do you prevent soil erosion?

Method 1Using Basic Erosion Prevention Techniques

1. Plant grass and shrubs. ...
2. Add mulch or rocks. ...
3. Use mulch matting to hold vegetation on slopes. ...
4. Put down fiber logs. ...
5. Build retaining walls. ...
6. Improve drainage. ...
7. Reduce watering if possible. ...
8. Avoid soil compaction.

What factors increase erosion?

Erosion- Factors Affecting Soil Erosion. The factors that influence erosion are: 1. The amount

andintensity of rainfall and wind velocity.

How is erosion caused?

Erosion is the process by which the surface of the Earth gets worn down. Erosion can be caused

by natural elements such as wind and glacial ice. But anyone who has ever seen a picture of the

Grand Canyon knows that nothing beats the slow steady movement of water when it comes to

changing the Earth.

What are the 4 types of erosion?

The four main forms of river erosion. Hydraulic action - the force of the river against the banks

can cause air to be trapped in cracks and crevices. The pressure weakens the banks and gradually

wears it away. Abrasion - rocks carried along by the river wear down the river bed and banks.

What are the causes and prevention of soil erosion?

One of the best ways to prevent soil erosion is to increase vegetation, which locks in the soil

particles and breaks up damaging winds. Terracing is an option for controlling erosion on sloped

land by cutting in flat surfaces.

What are the human activities that cause soil erosion?

Soil erosion occurs naturally by wind or harsh climatic conditions but human activities include overgrazing,
overcropping and deforestation. Overgrazing occurs when farmers stock too many animals such as sheep,
cattle or goats on their land.

Physical Changes in Soil and Vegetation

 Sheet and Gulley Erosion

Sheet, rill and gully erosion is the unwanted removal of soil from the land surface or through
incised channels by the action of rainfall and runoff.

Permanent Vegetative Cover Establishment

Establish a permanent vegetative cover to stabilize soil on land that is experiencing significant

Permanent Vegetative Cover Improvement

Improve plant health and diversity by introducing legumes into established grass communities to
protect soil on land that is experiencing significant erosion

 Bush/weed encroachment

Poor turf culture is a major reason for weedy lawns. Any effort to control weeds in turf should
start with improving cultural practices. One goal of cultural weed control is to maximize turf
density and maintain healthy, disease-free turf for a major part of every year. Here are some
practices used but mowing practices have a larger impact on weed invasion in turf than any other
cultural practice.

B. Economic Symptoms at specific place

The dry land areas of Pakistan are sufficiently large that prevent vegetative loss and
restoring cover could make a major contribution to combating climate change. The causes
of land degradation in Pakistan include poor irrigation and drainage practices, o vergrazing,
deforestation, increasing competition for water, drought, and migration/permanent
settlement, intensification of agriculture, flooding, population pressures and persistent

Crops grown in mixtures at existing technological levels tend to be more profitable, whether land or
labour is more limiting. In general, traditional agricultural practices have been neglected in the
development and dissemination of improved technology. Increased emphasis on the development
of improved technologies for mixed crops appears to be justified. This is particularly so in districts
where they are still dominant and in areas where the potential for sequential cropping is limited by
the shortness of the rainy season. Mixed cropping is most effective when the products have varied
or multiple uses for both human and animal consumption.

 Increased morbidity and mortality of cattle

Cattle in Pakistan have traditionally been raised for producing bullocks except breeds such as
Sahiwal and Red Sindhi which are established milch breeds. General production system is low-input
extensive system with crossbreds mainly raised under intensive high input system in the
cattle/buffalo colonies to sustain the demand of milk especially during summer, the slump period in
buffalo milk. Although, draft breeds are losing utility yet, it will take many generations before they
are replaced due to mechanization.

 Increased variability of yields

 Unscientific/unsystematic agriculture practices

a) Improper selection of land,

b) Improper preparation of land

c) Conventional planting methods,

d) Late planting,

e) Moisture stress at critical stages of crop growth,

f) Poor management of rato crop

g) Early and late harvesting,

C - Specific land use practices

The country had harvested more than 25 to 23 million tons of wheat in 2012.Pakistan has also cut
the use of dangerous pesticides dramatically. Pakistan is a net food exporter, except in occasional
years when its harvest is adversely affected by droughts. Pakistan exports rice, cotton, fish, fruits
(especially Oranges and Mangoes), and vegetables and imports vegetable oil, wheat, pulses and
consumer foods. Only a limited amount of the remaining water is actually absorbed and used by the
crops due to poor soil texture and unlevelled fields. Much of the Pakistan's agriculture output is
utilized by the country's growing processed-food industry. The value of processed retail food sales
has grown 12 percent annually during the Nineties and was estimated at over $1 billion in 2000,
although supermarkets accounted for just over 10% of the outlets.
D-Land users, resources assets and skills

Having alternatives for income generation can make the difference between minimally viable
livelihoods and destitution. However, diversification does not have an equalizing effect on rural
incomes overall. Better-off families are typically able to diversify in more favorable labour markets
than poor rural families. Total income and the share of income derived from non-farm sources are
often positively correlated.
E-Nature of Agrarian society
The conventional wisdom for many years has been that rising output and incomes in agriculture
itself are the catalyst for diverse non-farm activities in rural areas
As with agriculture, the effects of diversification on environmental resource management are mixed
and context-specific. The growth of non-farm income sources might be expected to reduce the need
for landless rural dwellers to carry out extractive practices in local environments for survival.
Gender is an integral and inseparable part of rural livelihoods. Men and women have different
assets, access to resources, and opportunities. Women rarely own land, may have lower education
due to discriminatory access as children, and their access to productive resources as well as
decision-making tend to occur through the mediation of men. Women typically confront a narrower
range of labour markets than men, and lower wage rates.
• Environmental benefits Diversification can potentially provide environmental benefits in two
ways. One is by generating resources that are then invested in improving the quality of the natural
resource base. The second is by providing options that make time spent in exploiting natural
resources, e.g. gathering activities in forests, less remunerative than time spent doing other things.

F- Nature of State

Pakistan, its founding father was able to exercise an influence for less than 10 months
in comparison to the 17 years that Mr. Nehru was able to provide to India. Once again, it
is difficult to find an example similar tohow Pakistan was deprived of
the leadership of its founding father so soon after its birth. Mr. Jinnah'simportance
to Pakistan, the magnitude of his loss and his place in history are well-reflected in
the openingsentences written by the reputed
American scholar, Stanley Wolpert, in his biography titled: `Jinnah ofPakistan'.

a nation that is truly unique, that has an almost unrivalled capacity for resilience and renewal
particularly for a nation so young and new.
Fortunately, after 1971, by rediscovering and re-asserting inner resources of will, by
the informal yet
More than 60 per cent of natural grazing areas of the country have production levels lower than one
third of their biological potential. More than one-third of the country area has been classified as
under risk of desertification.

Soil erosion implies loss or removal of surface soil material through the action of moving water,
wind or ice. The extent of the area affected by water and wind erosion.

About 13.05 million hectares of area is affected by water erosion and about 6.17 million hectares by
wind erosion.

Soil erosion is taking place at an alarming rate and is mainly due to deforestation in the north.
Water erosion is prominent on steep slopes such as the Potohar track and surrounding areas, an
area extensively used for cultivation. The highest recorded rate of erosion is estimated to be 150-
165 tons/hectare/year. The Indus River carried the fifth largest load of sediment (4.49t/h) in the
world in 1990.

Wind erosion has a relatively lower impact than water erosion. However, the combination of the
two is more devastating. This reduces the productivity of the land by 1.5-7.5 per cent per year. This
affects almost one-fifth of the Punjab.

The problem of waterlogged area may not be as serious now as it was in the past. Water logging has
reduced due to prolonged drought and excessive mining of ground water.

The fertility of soils is rapidly depleting. The data generated by public and private organizations
reflect the general agreement about the deficiency of nitrogen in 100 per cent soils. Same is the
situation with the organic matter content, which is on around average 0.5 per cent only.

In case of phosphorus, more than 90 per cent soils are deficient. Potassium deficiency in soils, not a
soil fertility problem earlier, is increasing rapidly due to discriminate use of only nitrogenous and
phosphate fertilizers. Various public and private organizations are reporting a soil potassium
deficiency in the range of 20-40 per cent. For that reason, the NPK formulations for various crops
have also been introduced. Among micronutrients, field scale deficiencies of economic significance
prevail in case of zinc, boron, and iron.

All the provinces show negative nitrogen balance, although in Punjab the deficit is declining. Over
the decade, negative phosphorus balances did not change significantly in Punjab but worsened in
the other three provinces. In 1985-86, the level of deficit was highest in Punjab. However, in 1995-
96 they were all fairly similar. Potash balances deteriorated over the decade.

All the above environmental issues are creating risks for sustained agricultural growth. According
to a conservative estimate, the impact of land degradation and biodiversity loss on productivity and
public health add up to three per cent of the GDP per year. It could be higher if toxic waste disposal,
biodiversity, river and coastal resource depletion, were taken into account.

G- International Economy

. The emergence of private donors and foundations (such as the Gates Foundation) demonstrating a
heightened interest in transferring resources to agriculture is encouraging. Major multilateral
donors (such as the World Bank) are also looking at agriculture as an engine for poverty reduction
for most developing countries and regions and as a fundamental component of a growth and
poverty reduction strategy for the poorest, agriculture-based economies At the same time, there
seems to be increased interest by domestic and foreign firms (including multinational agro-
industrial firms) for investments (upstream and downstream) in agriculture.


Ultimately, it is in the agricultural sector that problems such as non-sustainable production, poor
fuel use, natural resource depletion and habitat exploitation must be addressed. Governments will
need to seek agreements and plan adjustments to policies that correctly value the services provided

by the sector, in order to face the challenge of climate change to food security. The true value of the
role of agriculture and rural development in poverty alleviation and the provision of environmental
services needs to be duly recognized.