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Upcoming Chapters

Metal Removal
Cutting-Tool Materials
Metal Removal Methods
Machinability of Metals
Chapter 10
Single Point Machining
Turning Tools and Operations
Turning Methods and Machines
Grooving and Threading
Boring Operations
Shaping and Planing

Hole Making Processes


Drills and Drilling Operations
Drilling Methods and Machines
Boring Operations and Machines
& Machines
Reaming and Tapping

Multi Point Machining


Milling Cutters and Operations
Milling Methods and Machines
Broaches and Broaching
Saws and Sawing

Abrasive Processes
Grinding Wheels and Operations
10.1 Introduction
Grinding Methods and Machines
Boring, also called Internal Turning, is used to increase the inside diameter of a hole.
Lapping and Honing
The original hole is made with a drill, or it may be a cored hole in a casting. Boring
achieves three things:
Sizing: Boring brings
the hole to the proper
size and finish. A drill
or reamer can only be
used if the desired size
is ‘standard’ or if special
tools are ground. The
boring tool can work to
any diameter and it will
give the required finish
by adjusting speed, feed
and nose radius. Preci-
sion holes can be bored FIGURE 10.1: Adjustable boring bar for precision holes.
using micro adjustable (Courtesy: National Acme Co. Div. DeVlieg-Bullard, Inc.)
boring bars (Fig. 10.1)
Straightness: Boring
will straighten the original drilled or cast hole. Drills, especially the longer ones,
George Schneider, Jr. CMfgE may wander off- center and cut at a slight angle because of eccentric forces on
Professor Emeritus the drill, occasional hard spots in the material, or uneven sharpening of the drill
Engineering Technology (see Fig. 8.10). Cored holes in castings are almost never completely straight.
Lawrence Technological University The boring tool being moved straight along the ways with the carriage feed will
Former Chairman correct these errors.
Detroit Chapter ONE Concentricity: Boring will make the hole concentric with the outside diameter
Society of Manufacturing Engineers within the limits of the accuracy of the chuck or holding device. For best
Former President concentricity, the turning of the outside diameter and the boring of the inside
International Excutive Board diameter is done in one set-up, that is, without moving the work between
Society of Carbide & Tool Engineers operations. The basics discussed in Chapters 4 and 5, the Turning Chapters, also
Lawrence Tech. Univ.: http:// apply to boring. However, with boring there are a number of limitations that must
www.ltu.edu be taken into account in order to reach a high stock removal rate combined with
Prentice Hall: http://www.prenhall.com satisfactory accuracy, surface finish and tool life. Therefore, in this chapter the
limitations that distinguish internal turning from external turning will be discussed
in greater detail. A typical boring operation is shown in Figure 10.2.

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Chap. 10: Boring Operations & Machines

w o r k p i e c e , obtained. The sharp cutting edge


which results penetrates the material more easily
in the deflec- but it is also more easily changed or
tions. damaged by edge or other uneven
The tan- wear.
gential force Edge wear means that the geom-
will try to etry of the insert is changed,
force the resulting in a reduction in the
tool down- clearance angle. Therefore, with
wards and finish machining it is the required
away from surface finish of the workpiece that
t h e determines when the insert must be
c e n t e r l i n e . changed. Generally, the edge wear
Due to the should be between .004 and .012
curving of inches for finishing and between
the internal .012 and .040 inches for rough
FIGURE 10.2: Typical horizontal boring operation. (Courtesy Sandvik hole diam- machining.
Coromant Co.) eter the Lead Angle: The lead angle
c l e a r a n c e affects the axial and radial directions
10.2 Boring Operations angle will also be reduced. Therefore of the cutting forces. A small lead
Most of the turning operations that with small diameter holes it is angle produces a large axial cutting
occur with external turning are also to particularly important that the clear- force component while a large lead
be found in boring. With external ance angle of the insert be sufficient angle results in a larger cutting force
turning, the length of the workpiece in order to avoid contact between in the radial direction. The axial
does not affect the tool overhang and the tool and the wall of the hole. cutting force has a minimal negative
the size of the tool holder can be chosen The radial deflection will reduce effect on the operation since the
so that it withstands the forces and the cutting depth. In addition to the force is directed along the boring
stresses that arise during the operation. diametrical accuracy being affected, bar. To avoid vibrations, it is
However, with internal turning, or bor- the chip thickness will change with consequently advantageous to choose
ing, the choice of tool is very much the varying size of the cutting a small lead angle but, since the
restricted by the work piece’s hole di- forces. This causes vibration, which lead angle also affects other factors
ameter and length. is transferred from the cutting edge such as the chip thickness and the
A general rule, which applies to to the tool holder. The stability of direction of the chip flow, a compro-
all machining, is to minimize the the tool and clamping will be the mise often has to be made.
tool overhang in order to obtain the factor that determines the magnitude The main disadvantage of a small
best possible stability and thereby of the vibration and whether it is lead angle is that the cutting forces
accuracy. With boring the depth of amplified or dampened. are distributed over a shorter section
the hole determines the overhang. Insert Geometry: The geometry of the cutting edge than with a large
The stability is increased when a of the insert has a decisive influence lead angle. Furthermore, the cutting
larger tool diameter is used, but even on the cutting process. A positive edge is exposed to abrupt loading
then the possibilities are limited insert has a positive rake angle. The and unloading when the edge enters
since the space allowed by the insert’s edge angle and clearance and leaves the workpiece. Since
diameter of the hole in the angle together will equal less than boring is done in most cases, in a
workpiece must be taken into consid- 90 degrees. A positive rake angle pre-machined hole and is designated
eration for chip evacuation and radial means a lower tangential cutting as light machining, small lead angles
movements. force. However, a positive rake generally do not cause a problem.
The limitations with regards to angle is obtained at the cost of the Lead angles of 15 degrees or less
stability in boring mean that extra clearance angle or the edge angle. are normally recommended. How-
care must be taken with production If the clearance angle is small there ever, at a lead angle of 15 degrees
planning and preparation. By under- is a risk of abrasion between the the radial cutting force will be
standing how cutting forces are tool and workpiece and the friction virtually double that of the cutting
affected by the tool geometry and can give rise to vibration. In those force with a 0 degree lead angle. A
the cutting data chosen, and also c a s e s
understanding how various types of where the
boring bars and tool clamping will rake angle
affect the stability, deflection and is large
vibration can be kept to a minimum. and the
edge angle
10.3 Cutting Forces is small, a
On engagement, the tangential force s h a r p e r
and the radial cutting force will at- c u t t i n g FIGURE 10.3: Typical indexable insert boring bar with 0 deg lead angle.
tempt to push the tool away from the edge is
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Chap. 10: Boring Operations & Machines

typical indexable insert boring bar insert ge-


with a 0 degree lead angle is shown o m e t r y
in Figure 10.3. that, to-
Nose Radius: The nose radius of gether with
the insert also affects the distribution the selected
of cutting forces. The greater the machining
nose radius, the greater the radial parameters,
and tangential cutting forces, and the fulfill the
emergence of vibration. However, require-
this is not the case with radial ments for
cutting forces. The deflection of the good chip
tool in a radial direction is instead control. At
affected by the relationship between the same FIGURE 10.4: Various sizes and styles of boring bars. (Courtesy Dorian
the cutting depth and the size of the time, the Tool)
nose radius. If the cutting depth is machine,
smaller than the nose radius, the boring bar
radial cutting forces will increase and tool
with increased cutting depth. If the clamping
cutting depth is equal to or greater must pro-
than the size of the nose radius, the vide suffi-
radial deflection will be determined cient stabil-
by the lead angle. Therefore, it’s a ity in order
good idea to choose a nose radius to resist the
which is somewhat smaller than the c u t t i n g FIGURE 10.5: Boring bars are often required to reach long distances
cutting depth. In this way the radial forces that into parts to remove stock. (Courtesy Sandvik Coromant Co.)
cutting forces can be kept to a arise.
minimum, while utilizing the advan- During boring operations the chip reach long distances into parts to
tages of the largest possible nose flow can be critical, particularly remove stock (see Fig. 10.5).
radius, leading to a stronger cutting when deep holes are being ma- Hence, the rigidity of the machining
edge, better surface finish and more chined. The centrifugal force operation is compromised because
even pressure on the cutting edge. presses the chips outwards. With the diameter of the tool is restricted
boring, this means that the chips by the hole size and the need for
10.4 Chip Breaking and Evacuation remain in the workpiece. The added clearance to evacuate chips.
Obtaining relatively short, spiral remaining chips could get pressed The practical overhang limits for
shaped chips is the goal in internal into the machined surface or get steel boring bars is four times their
turning. These are easy to evacuate jammed and damage the tool. shank diameter. When the tool
and do not place such large stresses on Therefore, as with internal turning, overhang exceeds this limit, the
the cutting edge when chip breaking tools with an internal cutting fluid metal removal rate of the boring
occurs. Hard breaking of the chips, i.e. supply are recommended. The chips operation is compromised signifi-
when short chips are obtained, de- will then be flushed out of the hole cantly due to lack of rigidity and the
mands power and can increase vibra- effectively. Compressed air can be increased possibility of vibration.
tion in the boring bar. However, this is used instead of cutting fluid and Boring Bar Deflection: The size
preferred over having long chips, with trough holes; the chips can be of the boring bar’s deflection is
which can make chip evacuation more blown through the spindle and dependent on the bar material, the
difficult. Chip breaking is affected by a collected in a container. diameter, the overhang and size of
number of factors such as the insert the radial and tangential cutting
geometry, nose radius, lead angle, cut- 10.5 Boring Rigidity forces. Boring bar deflection can be
ting depth, feed and cutting speed. Part geometries can have external turn- calculated, but such calculations are
Generally, reduced feed and/or in- ing operations as well as internal op- beyond the scope of this book.
creased cutting speed results in longer erations. Internal single point turning Increasing the diameter of the tool
chips. The shape of the chip breaker is referred to as boring, and can be to create an increased moment of
affects the radius of the chip, where utilized for either a roughing or finish- inertia can counteract this deflection.
any built-up edge or crater wear can ing operation. Single point boring Choosing a boring bar made of a
also act as chip breaker. The direction tools consist of a round shaft with one material that has a higher coefficient
in which the chips flow and the way insert pocket designed to reach into a of elasticity can also counteract
that they turn in the spiral, is affected part hole or cavity to remove internal deflection. Since steel has a lower
by the lead angle or the combination of stock in one or several machine passes. coefficient of elasticity than ce-
cutting depth and nose radius. Figure 10.4 shows various sizes and mented carbide. Cemented carbide
The parameters that affect chip styles of boring bars. boring bars are better for large
control also affect the direction and The key to productivity in boring overhangs.
size of the cutting force. Therefore, operations is the tool’s rigidity. Compensating for Deflection:
it is necessary to choose a grade and Boring bars are often required to Even with the best tool clamping,

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Chap. 10: Boring Operations & Machines

some vibration tendency will occur shank of the bar at a distance


in boring. Radial deflection affects that gives the required over-
the machined diameter. Tangential hang. The bar is then fed into
deflection means that the insert tip is the holder and clamped by FIGURE 10.7: Single-point boring bar.
moved in a downward direction means of a screw connection or (Courtesy Morse Cutting Tools)
away from the centerline. In both by being held in the turret.
cases the size and direction of the Less efficient are those tool-
cutting forces are affected by clamping methods where the
changes in the relationship between screw clamps onto the bar.
the chip thicknesses and insert This form generally results in
geometry. vibration and is not recom-
If the exact size of the deflection mended. Above all, this FIGURE 10.8: Adjustable boring head for
of the insert tip is known in method must not be used for single-point boring tools. (Courtesy
advance, then the problem can be the clamping of cemented car- Kennametal Inc.)
avoided. By positioning the insert bide bars. Cemented carbide is
tip distance above the centerline, the more brittle than steel and
insert under the effect of the cracks will occur as a result of
tangential force, will take up the vibration, which in turn may
correct position during machining. result in breakage.
In the same way, setting the machine
at a cutting depth that is greater than 10.6 Boring Bars
the desired cutting depth compen- Boring bars are made in a wide
sates for the radial deflection. When variety of styles as shown in Fig-
cutting begins, the radial cutting ure 10.4. Single-point boring
force reduces the cutting depth. bars (Fig. 10.7) are easily ground
Even if the approximate deflection but difficult to adjust when they
can be calculated, the practical are used in turret and automatic
outcome will be somewhat different lathes and machining centers, un-
because the clamping is never abso- less they are held in an adjustable FIGURE 10.9: Adjustable boring bar with fine-
tuning adjustment. (Courtesy Valenite Inc.)
lutely rigid and because it is holder (Fig. 10.8).
impossible to calculate the cutting More expensive boring bars
force exactly. are provided with easily adjust-
Boring Bar Clamping: The slight- able inserts. These bars are
est amount of mobility in the fixed made in standard sizes, with a
end of the boring bar will lead to range of 1/4 to 1/2 inch on
deflection of the tool. The best the diameter. A fine adjustment
stability is obtained with a holder is included in increments of
that completely encases the bar. 0.001 inch or in some cases
This type of holder is available in 0.0001 inch. They are standard
two styles: a rigid (Fig. 10.6a) or up to about 6 inches in diam-
flange mounted bar, or a divided eter. A boring bar with FIGURE 10.10: Adjustable boring bar with two
block (Fig. 10.6b) that clamps when adjustments is shown in Figure indexable inserts. (Courtesy Kennametal Inc.)
tightened. With a rigidly mounted 10.9. A different style of
bar, the bar is either preshrunk into adjustable boring bar with two
the holder and/or welded in. With indexable inserts is shown in
flange mounting, a flange with a Figure 10.10.
through hole is normally used. The Standard boring bars with
flange is usually glued onto the interchangeable heads to permit
various internal op-
erations such as
turning, profiling,
grooving, and
threading are shown
(a) in Figure 10.11.
Many times it
may be economical FIGURE 10.11: Standard boring bar with
to order special interchangeable heads for various internal
bars with two or operations such as turning, profiling, grooving,
more preset diam- and threading. (Courtesy Valenite Inc.)
(b) eters, set at the
proper distance
FIGURE 10.6: Two proper boring bar clamping methods. apart. These spe-

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Chap. 10: Boring Operations & Machines

Other special boring bars, • Choose the smallest possible over-


sometimes called boring hang but, at the same time, ensure that
heads, are designed with re- the length of the bar allows the recom-
placeable cartridges. A twin mended clamping lengths to be
cutter adjustable boring tool is achieved.
shown in Figure 10.13. Vari- • A 0 degree lead angle should be used.
ous replaceable cartridges for The lead angle should, under no cir-
special boring heads are cumstances be more than 15 degrees.
shown in Figure 10.14. • The indexable inserts should be posi-
Boring Bar Types: Boring tive rake that results in lower cutting
bars are available in steel, forces.
solid carbide, and carbide- • The carbide grade should be tougher
reinforced steel. The capacity than for external turning in order to
to resist deflection increases withstand the stresses to which the
FIGURE 10.12: Special multi-operation boring
bar. (Courtesy: National Acme Co. Div. Devlieg-
as the coefficient of elasticity insert is exposed when chip jamming
Bullard, Inc.) increases. Since the elasticity and vibration occur.
coefficient of carbide is three • Choose a nose radius that is smaller
cial bars cost more and are generally times larger than that of steel, than the cutting depth.
only used when large quantities carbide bars are preferred for large Modern boring bars are designed to
make their use economical. Some- overhangs. The disadvantage of take into account the demands that
times this may be the only way to carbide is its poor ability to with- must apply because the operation is
hold the required tolerances and stand tensile stresses. For carbide- performed internally and the dimen-
concentricity. Such a special boring reinforced bars, the carbide sleeves sions of the tool are determined by the
bar is shown in Figure 10.12. are pre-stressed to prevent tensile hole depth and the hole diameter.
stresses. With a positive rake insert geometry,
Boring bars can be equipped less material deformation and low
with ducts for internal cooling, cutting forces are obtained. The tool
which is preferred for internal should offer good stability to resist the
turning. An internal coolant cutting forces that arise and also to
supply provides efficient cooling reduce deflection and vibration as
of the cutting edge, plus better much as possible. Due to space
chip breaking and chip evacua- requirements, satisfactory chip control
tion. In this way a longer tool and good accessibility are also proper-
life is obtained and quality ties of greater importance than with
problems, which often arise due external turning.
to chip jamming, are avoided.
Boring Bar Choice: When 10.7 Boring Machines
planning production, it is very Boring operations can be performed on
important to minimize cutting other than boring machines, such as
FIGURE 10.13: A twin-cutter adjustable boring
head with indexable Trigon inserts. (Courtesy forces and to create conditions lathes, milling machines, and machin-
Komet of America, Inc.) where the greatest possible sta-
bility is achieved so that the
tool can withstand the stresses that
always arise. The length and
diameter of the boring bar will be of
great significance to the stability of
the tool. Since the appearance of
the workpiece is the decisive factor
when selecting the minimum over-
hang and maximum tool diameter
that can be used, it is important to
choose the tool, tool clamping and
cutting data which minimize, as
much as possible, the cutting forces
which arise during the operation.
The following recommendations
should be followed in order to
obtain the best possible stability: FIGURE 10.15: A typical boring
• Choose the largest possible bar diam- operation performed on a lathe; a steady
eter, but at the same time ensure that rest is being used to provide support for
FIGURE 10.14: Various indexable there is enough room for chip evacua-
replaceable cartridges used in special the part being machined. (Courtesy
boring heads. (Courtesy Valenite Inc.)
tion. Sandvik Coromant Co.)

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Chap. 10: Boring Operations & Machines

Column

Ways

Headstock
Spindle
Cross-sliding
Y
column

Z Column base
W Ways

Table Runway

FIGURE 10.18: Principal parts of a floor-


type horizontal boring machine (HBM).

an HBM is the diameter of the


spindle. Table-type machines usu-
FIGURE 10.16: Table-type horizontal boring machine (HBM) (Courtesy Summit ally have spindles from 3 to 6
Machine Tool Manufacturing Corp.) inches diameter. The larger sizes
will transmit more power and,
10.7.1 Horizontal equally important, the spindle will
Boring not sag or deflect as much when
Machines using a heavy cutting tool while
(HBM) extended. The size is further
The HBM is made to specified by the size of the table.
handle medium to very Although each machine has a ‘stan-
large-sized parts, but dard’ size table, special sizes may be
these parts are usually ordered. The principal parts of the
somewhat rectangular horizontal boring machine are shown
in shape, though they in Figure 10.18.
may be asymmetrical or Work Holding: Work holding is
irregular. The available with clamps, bolts, or fixtures, the
cutting tools only limit same as with other machines. Ro-
the size of cut, the ri- tary tables allow machining of all
gidity of the spindle, four faces of a rectangular part or
and the available horse- various angle cuts on any shape of
power. There are two part. Rotary tables up to 72 inches
types of Horizontal Bor- square or round are used for large
ing Machines: work. If large, rather flat work is to
Table-type Horizontal be machined, an angle plate is used.
Boring Machines The workpiece is bolted or clamped
(HBM) onto the angle plate so that the ‘flat’
The table-type face is toward the spindle. Figure
HBM shown in Figure 10.19 shows a five-axis ram-style
FIGURE 10.17: Large part being machined on a table-type 10.16 is built on the machining center. Parts can be
horizontal boring machine. (Courtesy WMW Machinery Co., same principles as the clamped to the table and numerically
Inc.) horizontal-spindle (NC or CNC) positioned to perform
milling machines. a boring operation.
ing centers. A typical boring operation The base and column are fastened Cutting Tools: Cutting tools are
performed on a lathe is shown in Fig- together, and the column does not held in the rotating spindle by a
ure 10.15. A steady rest is being used move. The tables are heavy, ribbed tapered hole and a drawbar. To
to provide support for the part being castings which may hold loads up to speed up the process of tool chang-
machined. 20,000 pounds. Figure 10.17 shows ing, either or both of two things are
Boring machines, like most other a large part being machined on a done:
machine tools, can be classified as table-type horizontal boring machine. • The drawbar (which pulls the tapered
horizontal or vertical: Size of HBM: The basic size of tool holder tightly into the spindle
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Chap. 10: Boring Operations & Machines

0.1 to 40 IPM are com-


monly used.

Floor Type Horizontal


Boring Machine (HBM)
The floor type HBM
(Fig. 10.18) is used for
especially tall or long
workpieces. The ‘stan-
dard’ 72-inch runway can
be made almost any
length required for spe-
cial jobs. Lengths of 20
feet are in use today.
The height of the column,
which is usually 60 to 72
inches, can be made to
order up to twice this
FIGURE 10.19: Five-axis ram-style height if the work re-
machining center. (Courtesy Giddings
quires it. Figure 10.20
and Lewis, LLC)
shows a large floor-type
horizontal boring ma-
chine.
hole) can be power operated. Thus, the HBM Table: The table
holder is pulled tight or ejected very is separate from the bor- FIGURE 10.21: Vertical boring machine (VBM).
quickly. ing machine though it is, (Courtesy Summit Machine Tool Manufacturing Corp.)
• Quick-change tooling is used. A of course, fastened to the
basic holder is secured in the spindle. floor. It may be bolted 10.7.2 Vertical Boring
It has a taper into which tools may be to the runway. Machines (VBM)
secured by a quarter to half turn of the The entire column and column
A general description of a vertical bor-
locking collar. Thus, the operator can base move left and right (the X axis) ing machine would be that it is a lathe
change preset tools in 10 to 30 seconds. along special ways on the runway turned on end with the headstock rest-
Tool holders and quick-change (Fig. 10.18). The runway must be ing on the floor. This machine is
tool holders in particular will be carefully aligned and leveled when it needed because even the largest engine
discussed in the milling chapters. is first installed, and then checked at
lathes cannot handle work much over
Speeds and Feeds: Speeds and intervals as the machine is used. 24 inches in diameter. A vertical bor-
feeds cover a wide range because of HBM Headstock: The headstock
ing machine is shown in Figure 10.21.
the wide variety of cutters that may can be moved accurately up and Today’s VBMs are often listed as
be used on the HBM. Speeds from down the column (the Y axis). The turning and boring machines. If
15 to 1500 RPM and feed rates from 6 to 10 inch diameter spindle rotates facing is added to that name, it
to do the machining. It is moved in
and out (the Z pretty well describes the principal
uses of this machine. Just like any
axis) up to 48
lathe, these machines can make only
inches for boring
cut, drilling, setting round cuts plus facing and contour-
ing cuts.
the depth of mill-
Figure 10.22 shows the general
ing cuts, etc. As
in the table-type construction and the motions avail-
able on the VBM. The construction
HBM, the spindle
is the same as that of the double-
diameter and table
size specify the housing planer, except that a round
table has been substituted for the
machine size.
long reciprocating table, and the
Cutting Tools:
Cutting tools are toolholders are different since the
VBM does not need clapper boxes.
the same as those
The size of a vertical boring
used on the table-
type machine. machine is the diameter of the
revolving worktable. The double-
Work holding is
housing VBM is most often made
also the same, and
angle plates are fre- with table diameters from 48 inches
FIGURE 10.20: Large floor-type horizontal boring machine. to 144 inches. Larger machines
quently used.
(Courtesy WMW Machinery Co., Inc.)

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Chap. 10: Boring Operations & Machines

Turret head
Swivel ram head Turret head
Crossrail

Crossrail

Column Sidehead

Column

Column Table
Base Base

Front View Side View

FIGURE 10.22: General construction, components and


motions of a vertical boring machine (VBM).

have been made for special work. A rather larg e VBM


is shown in Figure 10.23.
FIGURE 10.23: Large Vertical Boring Machine (Courtesy: WMW
10.7.3 Jig Borers Machinery Co., Inc.)
Jig borers are vertical boring machines with high preci-
sion bearings. They are available in various sizes and
used mainly in tool rooms for machining jigs and fixtures.
More versatile numerically controlled machines are now
replacing many jig borers.

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