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CYBERLAW

PROBLEMS OF POLICY
AND JURISPRUDENCE IN THE
INFORMATION AGE

Fourth Edition

By

Patricia L. Bellia
Professor of Law and Notre Dame Presidential Fellow
Notre Dame Law School

Paul Schiff Berman


Dean and Foundation Professor of Law
Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law, Arizona State University

Brett M. Frischmann
Professor of Law
Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University

David G. Post
I. Herman Stern Professor of Law
Beasley School of Law, Temple University
Table of Cases

—————

The principal cases are in bold type.  Cases cited or discussed  
in the text are roman type.  References are to pages. 

—————

1-800-Contacts, Inc. v. WhenU.com, Inc., American Civil Liberties Union v. Reno,


414 F.3d 400 (2d Cir. 2005), 60 31 F. Supp. 2d 473 (E.D. Pa. 1999),
A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 121, 395, 567
239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001), 350, American Civil Liberties Union v. Reno,
359, 360 929 F. Supp. 824 (E.D. Pa. 1996),
Abrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616 aff’d, 521 U.S. 844 (1997), 18
(1919), 532 American Libraries Ass’n v. Pataki,
Agnello v. United States, 269 U.S. 20 969 F. Supp. 160 (S.D.N.Y. 1997), 104,
(1925), 312 114, 118, 123
ALS Scan v. RemarQ Communities, Inc., American Library Ass’n, Inc. v. United
239 F.3d 619 (4th Cir. 2001), 472 States, 201 F. Supp. 2d 401 (E.D. Pa.
ALS Scan, Inc. v. Digital Serv. 2002), 583, 584, 587, 590
Consultants, Inc., 293 F.3d 707 (4th American Library Ass’n, Inc.,
Cir. 2002), 147 United States v., 539 U.S. 194
Amalgamated Food Employees Union v. (2003), 566, 571, 574, 582, 609
Logan Valley Plaza, Inc., 391 U.S. 308 Arden v. Columbia Pictures Indus., Inc.,
(1968), 204 908 F. Supp. 1248 (S.D.N.Y. 1995),
Amchem Prods., Inc. v. Windsor, 521 414
U.S. 592 (1997), 811, 813 Arista Records LLC v. Lime Group LLC,
America Online v. Superior Court, 108 No. 06 Civ. 5936 (KMW), __ F. Supp.
Cal. Rptr. 2d 699 (2001), 200 2d __, 2010 WL 2291485 (S.D.N.Y.
America Online, Inc. v. Anonymous May 25, 2010), 478
Publicly Traded Co., 542 S.E.2d 377 Arista Records LLC v. Usenet.com, Inc.,
(Va. 2001), 407 633 F. Supp. 2d 124 (S.D.N.Y. 2009),
America Online, Inc. v. LCGM, Inc., 478
46 F. Supp. 2d 444 (E.D. Va. 1998), Arista Records v. Sakfield Holding Co.,
739 314 F. Supp. 2d 27 (D.D.C. 2004), 135
America Online, Inc. v. Pasieka, 870 Arkansas Ed. Television Comm’n v.
So.2d 170 (Fl. App. Ct. 2004), 200 Forbes, 523 U. S. 666 (1998), 585
America Online, Inc., et al. v. Huang, Armendariz v. Foundation Health
106 F. Supp. 2d 848 (E.D. Va. 2000), Psychcare Servs., Inc., 6 P.3d 669
291 (Cal. 2000), 780
American Civil Liberties Union v. Ash- Armstrong v. United States, 364 U.S. 40
croft, 322 F.3d 240 (3d Cir. 2003), 129, (1960), 206
568 Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties
American Civil Liberties Union v. John- Union, 535 U.S. 564 (2002), 123, 135,
son, 194 F.3d 1149 (10th Cir. 1999), 567, 568
117 Ashcroft v. American Civil Liber-
American Civil Liberties Union v. ties Union, 542 U.S. 656 (2004), 129,
Reno, 217 F.3d 162 (3d Cir. 2000), 566, 578
119, 568 Associated Press v. United States, 326
U.S. 1 (1945), 210, 214, 215

xix
xx TABLE OF CASES

AT & T Techs., Inc. v. Commcn’s Work- Brookfield Commc’ns, Inc. v. West


ers of Am., 475 U.S. 643 (1986), 190 Coast Entm’t Corp., 174 F.3d 1036
AT&T v. City of Portland, 216 F.3d 871 (9th Cir. 1999), 51, 62
(9th Cir. 2000), 249 Burger King v. Rudzewicz, 471 U.S. 462
Baker v. Gen. Motors Corp., 522 U.S. (1985), 131
222 (1998), 151, 157 Butler v. Michigan, 352 U.S. 380 (1957),
Bancroft & Masters Inc. v. Augusta 534, 545, 546, 547, 564
Nat’l Inc., 223 F.3d 1082 (9th Cir. Cable News Network L.P. v.
2000), 147 Cnnews.com, 162 F. Supp. 2d 484
Bangoura v. Washington Post, 235 (E.D. Va. 2001), 286
D.L.R. (4th) 564 (Ontario Super. Ct. Cable/Home Communication Corp. v.
Justice 2004), 102 Network Prods., Inc., 902 F.2d 829
Bantam Books v. Sullivan, 372 U.S. 58 (11th Cir. 1990), 355
(1962), 607, 608 Calder v. Jones, 465 U.S. 783 (1984),
Barcelona.com Inc. v. Excelentisimo 132, 134, 137, 138, 140, 141, 145, 146
Ayuntamiento de Barcelona, 330 F.3d California v. Ciraolo, 476 U.S. 207
617 (4th Cir. 2003), 299 (1986), 315
Barnes v. Yahoo!, Inc., 570 F.3d 1096 Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., 510
(9th Cir. 2009), 440 U.S. 569 (1994), 353, 720
Barrett v. Rosenthal, 146 P.3d 510 (Cal. Canda v. Michigan Malleable Iron Co.,
2006), 440 124 F. 486 (6th Cir. 1903), 367
Barrett v. Rosenthal, 9 Cal. Rptr. 3d Carafano v. Metrosplash.com, Inc., 339
142, 152 (Cal. App. 1st Dist. 2004), F.3d 1119 (9th Cir. 2003), 455, 457
439 Carlin Commcn’s, Inc. v. FCC, 837 F.2d
Batzel v. Smith, 333 F.3d 1018 (9th Cir. 546 (1988), 544
2003), 439, 447 Carnival Cruise Lines, Inc. v. Shute, 499
Ben Ezra, Weinstein & Co. v. America U.S. 585 (1991), 200
Online, 206 F.3d 980 (10th Cir. 2003), Carroll v. United States, 267 U.S. 132
439, 457 (1925), 317
Berger v. New York, 388 U.S. 41 (1967), CBS v. Democratic Nat’l Comm., 412
324, 666, 673, 674 U.S. 94 (1973), 216
Bernstein v. United States Department Center for Democracy and Techno-
of State, 922 F. Supp. 1426 (N.D. Cal. logy v. Pappert, 337 F. Supp. 2d 606
1996), 525 (E.D. Pa. 2004), 103, 117, 599
Blumenthal v. Drudge, 992 F. Supp. Century Commc’ns Corp. v. FCC, 835
44 (D.D.C. 1998), 435, 439, 440 F.2d 292 (D.C. Cir. 1987), 217
Board of Comm’rs, Wabaunsee Cty. v. Chamberlain Group, Inc. v. Skylink
Umbehr, 518 U. S. 668 (1996), 587 Technologies, 381 F.3d 1178 (Fed. Cir.
Board of Education v. Pico, 457 U.S. 853 2004), 756, 757
(1982), 64, 65, 66, 67, 594, 595 Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, 315 U.S.
Board of Trustees of Stanford University 568 (1942), 400, 538
v. Sullivan, 773 F. Supp. 472 (D.D.C. Chicago Lawyers’ Comm. for Civil
1991), 524 Rights Under Law, Inc., v. Craigs-
Bolger v. Youngs Drug Products Corp., list, Inc., 519 F.3d 666 (7th Cir.
463 U.S. 60 (1983), 559 2008), 441, 451
Bowers v. Baystate Techs., Inc., 320 Cianci v. New Times Publ’g Co., 639
F.3d 1317 (Fed. Cir. 2003), 186, 761 F.2d 54 (2d Cir. 1980), 421
Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616 Citron v. Zündel, T.D. 1/02 2002/01/18
(1886), 308, 314 (Canadian Human Rights Trib. Jan.
Bragg v. Linden Research, Inc., 487 18, 2002), 159
F. Supp. 2d 593 (E.D. Pa. 2007), 775 City of Ladue v. Gilleo, 512 U.S. 43
Branzburg v. Hayes, 408 U.S. 665 (1994), 127, 395
(1972), 215 City of Ontario v. Quon, 130 S. Ct. 2619
Broadrick v. Oklahoma, 413 U.S. 601 (2010), 332, 333
(1973), 538
TABLE OF CASES xxi

Cmty. Television of Southern California Doe v. GTE Corp., 347 F.3d 655 (7th Cir.
v. Gottfried, 459 U.S. 498 (1983), 338 2003), 439, 443
Cohen v. California, 403 U.S. 15 (1971), Doe v. United States, 253 F.3d 256 (6th
539, 540, 541 Cir. 2001), 323
Colgain v. Oy-Partek Ab (In re Asbestos Donovan v. Lone Steer, 464 U.S. 408
Litig.), 799 A.2d 1151 (Del. 2002), 404 (1984), 323
Columbia Pictures Indus., Inc. v. Fung, Doran v. Salem Inn, Inc., 422 U.S. 922
No. 06 Civ. 5578, 2009 U.S. Dist. (1975), 569
LEXIS 122661 (C.D. Cal. Dec. 21, DoubleClick Privacy Litig., In re, 154 F.
2009), 478 Supp. 2d 497 (S.D.N.Y.2001), 679
Comb v. Pay Pal, Inc., 218 F. Supp. 2d Dow Chemical Co. v. United States, 476
1165 (N.D. Cal. 2002), 199, 778, 779, U.S. 277 (1986), 315, 316
780, 781, 782 Dow Jones & Co., Inc. v. Gutnick
Comcast Corp. v. F.C.C., 600 F.3d 642 (2002) 210 C.L.R. 575 (Austl.), 102,
(D.C. Cir. 2010), 250 146, 617
Commercial Factors Corp. v. Kurtzman Drew, United States v., 259 F.R.D. 449
Bros., 131 Cal. App. 2d 133 (1955), (C.D. Cal. 2009), 746
191 eBay, Inc. v. Bidder’s Edge, Inc., 100
CompuServe, Inc. v. Cyber Promotions, F. Supp. 2d 1058 (N.D. Cal. 2000), 27,
962 F. Supp. 1015 (S.D. Ohio 1997), 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 45, 49, 50,
31, 39, 40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 50, 710, 711 708, 710, 711, 716, 733
Consolidated Cigar Corp. v. Reilly, 218 Edelman v. N2H2, No. Civ. A.02CV
F.3d 30 (1st Cir. 2000), 117 11503RGS (D. Mass. Apr. 7, 2003).,
Corbis Corp. v. Amazon.com, Inc., 351 F. 350
Supp. 2d 1090 (W.D. Wash. 2004), 477 Edgar v. MITE Corp., 457 U.S. 624
Cornelius v. NAACP Legal Defense & (1982), 114
Ed. Fund, Inc., 473 U. S. 788 (1985), EF Cultural Travel BV v. Explorica,
585, 586 Inc., 274 F.3d 577 (1st Cir. 2003),
CoStar v. LoopNet, Inc., 373 F.3d 544 741, 745
(4th Cir. 2004), 466, 472 EF Cultural Travel BV v. Zefer Corp.,
Councilman, United States v., 418 F.3d 318 F.3d 58 (1st Cir. 2003), 745
67 (1st Cir. 2005) (en banc), 673 Ellison v. Robertson, 357 F.3d 1072 (9th
Cubby, Inc. v. CompuServe, Inc., Cir. 2004), 473
776 F. Supp 135 (S.D.N.Y. 1991), 420, Entick v. Carrington, 19 How. St. Tr.
424, 425, 433, 439 1029 (K.B. 1765), 667
Cyberspace Commcn’s, Inc. v. Engler, 55 Erznoznik v. Jacksonville, 422 U.S. 205
F. Supp. 2d 737 (E.D. Mich. 1999), 117 (1975), 542, 551
Dahlstrom, United States v., 713 F.2d ESAB Group, Inc. v. Centricut, Inc., 126
1423 (9th Cir. 1983), 524 F.3d 617 (4th Cir. 1997), 141
Davidson & Assocs. v. Jung, 422 F.3d Estin v. Estin, 334 U.S. 541 (1948), 151
630 (8th Cir. 2005), 757 Evans v. Newton, 382 U.S. 296 (1966),
Dawson Chem. Co. v. Rohm & Hass Co., 204
448 U.S. 176 (1980), 335 Ex parte Jackson, 96 U.S. 727 (1878),
Dean Witter Reynolds, Inc. v. Superior 308, 309, 326
Court, 259 Cal. Rptr. 789 (1989), 779 Expeditors Int’l of Washington, Inc. v.
Dendrite Int’l v. Doe, 775 A.2d 756 (N.J. The Official Creditors Comm. (In re
App. Div. 2001), 402 CFLC. Inc.), 166 F.3d 1012 (9th
Denver Area Ed. Telecomm. Cir.1999), 730
Consortium, Inc. v. FCC, 518 U.S. 727 F.M. Corp. v. Corporate Aircraft Mgmt.,
(1996), 558, 559, 560 626 F. Supp. 1533 (D. Mass. 1985),
Dial One of the Mid-South, Inc. v. 175
BellSouth Telecomm., Inc., 269 F.3d Fair Housing Council of San Fer-
523 (5th Cir. 2001), 495 nando Valley v. Roommates.com,
Doe No. 1 v. Cahill, 884 A.2d 451 (Del. LLC, 521 F.3d 1157 (9th Cir. 2008)
2005), 399 (en banc), 444
xxii TABLE OF CASES

Fauntleroy v. Lum, 210 U.S. 230 (1908), Gutierrez v. Autowest, Inc., 7 Cal. Rptr.
151 3d 267 (2003), 779
FCC v. Pacifica Found., 438 U.S. 726 Hamling v. United States, 418 U.S. 87
(1978), 533, 535, 542, 543, 545, 546, (1974), 122, 124
547, 554, 555, 556, 557, 559, 560 Handelsblatt v. Paperboy, Bundesge-
Featherston, United States v., 461 F.2d richtshof [BGH] [Federal Court of
1119 (5th Cir. 1972), 524 Justice] July 17, 2003, No. 1 ZR
Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural 259/00, [2005] E.C.D.R. 7, 729
Telephone Service Co, Inc., 499 U.S. Hanson v. Denckla, 357 U.S. 235 (1958),
340 (1991), 197, 719 131
Felten v. Recording Indus. Ass’n of Am., Hard Rock Café Licensing Corp. v.
No. 01 CV 2669 (D.N.J. Nov. 28, Concession Servs., Inc., 955 F.2d 1143,
2001), 350 (7th Cir. 1992), 502
First Options of Chicago, Inc. v. Kaplan, Harris v. McRae, 448 U. S. 297 (1980),
514 U.S. 938 (1995), 778 588
Fleetboston Financial Corp. v. Hawes v. Network Solutions, Inc., 337
Fleetbostonfinancial.com, 138 F. F.3d 377 (4th Cir. 2003), 299
Supp. 2d 121 (D. Mass. 2001), 288 Heckenkamp, United States v., 482 F.3d
Fonovisa, Inc. v. Cherry Auction, Inc., 1142 (9th Cir. 2007), 326, 327, 328
76 F.3d 259 (9th Cir. 1996), 355, 357, Helicopteros Nacionales de Colombia,
358, 416, 463, 502 S.A. v. Hall, 466 U.S. 408 (1984), 145
Fort Wayne Books, Inc. v. Indiana, 489 Hendrickson v. Amazon.com, Inc., 298
U.S. 46 (1989), 607, 608 F. Supp. 2d 914 (C.D. Cal. 2003), 481
Franks & Son, Inc. v. Washington, 966 Henry v. A.B. Dick Co., 224 U.S. 1
P.2d 1232 (Wash. 1998), 111 (1912), 336
Fraser v. Nationwide Mut. Ins. Co., 135 Herceg v. Hustler Magazine, Inc., 814
F. Supp. 2d 623, aff’d on other F.2d 1017, 1020-25 (5th Cir. 1987),
grounds, 351 F.3d 107 (3rd Cir. 2003), 524
678 Heroes, Inc. v. Heroes Found., 958 F.
Freedman v. Maryland, 380 U.S. 51 Supp. 1 (D.D.C. 1996), 135
(1965), 607 Hess v. Pawloski, 274 U.S. 352 (1927),
Ga. High Sch. Ass’n v. Waddell, 285 S.E. 130
2d 7 (Ga. 1981), 880 Hill v. Colorado, 530 U.S. 703 (2000),
Garrison v. Louisiana, 379 U.S. 64 526, 528
(1964), 210 Hilton v. Guyot, 159 U.S. 113 (1895),
Gershwin Publ’g Corp. v. Columbia 157
Artists Mgmt., Inc., 443 F.2d 1159 (2d Hodge v. Mountain States Tel. & Tel.
Cir.1971), 355, 461 Co., 555 F.2d 254 (9th Cir. 1977), 682
Gibbons v. Ogden, 9 Wheat. 1, 231 Holiday Inns, Inc. v. 800 Reservation, 86
(1824), 105 F.3d 619 (6th Cir. 1997), 57
Ginsberg v. New York, 390 U.S. 629 Hudgens v. NLRB, 424 U.S. 507 (1976),
(1968), 533, 540, 542, 545, 554, 555, 204
560, 564, 565, 578 Humphrey v. Granite Gate Resorts, Inc.,
GlobalSantaFe Corp. v. Global- 568 N.W.2d 715 (Minn. 1997), 135
santafe.com, 250 F. Supp. 2d 610 Hy Cite Corp. v. Badbusinessbureau.
(E.D. Va. 2003), 289, 298, 299 com, 297 F. Supp. 2d 1154 (W.D. Wis.
Goldman v. United States, 316 U.S. 129 2004), 137
(1942), 310, 311 Hy Cite Corp. v. Badbusinessbureau.
Gonzales v. Google, 234 F.R.D. 674 com, 418 F. Supp. 2d 1142 (D. Ariz.
(N.D. Cal. 2006), 688 2005), 457
Green v. America Online, 318 F.3d 465 Illinois Bd. of Elections v. Socialist
(3d Cir. 2003), 439 Workers Party, 440 U.S. 173 (1979),
Gucci Am., Inc. v. Hall & Assocs., 135 F. 576
Supp. 2d 409 (S.D.N.Y. 2001), 495 In re Aimster Copyright Litig., 334 F.3d
643 (7th Cir. 2003), 360, 378
TABLE OF CASES xxiii

In re Application of the United States of Kalem Co. v. Harper Bros., 222 U.S. 55
America for a Search Warrant for (1911), 334, 335, 339
Contents of Electronic Mail, 665 F. Karo, United States v., 468 U.S. 705
Supp. 2d 1210 (D. Or. 2009), 331 (1984), 316
In re Charter Commc’ns, Inc., 393 F.3d Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347
771 (8th Cir. 2005), 410 (1967), 309, 313, 315, 316, 319, 324,
In re Commc’ns Assistance for Law 325, 326, 327, 328, 332, 380, 626, 629,
Enforcement Act and Broadband 666, 673, 674, 679, 681, 683, 688, 693
Access Servs., 20 F.C.C.R. 14,989 Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corp., 280 F.3d 934
(Aug. 5, 2005), 381 (9th Cir. 2002), 721, 728, 729
In re Nat’l Sec. Agency Telecomms. Konop v. Hawaiian Airlines, Inc., 302
Records Litig., 633 F. Supp. 2d 949 F.3d 868 (9th Cir. 2002), 674
(N.D. Cal. 2009), 690 Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27
In re Subpoena Duces Tecum to (2001), 313, 319
America Online, Inc., 52 Va. Cir. La Ligue Contre le Racisme et l’An-
26, 2000 WL 1210372 (Vir. Cir. 2000), tisémitisme v. Yahoo!, Inc. (Super.
397, 402, 407, 415 Ct. Paris, May 22, 2000), 77, 99, 119,
In the Matters of Appropriate Frame- 128, 163
work for Broadband Access to the Lehman v. Shaker Heights, 418 U.S. 298
Internet Over Wireline Facilities, 20 (1974), 541
F.C.C.R. 14,853 (2005), 250 Lerman v. Chuckleberry Publ’g, Inc.,
In the Matters of Formal Complaint of 521 F. Supp. 228 (S.D.N.Y. 1981), 421
Free Press and Public Knowledge Lerman v. Flynt Distrib. Co., 745 F.2d
Against Comcast Corp. for Secretly 123 (2d Cir. 1984), 422
Degrading Peer-to-Peer Applications, Lewis v. King, [2004] EWCA (Civ) 1329
23 F.C.C.R. 13,028 (2008), 250 (Eng.), 102, 138
Instructional Sys., Inc. v. Computer Cur- Lexmark Int’l, Inc. v. Static Control
riculum Corp., 35 F.3d 813 (3d Cir. Components, Inc., 387 F.3d 522 (6th
1994), 114, 135 Cir. 2004), 748, 756, 757, 763
Int’l Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. Local Number 93, International
310 (1945), 130, 131, 133, 148, 285, Association of Firefighters v. City of
288, 291 Cleveland, 478 U.S. 501 (1986), 812,
Int’l Soc. for Krishna Consciousness, 814
Inc. v. Lee, 505 U. S. 672 (1992), 585 Lockheed Martin Corp. v. Network
Intel Corp. v. Hamidi, 71 P.3d 296 Solutions, Inc., 194 F.3d 980 (9th Cir.
(Cal. 2003), 36, 710 1999), 502
Inwood Labs., Inc. v. Ives Labs., Inc., Los Angeles v. Preferred Commc’ns,
456 U.S. 844 (1982), 501, 502, 503, Inc., 476 U.S. 488 (1986), 220
504, 505, 506, 507, 514 Louis Vuitton Malletier S.A. v. eBay
Io Group, Inc. v. Veoh Networks, Inc., Inc., Case No. 2006077799, Commer-
586 F. Supp. 2d 1132 (N.D. Cal. 2008), cial Court of Paris, June 30, 2008, 507
479 Mainstream Loudoun v. Bd. of
Ira S. Bushey & Sons, Inc. v. United Trustees of the Loudoun Cnty.
States, 398 F.2d 167 (2d Cir. 1968), Public Library, 2 F. Supp. 2d 783
417, 420 (E.D. Va. 1998), 63, 596
J.K. Harris & Co. v. Kassel, 253 F. Supp. Marin Storage & Trucking, Inc. v. Benco
2d 1120 (N.D. Cal. 2003), 62 Trucking & Eng’g, Inc., 107 Cal. Rptr.
Jacobsen, United States v., 466 U.S. 109 2d 645 (Cal. App. 1st Dist. 2001), 191
(1984), 323 Maritz Inc. v. CyberGold, Inc., 947 F.
Jefferson Cnty. Sch. Dist. No. R-1 v. Supp. 1328 (E.D. Mo. 1996), 134, 135
Moody’s Investor’s Servs., Inc., 175 Marsh v. Alabama, 326 U.S. 501 (1946),
F.3d 848 (10th Cir. 1999), 231, 232 204
Junger v. Daley, 209 F.3d 481 (6th Cir. Matthew Bender & Co. v. West Publ’g
2000), 523 Co., 158 F.3d 693 (2d Cir. 1998), 355
xxiv TABLE OF CASES

McAvoy v. Shufrin, 401 Mass. 593 National Endowment for Arts v. Finley,
(1987), 175 524 U. S. 569 (1998), 585, 592
McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheat. 316 Near v. Minnesota, 283 U.S. 697 (1931),
(1819), 307 608, 609
MCI Commc’ns Corp. v. Am. Tel. and Nelson v. American-West African Line,
Tel. Co., 708 F.2d 1081 (7th Cir. 86 F.2d 730 (2d Cir. 1936), 418
1983), 245 Net Global Mktg. v. Dialtone, Inc., 217
McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Comm’n, 514 Fed. Appx. 598 (9th Cir. 2007), 780
U.S. 334 (1995), 394, 395, 396, 398, New York Tel. Co., United States v., 434
400 U.S. 159 (1977), 380, 680, 681, 682
Media3 Technologies, LLC v. Mail New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376
Abuse Prevention Sys., LLC, No. U.S. 254 (1964), 216, 240, 622
00-CV-12524-MEL, 2001 WL 92389 New York Times Co. v. United States,
(D. Mass. 2001), 173 403 U.S. 713 (1971), 241
MediaOne Group, Inc. v. Cnty. of Noble State Bank v. Haskell, 219 U.S.
Henrico, 57 F.3d 356 (4th Cir. 2001), 104 (1911), 535
250 O’Brien, United States v., 391 U.S. 367
Metro-Goldwyn Mayer Studios Inc. (1968), 224, 227, 228, 529, 550, 606
v. Grokster, Ltd., 545 U.S. 913 Official Airline Guides, Inc. v. Goss, 6
(2005), 360, 378, 478 F.3d 1385 (9th Cir. 1993), 55
Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (1923), Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S.
535 438 (1928), 306, 310, 311, 312, 313,
MGE UPS Sys., Inc. v. GE Consumer & 332
Indus., Inc., 612 F.3d 760 (6th Cir. Online Policy Group v. Diebold, Inc., 337
2010), 757 F. Supp. 2d 1195 (N.D. Cal. 2004), 482
Miami Herald Publ'g Co. v. Tornillo, OptInRealBig.com v. IronPort Systems,
418 U.S. 241 (1974), 212, 216, 217, Inc., 323 F. Supp. 2d 1037 (N.D. Cal.
220, 221, 222, 224, 225, 226, 228, 244, 2004), 440
251, 260, 539 Osborn v. United States, 385 U.S. 323
Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973), (1967), 311, 312
118, 121, 123, 126, 324, 325, 326, 327, Pacific Gas & Elec. Co. v. Public Util.
328, 524, 558, 559, 683, 692 Comm’n of Cal., 475 U.S. 1 (1986),
Miller, United States v., 425 U.S. 435 225, 226
(1976), 323 Palsgraf v. Long Island R.R. Co., 248
Milliken v. Meyer, 311 U.S. 457 (1940), N.Y. 339 (1928), 419
133 Parisi v. Netlearning, Inc., 139 F.
Milwaukee County v. M.E. White Co., Supp.2d 745 (E.D. Va. 2001), 283
296 U.S. 268 (1935), 151 Par-Knit Mills, Inc. v. Stockbridge
Mobil Oil Corp. v. Pegasus Petroleum Fabrics Co., Ltd., 636 F.2d 51 (3d
Corp., 818 F.2d 254 (2d Cir. 1987), 56 Cir.1980), 778
Morris, United States v., 928 F.2d 504 Payton v. New York, 445 U.S. 573
(2d Cir. 1991), 738, 740, 745 (1980), 317
Moshe D., In re (Court of Cassation, Pennoyer v. Neff, 95 U.S. 714 (1877),
Italy, Dec. 27, 2000), 102 129, 130
Motion Picture Patents Co. v. Universal People for the Ethical Treatment of
Film Mfg. Co., 243 U.S. 502 (1917), Animals (PETA) v. Doughney, 263
336 F.3d 359 (4th Cir. 2001), 61
Munn v. Illinois, 94 U.S. 113 (1876), 247 People v. Barrows, 177 Misc. 2d 712,
Nagrampa v. MailCoups, Inc., 469 F.3d 729, 677 N.Y.S.2d 672 (N.Y. 1998),
1257 (9th Cir. 2006), 778 120
National Broad. Co. v. United States, Perfect 10, Inc. v. CCBill LLC, 488 F.3d
319 U.S. 190 (1943), 209, 220 1102 (9th Cir. 2007), 476, 481
National Cable & Telecomm. Ass’n v. Perry v. Sindermann, 408 U. S. 593
Brand X Internet Servs., 545 U.S. 967 (1972), 587
(2005), 250
TABLE OF CASES xxv

PGA Tour, Inc. v. Martin, 532 U.S. 661 Recording Indus. Ass’n of Am. v.
(2001), 880 Diamond Multimedia Sys., Inc., 180
Phibbs, United States v., 999 F.2d 1053 F.3d 1072 (9th Cir. 1999), 354
(6th Cir. 1993), 323, 324, 326, 327, 329 Recording Indus. Ass’n of Am., Inc. v.
Philadelphia & Reading Ry. Co. v. Verizon Internet Servs., Inc., 257 F.
McKibbin, 243 U.S. 264 (1917), 130 Supp. 2d 244 (D.D.C. 2003), 413
Phillips Petroleum Co v. Shutts, 472 Recording Indus. Ass’n of Am., Inc. v.
U.S. 797 (1985), 91 Verizon Internet Servs., Inc., 351 F.3d
Pike v. Bruce Church, Inc., 397 U.S. 137 1229 (D.C. Cir. 2003), 409, 410, 413
(1970), 108, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116, Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC,
117, 118 395 U.S. 367 (1969), 207, 216, 217,
Place, United States v., 462 U.S. 696 220, 221, 244, 528, 539, 556
(1983), 318 Regan v. Taxation With Representation
Planned Parenthood Fed’n of Am. v. of Wash., 461 U. S. 540 (1983), 588
Bucci, 42 U.S.P.Q.2d 1430 (S.D.N.Y. Register.com, Inc. v. Verio, Inc., 126 F.
1997), 61 Supp. 2d 238 (S.D.N.Y. 2000), 39
Playboy Enters., Inc. v. Netscape Register.com, Inc. v. Verio, Inc., 356
Commc’ns Corp., 354 F.3d 1020 (9th F.3d 393 (2d Cir. 2004), 193, 722, 729,
Cir. 2004), 60 730, 731, 732, 733
Playboy Entm’t Group, United States v., Rehberg v. Paulk, 598 F.3d 1268 (11th
529 U.S. 803 (2000), 566, 568, 571, Cir. 2010), 330, 331
572, 576, 577, 604, 605, 606 Religious Tech. Ctr. v. Netcom On-
Police Dept. of Chicago v. Mosley, 408 Line Commc’n Services, Inc., 907
U.S. 92 (1972), 550 F. Supp. 1361 (N.D. Cal. 1995), 356,
Polymer Tech. Corp. v. Mimran, 37 F.3d 357, 458, 466, 472, 473
74 (2d Cir. 1994), 502 Religious Tech. Ctr. v. Netcom On-line
Polymer Tech. Corp. v. Mimran, 975 Commc’n Servs., 923 F. Supp. 1231
F.2d 58, 64 (2d Cir. 1992), 502 (N.D. Cal. 1995), 465
Prince v. Massachusetts, 321 U.S. 158 Reno v. American Civil Liberties
(1944), 535 Union, 521 U.S. 844 (1997), 66, 119,
ProCD, Inc. v. Zeidenberg, 86 F.3d 123, 426, 552, 565, 566, 567, 569, 571,
1447 (7th Cir. 1996), 184, 186, 187, 591, 592, 609
192, 193, 195, 708 Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc.,
Progressive, Inc., United States v., 467 475 U.S. 41 (1986), 533, 548, 554, 556
F. Supp. 990 (W.D. Wis. 1979), 524 Richardson v. Schwarzenegger, [2004]
Promatek Indus., Ltd. v. Equitrac Corp., EWHC (QB) 2422 (Eng.), 102
300 F.3d 808 (7th Cir. 2002), 59 Riley v. Moyed, 529 A.2d 248 (Del.
PruneYard Shopping Ctr. v. Robins, 447 1987)., 405
U.S. 74 (1980), 206, 207 Riley v. National Fed’n of Blind of N.C.,
PSINet, Inc. v. Chapman, 362 F.3d 227 Inc., 487 U.S. 781 (1988), 220
(4th Cir. 2004), 116 Rosenberger v. Rector and Visitors of
Purdue Research Found. v. Sanofi- Univ. of Va., 515 U. S. 819 (1995), 586
Synthelabo, S.A., 338 F.3d 773 (7th Rossi v. Motion Picture Ass’n of Am.,
Cir. 2003), 144 391 F.3d 1000 (9th Cir. 2004), 482
Qualitex Co. v. Jacobson Products Co., Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476
Inc., 514 U.S. 159 (1995), 55 (1957), 524, 534
Quincy Cable TV, Inc. v. FCC, 768 F.2d Rust v. Sullivan, 500 U. S. 173 (1991),
1434 (D.C. Cir. 1985), 217 588, 592
R. A. V. v. St. Paul, 505 U.S. 377 (1992), Sable Commc’ns of Cal. v. FCC, 492
568 U.S. 115 (1989), 122, 228, 525, 533,
Raymond, United States v., 228 F.3d 804 543, 557, 559, 563, 572
(7th Cir. 2000), 524 Schaumburg v. Citizens for a Better
Real Networks, Inc. v. Streambox, Env’t, 444 U.S. 620 (1980), 545
Inc., 2000 WL 127311 (W.D. Wash. Schneider v. Amazon.com, 31 P.3d 37
2000), 343, 765 (Wash. App. Div. 1 2001), 457
xxvi TABLE OF CASES

Schneider v. State of N.J. (Town of State of New York v. Network


Irvington), 308 U.S. 147 (1939), 562 Associates, 758 N.Y.S.2d 466 (N.Y.
Search King, Inc. v. Google Techno- Sup. Ct. 2003), 187
logy, Inc., No. CIV-02-1457-M, 2003 Step-Saver Data Sys., Inc. v. Wyse Tech.,
WL 21464568 (W.D. Okl. May 27, 939 F.2d 91 (3d Cir. 1991), 195, 730
2003), 230, 232, 235, 238, 239 Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United
SEC v. Jerry T. O’Brien, Inc., 467 U.S. States Secret Serv., 36 F.3d 457 (5th
735 (1984), 328 Cir. 1994), 674
Sec. and Exch. Comm’n v. Banner Fund Stratton Oakmont, Inc. v. Prodigy
Int’l, 211 F.3d 602 (D.C. Cir. 2000), Servs. Co., 1995 WL 323710 (N.Y.
298 Sup. Ct. May 24, 1995), 423, 426, 428,
Sega Enters. v. Accolade, Inc., 977 F.2d 431, 433, 434, 440, 445
1510 (9th Cir. 1992), 719, 720 Strick Corp. v. Strickland, 162 F. Supp.
Select Theatres Corp. v. Ronzoni 2d 372 (E.D. Pa. 2001), 59
Macaroni Corp., 59 U.S.P.Q. 288 Talley v. California, 362 U.S. 60 (1960),
(S.D.N.Y. 1943), 463 395
Shaffer v. Heitner, 433 U.S. 186 (1977), Telco Commc’ns v. An Apple a Day, 977
133, 287, 288 F. Supp. 404 (E.D. Va. 1997), 135
Shea v. Reno, 930 F. Supp. 916 Theofel v. Farey-Jones, 359 F.3d 1066
(S.D.N.Y. 1996), 565 (9th Cir. 2004), 677, 679
Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1 (1948), Thrifty-Tel v. Bezenek, 54 Cal. Rptr. 2d
158 468 (1996), 30, 37, 39, 47
Silverman v. United States, 365 U.S. 505 Ticketmaster Corp. v. Tickets.com,
(1961), 310, 314, 316 Inc., No. CV 99-7654, 2003 WL
Simons, United States v., 206 F.3d 392 21406289 (C.D. Cal. Mar. 7, 2003),
(4th Cir. 2000), 326, 327, 328 717, 728, 729
Smith v. Maryland, 442 U.S. 735 Ticketmaster Corp. v. Tickets.com, Inc.,
(1979), 324, 325, 326, 680 No. CV 99-7654, 2000 WL 525390
Smolik v. Philadelphia & Reading Co., (C.D. Cal. Mar. 27, 2000), 193
222 F. 148 (S.D.N.Y. 1915), 130 Ticketmaster Corp. v. Tickets.com, Inc.,
Sony Computer Entm’t, Inc. v. Connec- No. CV99-7654, 2000 WL 1887522
tix Corp., 203 F.3d 596 (9th Cir. (C.D. Cal. Aug. 10, 2000), 39, 726, 727
2000), 719, 720 Tiffany (NJ) Inc. v. eBay Inc., 600
Sony Corp. of Am. v. Universal City F.3d 93 (2d Cir. 2010), 477, 478, 496
Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984), Tiffany (NJ) Inc. v. eBay, Inc., 576 F.
334, 346, 347, 348, 349, 354, 355, 356, Supp. 2d 463 (S.D.N.Y. 2008), 496
357, 359, 360, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, Ting v. AT&T, 319 F.3d 1126 (9th Cir.
370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 2003), 781, 782
378, 461, 505 Toys “R” Us, Inc. v. Step Two, S.A., 318
Sony Music Entm’t, Inc. v. Does 1- F.3d 446 (3d Cir. 2003), 147
40, 326 F. Supp. 2d 556 (S.D.N.Y. Turner Broad. Sys., Inc. v. FCC, 512
2004), 412 U.S. 622 (1994), 217, 228, 229, 244,
South Dakota v. Dole, 483 U. S. 203 251, 260, 526, 529, 572
(1987), 584 Turner Broad. Sys., Inc. v. FCC, 516
Southeastern Promotions, Ltd. v. U.S. 1110 (1996), 229
Conrad, 420 U.S. 546 (1975), 556 Turner Broad. Sys., Inc. v. FCC, 910 F.
Specht v. Netscape Commc’ns Supp. 734 (D.D.C. 1995), 229
Corp., 306 F.3d 17 (2d Cir. 2002), uBid, Inc. v. The GoDaddy Group,
187, 193, 194, 726, 727 Inc., 673 F. Supp. 2d 621 (N.D. Ill.
Spence v. Washington, 418 U.S. 405 2009), 142, 150
(1974), 526 UMG Recordings, Inc. v. Veoh Net-
Stanley v. Georgia, 394 U.S. 557 (1969), works, Inc., 665 F. Supp. 2d 1099
541 (C.D. Cal. 2009), 476, 480
United States District Court for the
Eastern District of Michigan (Keith,
TABLE OF CASES xxvii

J.), United States v., 407 U.S. 297 Washington v. Heckel, 24 P.3d 404
(1972), 688 (Wash. 2001), 110, 111, 112, 113, 114,
United States Telecom Ass’n v. FCC, 115, 116
227 F.3d 450 (D.C. Cir. 2000), 381 Watchtower Bible & Tract Soc. of N. Y.,
Universal City Studios v. Corley, Inc. v. Village of Stratton, 536 U. S.
273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001), 349, 503, 150 (2002), 591
522, 530, 531, 755 Weems v. United States, 217 U.S. 349
Universal Commc’n Sys., Inc. v. Lycos, (1910), 307, 308
Inc., 478 F.3d 413 (1st Cir. 2007), 439 Windsor Mills, Inc. v. Collins & Aikman
Vance v. Universal Amusement Co., 445 Corp., 25 Cal. App. 3d 987 (1972), 191,
U.S. 308 (1980), 608 192
Vault v. Quaid Software Ltd., 847 F.2d Wong Sun v. United States, 371 U.S. 471
255 (5th Cir. 1988), 761 (1963), 312
Viacom Int'l Inc. v. YouTube, Inc., World-Wide Volkswagen Corp. v.
Nos. 07 Civ. 2103, 07 Civ. 3582, __ F. Woodson, 444 U.S. 286 (1980), 131
Supp. 2d __, 2010 WL 2532404 Yahoo!, Inc. v. La Ligue Contre le
(S.D.N.Y. June 23, 2010), 474 Racisme et l’Antisémitisme, 169 F.
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., Supp. 2d 1181 (N.D. Cal. 2001), 152,
272 U.S. 365 (1926), 307, 540 159
Virginia Pharmacy Bd. v. Virginia Citi- Yahoo!, Inc. v. La Ligue Contre le
zens Consumer Council, Inc., 425 U.S. Racisme et l’Antisémitisme, 433 F.3d
748 (1976), 550 1199 (9th Cir. 2006), 158
Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 491 U.S. Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc.,
781 (1989), 227, 228, 526, 529 427 U.S. 50 (1976), 549, 550, 551, 556
Warden v. Hayden, 387 U.S. 294 (1967), Young v. New Haven Advocate, 315
310 F.3d 256 (4th Cir. 2002), 138, 146, 150
Warshak v. United States, 490 F.3d Zeran v. America Online, Inc., 129
455 (6th Cir. 2007), 320, 330, 331 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 1997), 429, 438,
Warshak v. United States, 532 F.3d 521 439, 440
(6th Cir. 2008) (en banc), 330 Zippo Mfg. v. Zippo Dot Com, 952 F.
Warshak, United States v., No. 1:06-CR- Supp. 1119 (W.D. Pa. 1997), 136, 137
00111, 2007 WL 4410237 (S.D. Ohio
Dec. 13, 2007), 330