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ECUACIONES

DIFERENCIALES
ACT. EVALUABLE NO. 3

Sergio Loyola Ramirez


UNIDEG San Luis de la Paz, Gto.
1. PROBLEMA: Resolver la ED:
𝒚´´´ + 𝟑𝒚´´ + 𝟑𝒚´ + 𝒚 = 𝟎
𝑚3 + 3𝑚2 + 3𝑚 + 1 = 0
(𝑚 + 1)3 = 0
𝑚1 = 𝑚2 = 𝑚3 = −1
FORMULA
𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑒 𝑚1𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑥𝑒 𝑚2𝑥 + 𝑐3 𝑥 2 𝑒 𝑚3𝑥
RESPUESTA
𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑐3 𝑥 2 𝑒 −𝑥

2. PROBLEMA:
𝒚´´´ − 𝒚´´ + 𝒚´ − 𝒚 = 𝟎

𝑚3 − 𝑚2 + 𝑚 − 1 = 0 𝑚2 + 1 = 0
𝑎 = 1, 𝑏 = 0, 𝑐=1
𝑚2 (𝑚 − 1) + (𝑚 − 1) = 0 −(0) ± √0 − 4(1)(1)
2
(𝑚 − 1) + (𝑚2 + 1) = 0 √−4

2

0±𝑖
𝑚1 = 1 FORMULAS:
𝑚2 = 0 + 𝑖 𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑒 𝑚1𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑒 𝑚2𝑥
𝑚3 = 0 − 𝑖 𝑚 =∝ +𝛽𝑖
𝑦 = 𝑒 ∝𝑥 (𝑐1 cos 𝛽𝑥 + 𝑐2 sin 𝛽𝑥)

RESPUESTA:
𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑒 𝑥 + 𝑐2 cos 𝑥 + 𝑐3 sin 𝑥
3. PROBLEMA: Resolver la sig. ED. Por el método de variación de
parámetros.
𝒚´´ + 𝟒𝒚´ + 𝟑𝒚 = 𝒆−𝒙 , 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒚(𝟎) = 𝟐, 𝒚´(𝟎) = 𝟏
𝑚2 + 4𝑚 + 3 = 0
(𝑚 + 1)(𝑚 + 3) = 0
𝑚1 = −1
𝑚2 = −3

𝑦 = 𝑐1 𝑒 𝑚1𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑒 𝑚2𝑥
𝑦𝑐 = 𝑐1 𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −3𝑥
𝑦1 = 𝑒 −𝑥
𝑦2 = 𝑒 −3𝑥
𝑦`1 = −𝑒 −𝑥
𝑦`2 = −3𝑒 −3𝑥
𝑦1 𝑦2
𝑤 = [𝑦` 𝑦`2 ]
1
−𝑥
𝑤 = [ 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑒 −3𝑥 ] = (𝑒 −𝑥 ∗ −3𝑒 −3𝑥 ) − (−𝑒 −𝑥 ∗ 𝑒 −3𝑥 ) = −3𝑒 −4𝑥 + 𝑒 −4𝑥
−𝑒 −3𝑒 −3𝑥
= −2𝑒 −4𝑥
0 𝑦2
𝑤1 = [ ]
𝑓(𝑥) 𝑦`2

𝑤1 = [ 0 𝑒−3𝑥 ] = (0) − (𝑒−𝑥 )(𝑒−3𝑥 ) = −𝑒 −4𝑥


𝑒−𝑥 −3𝑒−3𝑥
𝑦 0
𝑤2 = [ 1 ]
𝑦`1 𝑓(𝑥)
−𝑥
𝑤2 = [ 𝑒 −𝑥 0 ]=(𝑒 −𝑥 )(𝑒 −𝑥 ) − 0 = 𝑒 −2𝑥
−𝑒 𝑒−𝑥
𝑤1 𝑤2
𝑢´1 = , 𝑢´2 =
𝑤 𝑤
−𝑒−4𝑥 1 1 1
𝑢´1 = = ; 𝑢1 = ∫ 𝑢´1 𝑑𝑥 = ∫ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥
−2𝑒−4𝑥 2 2 2
𝑒 −2𝑥 𝑒 2𝑥 1 2𝑥
𝑒 2𝑥
𝑢´2 = =− ; 𝑢2 = ∫ 𝑢´2 𝑑𝑥 = − ∫ 𝑒 𝑑𝑥 = −
−2𝑒−4𝑥 2 2 4

𝑦𝑝 = 𝑢1 ∗ 𝑦1 + 𝑢2 ∗ 𝑦2
1 −𝑥
𝑒 2𝑥 −3𝑥
𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 𝑒 −𝑥
𝑦𝑝 = 𝑥 ∗ 𝑒 + − ∗𝑒 = −
2 4 2 4
𝑦(𝑥) = 𝑦𝑐 + 𝑦𝑝

−𝑥 −3𝑥
𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 𝑒 −𝑥
𝑦(𝑥) = 𝑐1 𝑒 + 𝑐2 𝑒 +( − )
2 4
𝑥 1
𝑦(𝑥) = 𝑐1 𝑒 −𝑥 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −3𝑥 + 𝑒 −𝑥 ( − )
2 4
Condiciones iniciales:
𝑦(0) = 2
0 1
2 = 𝑐1 𝑒 −0 + 𝑐2 𝑒 −30 + 𝑒 −0 ( − )
2 4
1
2 = 𝑐1 + 𝑐2 −
4
9
= 𝑐1 + 𝑐2
4
𝑑
(𝑢 ∗ 𝑣) = 𝑢´𝑣 + 𝑢𝑣´
𝑑𝑥
𝑑 𝑢
𝑒 = 𝑒 𝑢 ∗ 𝑢´
𝑑𝑥
−𝑥 −3𝑥 −𝑥
𝑥 1 𝑒 −𝑥
𝑦´(𝑥) = −𝑐1 𝑒 − 3𝑐2 𝑒 −𝑒 ( − )+
2 4 2
𝑦´(0) = 1

−0 −30 −0
0 1 𝑒 −0
1 = −𝑐1 𝑒 − 3𝑐2 𝑒 −𝑒 ( − )+
2 4 2
1 1
1 = −𝑐1 − 3𝑐2 + +
4 2
4 3
− = −𝑐1 − 3𝑐2
4 4
1
= −𝑐1 − 3𝑐2
4

9
= 𝑐1 + 𝑐2
4
1
= −𝑐1 − 3𝑐2
4
10
= −2𝑐2
4
10 5
𝑐2 = − =−
8 4
9 5
= 𝑐1 −
4 4
14
= 𝑐1
4

14 −𝑥 5 −3𝑥 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥 1 −𝑥
𝑦(𝑥) = 𝑒 − 𝑒 + − 𝑒
4 4 2 4
RESPUESTA
13 −𝑥 5 −3𝑥 𝑥𝑒 −𝑥
𝑦(𝑥) = 𝑒 − 𝑒 +
4 4 2