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Since the phase impedances of a balanced star- or delta-connected load contain equal currents, the

phase power is one-third of the total power. As a definition, the voltage across the load impedance and
the current in the impedance can be used to compute the power per phase.

Let's assume that the angle between the phase voltage and the phase current is θ, which is equal to the
angle of the impedance. Considering the load configurations given in Fig. 3-22, the phase power and the
total power can be estimated easily.

03fig22.gifFigure 3-22. Per-phase powers in (a) a delta-connected load and (b) a star-connected load.

In the case of Fig. 3-22a, the total active power is equal to three times the power of one phase.

Equation 3.50


Equation 3.51


Since the line current 03inl04.gif in the balanced delta-connected loads, if this equation is substituted
into equation 3.51, the total active load becomes

Equation 3.52

In Fig. 3-22b, however, the impedances contain the line currents Iline (= phase current, Iphase) and the
phase voltages 03inl05.gif). Therefore, the phase active power and the total active power are

Equation 3.53


Equation 3.54


If the relationship between the phase voltage and the line voltage (03inl06.gif) is used, the total active
power becomes identical to the equation developed in equation 3.52. This means that the total power in
any balanced three-phase load (Δ- or Y-connected) is given by equation 3.52.

Similarly, the total reactive and the total apparent power in the three-phase balanced ac circuits can be
given by

Equation 3.55

Equation 3.56


Power Measurement Techniques

In the three-phase power systems, one, two, or three wattmeters can be used to measure the total
power. A wattmeter may be considered to be a voltmeter and an ammeter combined in the same box,
which has a deflection proportional to VrmsIrms cos θ, where θ is the angle between the voltage and
current. Hence, a wattmeter has two voltage and two current terminals, which have + or − polarity signs.
Three power measurement methods utilizing the wattmeters are described next, and are applied to the
balanced three-phase ac load.

1 Two-Wattmeter Method

This method can be used in a three-phase three-wire balanced or unbalanced load system that may be
connected Δ or Y. To perform the measurement, two wattmeters are connected as shown in Fig. 3-23.

03fig23.gifFigure 3-23. Two-wattmeter method in star- or delta-connected load.

In the balanced loads, the sum of the two wattmeter readings gives the total power. This can be proven
in a star-connected load mathematically using the power reading of each meter as

Equation 3.57

If the difference of the readings is computed,

Equation 3.58


which is 03inl07.gif times the total three-phase reactive power. This means that the two-wattmeter
method can also indicate the total reactive power in the three-phase loads and also the power factor
(see Fig. 3-24).

03fig24.gifFigure 3-24. Three-phase voltage phasors used in the two-wattmeter method.

2 Three-Wattmeter Method

This method is used in a three-phase four-wire balanced or unbalanced load. The connections are made
with one meter in each line as shown in Fig. 3-25. In this configuration, the total active power supplied to
the load is equal to the sum of the three wattmeter readings.

Equation 3.59


03fig25.gifFigure 3-25. The wattmeter connections in the three-phase four-wire loads.

3 One-Wattmeter Method
This method is suitable only in three-phase four-wire balanced loads. The connection of the wattmeter is
similar to the drawing given in Fig. 3-25. The total power is equal to three times the reading of only one
wattmeter that is connected between one phase and the neutral terminal.

3.8.1 Virtual Instrument Panel

The objective of this section is to understand the powers and the power measurement techniques
associated with the three-phase ac circuits. Fig. 3-26 illustrates the front panel of the VI named Three
phase power measurements.vi.


A ceiling Fan has a wattage of approx 80 watt. The CRT TV has wattage of 40 to 60 Wattage.

As per the data above , the ceiling fan consumes more electricity.

To be specific, see the wattage details of your fan and CRT TV and calculate as below.

P(Watt) = V(Voltage)* I (current)

Consumed Current I = P(Watt) / V(Voltage)

Let me simplify things for you.

Power of an appliance indicates the rate at which the electrical energy is converted into the other forms
of energy.

Different electrical appliances have different power ratings, which show how much energy they use per
second. The SI unit of power being Watt.

In general, higher the power rating, higher the energy consumption.

Homes and other buildings have the electricity meters to measure the amount of electricity consumed.

The unit marked on the electricity meter is kilowatt-hour.

One kilowatt-hour is the energy consumed by 1 kW appliance in one hour.

Energy consumed = Power(kW) * Time(hours)

Suppose the 75 Watt fan runs for 10 hours (10 P.M. to 8 A.M.) then the energy consumed is given by;

E = 0.075 * 10 kWh = .75 kWh.

Now, if the energy consumed seems more to you, then check the power rating of the fan. Calculate the
energy consumed manually. If you still feel something is amiss, contact the electrician immediately.

Stand by power or as it is more unconventionally known as "Vampire power" ,is basically the wattage of
power consumed by your devices while they are "switched off". Your device (in this case "Idiot box")
might be running certain imperative activities such as

1.)Maintaining signal reception capability

2.)Monitoring temperature or other conditions

3.)Powering an internal clock ,Continuous display etc. even though it might be on standby .

All of these activities demand certain power consumption and herein comes into play the standby power
which your device is absorbing.

Statistical Analysis.

On an average , modern HD LCD television may use less than 1 W in standby mode (Source Wikipedia) .
More rigorous statistics from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory suggest that older CRT monitor
televisions absorb a standby power of around 1.5 watts.

Here is the link Standby Power : Data

The active power consumption of a 34-inch TV is around 90 watts.Lets assume this to be the basis of our
postulation. Further we can safely assume that your TV runs for about 10 hrs in a day.Rest of the 14 hrs it
remains on standby.

So as per the assumptions , we have 90 X 10 = 900 Wh (Watt-hour) or 0.9 KWh of active electricity
consumption by your TV in a day.

Standby consumption amounts to 1.5 x 14 =21 Wh or 0.021 KWh in a day.

Basic maths tells us that (0.021/0.921 ) X 100 = 2.28 % of electricity is used by TV when on standby for a