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4x7

E
List of Symbols
Symbol Definition Dimensions SI units

Roman symbols
a Area L2 m2
a Area per unit volume L-1 m -1
a Mass of dry gel M kg
A Amplitude L m
A Arthenius constant T-1 $ -1
A Area L2 m2
Ac Cross-sectional area L2 m2
Ai Inner surface area L2 m2
Ao Outer surface area L2 m2
b Length of bowl L m
b Thickness L m
B Thickness L m
6" Mass of cake solids deposited L-3M kgm -3
per volume of filtrate
C Geometry parameter in Eq. (8.44) 1 m

C Concentration L-3M kgm -3


CA Concentration of component A L-3M kgm -3
Concentration of component A L-3M kgm -3
in the bulk fluid
C^c Concentration of component A L-3M kgm -3
in gas
Concentration of component A L-3M kgm -3
in the lower phase
CAL Concentration of component A L-3M kgm -3
in liquid
Steady-state concentration of L-3M kgm -3
component A in liquid
c~0 Solubility of component A in L-3M kgm -3
liquid at zero solute
concentration, Eq. (9.45)
A,min Minimum concentration of L-3M kgm -3
component A
C^o Concentration of component A L-3M kgm -3
in the bulk fluid
c. Surface concentration of L-3M kgm -3
component A
C~s Average concentration of L-3M kgm -3
component A in the solid phase
CASm Maximum concentration of L-3M kgm -3
component A in the solid phase
CAn Concentration of component A L-3M kgm -3
in the upper phase
Ccrit Critical concentration L-3M kgm -3
r Concentration at reaction L-3M kgm -3
equilibrium
Appendices 4x8

CiL Concentration of ionic L-3M gm 3


component i in liquid
CjL Concentration of non-ionic L-3M k g m -3
component j in liquid
Specific heat capacity L2T- 2 0 - l j k g - I K -1
Specific heat capacity of cold L2T-2@-I Jkg-I K-I
fluid
Specific heat capacity of hot L2T-20-I J k g - I K -1
fluid
Mean heat capacity L2T-2e- ! j k g - l K -!
Specific heat capacity of cooling water L2T-20- I j kg-I K -1
D Dilution rate T-I S-1
D Diameter L m
Db Bubble diameter L m
Critical dilution rate for washout T-l s-I
Dcrit
Di Impeller diameter L m
Do Orifice diameter L m
-!
Dop, Dilution rate for optimum T-! S
biomass productivity
Particle diameter L m
Da Damk6hler number defined in 1
Eq. (13.102)
r Base of natural logarithms 1
Enzyme concentration L-3M k g m -3
Ca Concentration ofacdve enzyme L-3M k g m -3
,s'k Kinetic energy per unit mass L2T-2 Jkg -!
Potential energy per unit mass L2T-2 Jkg-1
Quantity of enzyme (Section
11.1.3)
E Molar activation energy L2MT-2N-! J mol-l
E Energy L2MT-2 J
e. Molar activation energy for L2MT - 2N - I J mol-l
deactivation reaction
Ek Kinetic energy L2MT-2 J
E Potential energy L2MT-2
/P Function
J

F Shear force LMT-2 N


F Fraction of cells carrying plasmid l
F Volumetric flow rate LYI,- ! m3s-i
F Volumetric flow rate of gas LYl-- l m 3 s-I
Volumetric flow rate of liquid Lyl-- I m 3 s-I
Volumetric flow rate of the recycle stream LYl-.-l m3s-I
g Gravitational acceleration LT-2 m s -2
g~ Force unity bracket 1
G Specific gravity 1
G Free energy of formation L2MT-2 J
GO Standard free energy of formation L2MT-2 J
AG;~ Change in molar free energy for L2MT-2N-1 J mol- l
reaction under standard conditions
Gr Grashofnumber defined 1
byEq. (8.41) or (12.51)
b Height L m
b Specific enthalpy L2T-2 Jkg - l
h Heat-transfer coefficient MT-30-I Wm-2K-1
MT-30-I Win-2 K-I
ho Heat-transfer coefficient for cold fluid
Ah~ Molar heat of combustion L2MT-2N-I J mol- 1
A~ Molar heat of combustion under L2MT- 2N- l J mol- l
standard conditions
Appendices 419
i

Ahf Specific latent heat of fusion L2T-2 Jkg -1


hfc Fouling factor for cold fluid M T - 30-1 Wm-2K-1
Fouling factor for hot fluid MT- 30-1 Wm-2K-1
hi., Heat-transfer coefficient for hot fluid MT-30-1 Wm-2K-1
Ahm Molar integral heat of mixing L2MT-2N-t J mol- t
Ahr~ Specific heat of reaction L2T-2 Jkg -1
Specific latent heat of sublimation LZT-2 Jkg -1
Ahv Specific latent heat of vaporisation L2T-2 Jkg -1
H Henry's constant L2T-2 m2 s-2
H Height L m
H Enthalpy L2MT-2 J
/-//~ Enthalpy of component A L2MT-2 J
/-/B Enthalpy of component B L2MT-2 J
Hi Parameter in Eq. (9.45) L3N-~ m 3 mol- 1
AHm Heat of mixing L2MT-2 J
Hrof Enthalpy of the reference state L2MT-2 J
~Wr,,. Heat of reaction L2MT-2 J
Aq~n Heat of reaction under standard conditions L2MT-2 J
AHr,,n Rate of heat absorption or L2MT-3 W
liberation by reaction
J^ Mass flux of component A L- 2MT- 1 kgm-2 s-1
k Thermal conductivity LMT- 30-1 Wm-1K-1
k Geometry parameter in Eq. (7.11) 1
k Mass-transfer coefficient LT-1 ms-1
k Capacity factor defined in Eq. (10.37) 1
k Rate constant
ko Zero-order rate constant L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s-1

k'o Specific zero-order rate T-1 s-1


constant for enzyme reaction
Specific zero-order rate T-l s-1
constant for cell reaction
kl First-order rate constant T-1 s-1
kl Proportionality constant in Eq. (7.19) 1
k_ l Reverse-reaction rate constant
k~ Turnover number T-1 s -1
ka First-order deactivation rate T-1 s -1
constant
ke,, Thermal conductivity of LMT-30-1 Wm-1K-1
bulk fluid
kG Gas-phase mass-transfer coefficient LT-1 ms -1
kt, Liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient LT-1 ms -1
ks Liquid-phase mass-transfer LT-1 ms -1
coefficient for transfer to or from a solid
K Constant of integration
K Consistency index for power-law fluids L- 1MT"- 2 Pa sn
K Reaction equilibrium constant
K Partition coefficient 1
Parameter defined in Eq. (10.13) L-6T m-6s
Parameter defined in Eq. (10.14) L-3T m-3s
/cA Constant in Eq. (10.30) L3M-1 m 3 kg -1
Parameter in Eq. (10.31)
x,:; Overall gas-phase mass-transfer coefficient LT-1 ms -1
Parameter in Eq. (9.45) L3N-t m 3 mol- 1
xi., Overall liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient LT-1 ms -1

Xm Michaelis constant L-3M kgm -3


tq, Constant in Eqs (7.9) and (7.10)
X,, Partition coefficient 1
Xs Substrate constant L-3M kgm -3
Appendices 41o

ICy Shape factor 1 -


L Length L m
m Distribution or partition coefficient 1 -
mp Specific rate of product T- 1 s- 1
formation due to maintenance activity
m S Maintenance coefficient T- 1 S- 1
M Torque L2MT -2 Nm
M Mass M kg
M Mass flow rate MT- 1 kg s - 1
Mass of component A M kg
Mass of cake solids M kg
~c Mass flow rate of cold fluid MT- 1 kg s - l
Mh Mass flow rate of hot fluid MT- l kg s - 1
Initial mass of medium M kg
Ms Mass flow rate of steam MT-l kg s - 1
Mass of liquid evaporated M kg
q, Mass flow rate of evaporated liquid MT- l kg S- 1
Mw Mass flow rate of cooling water MT- 1 kg s - 1
tl Mole N mol
n Flow behaviour index for power-law fluids 1
n Number of impellers 1 -
n Number of generations 1 -
n Adsorption parameter in Eq. (10.31) 1 -
N Number of viable cells 1 -
N Number of discs I -
N Number of passes 1 -
N Number of theoretical plates 1 -
~Vl Number of viable cells at the 1 -
beginning of the holding period
Number of viable cells at the 1 -
end of the holding period
N^ Rate of mass transfer of component A MT-i kg s-1
/v^ Volumetric rate ofmass transfer ofcomponent A L-3MT -I kg m -3 S-1
iv, Rotational speed T- 1 s- 1
N*I Minimum stirrer speed for suspension ofsolids T- l s- l
Minimum stirrer speed for complete T- l s- 1
dispersion of gas
N~R Minimum stirrer speed for gross recirculation of gas T- l S
-1

Np Power number defined by Eq. (7.17)


Constant value of the power number
in the turbulent regime
Nu Nusselt number defined in Eq. (8.37) 1 m

P Probability ofplasmid loss 1


P Pressure L-IMT-2 Pa
P Product concentration L-3M kgm -3
Pl Product concentration in the first reactor L-3M kgm -3
P2 Product concentration in the second reactor L-3M kgm -3
PAG Partial pressure of component A in gas L-1MT-2 Pa
PT Total pressure L-1MT-2 Pa
P Power L2MT-3 W
P Mass of product M kg
Power consumption without sparging L2MT-3 W
/'0
Pg Power consumption with sparging L2MT-3 W
Pe Peclet number defined in Eq. (13.101) 1
Pr Prandtl number defined in Eq. (8.40) 1
Appendices 4Zl

Heat evolved per mole of L2MT - 2N - 1 j mol- 1


available electrons transferred to oxygen
Heat flux MT-3 Wm-2
Specific oxygen-uptake rate T-1 -1
qo s

Specific rate of product formation T-1 -1


qv s

Specific rate ofsubstrate consumption T-1 -1


qs s
Q Volumetric flow rate L3T-I m 3 s-1
Q Heat L2MT-2 J
O. Rate of heat flow L2MT-3 W
Rate of heat transfer to cold fluid L2MT-3 W
Rate of heat transfer from hot fluid L2MT-3 W
Qo Volumetric rate of oxygen uptake L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s -1
Qp Volumetric rate of product formation L-3MT-I kgm-3 s-1
Volumetric rate ofbiomass production L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s-I
Qx
Maximum volumetric rate of L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s-1
Qm, max
biomass production
Radius L m
Volumetric rate of reaction L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s-1
Inner radius of centrifuge disc L m
Radius of the liquid surface in a L m
tubular centrifuge
Outer radius of centrifuge disc L m
Inner-wall radius of a tubular centrifuge L m
Volumetric rate of reaction with L-3MT-l kgm-3 s -1
respect to component A
rh, Volumetric rate of reaction with L-3MT- 1 l~m-3s-1
respect to component A at the bulk concentration
rA,obs Observed volumetric rate of L-3MT- 1 kgm-3s-1
reaction with respect to component A
rL Volumetric rate of reaction with L-3MT-1 kgm-~-I
respect to component A at the
surface concentration
rC Volumetric rate of consumption by reaction L-3MT-1 kgm-3s-1
rd Volumetric rate of deactivation L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s-I
rm Filter medium resistance L-1 m-1
rp Volumetric rate of product formation L-3MT-I kgm-3s-1
rS Volumetric rate ofsubstrate consumption L-3MT-I kgm-3s-1
rx Volumetric rate of cell growth L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s-1
rx+ Volumetric rate of growth of L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s-1
plasmid-carrying cells
x-- Volumetric rate of growth ofplasmid-free cells L-3MT- 1 kgm-3s-i
rZ Volumetric rate of reaction with L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s-1
respect to component Z
Ideal gas constant L2MT - 2O - 1N - 1 J mo1-1 K-1
Radius L m
Thermal resistance L-2M-IT30 KW-1
Amount of protein released M kg
in a homogeniser
R Total rate of reaction MT-1 gs 1

R0 Radius at which substrate is depleted L m

RA Total rate of reaction with MT-I kg~-I


respect to component A
Re Thermal resistance in cold fluid L-2M-IT30 KW-1
Re Total rate of consumption by reaction MT-1 kgs -1

RG Total rate of generation by reaction MT-1 gs 1

Rh Thermal resistance in hot fluid L-2M-1T30 KW-I


Ri Inner radius L m
Appendices 4zz

Rm Resistance to mass transfer T s


Rm Maximum amount of protein M kg
available for release in a homogeniser
Rmax Maximum particle radius L m
RN Resolution in chromatography 1 -
Ro Outer radius L m
Rw Thermal resistance of a wall L-2M - 1T30 K W- 1
Re Reynolds number defined in Eq. (7.1) 1 -
Re i Impeller Reynolds number defined in Eq. (7.2) 1
R c max Maximum Reynolds number 1 -
Rep Particle Reynolds number 1 -
defined in Eq. (12.48)
RQ Respiratory quotient 1 -
$ Cake compressibility 1 -
$ Substrate concentration L - 3M kg m - 3
51 Substrate concentration in the first reactor L - 3M kg m - 3
52 Substrate concentration in the second reactor L-3M kg m-3
sb Bulk substrate concentration L - 3M kg m - 3
S Mass ofsubstrate M kg
S Molar entropy L2MT - 2 0 - I N - ~ J K- ~ mol- 1
S(:, Mass of substrate consumed for growth M kg
AS~,n Molar entropy change during L2MT - 2O - 1N - l J K- l mol- l
reaction under standard conditions
SR Mass ofsubstrate consumed other than for growth M kg
ST Total mass ofsubstrate consumed M kg
Sx External surface area L2 m2
Sc Schmidt number defined by Eq. (12.49) 1 -
Sh Sherwood number defined by Eq. (12.50) 1
t Time T s
t1 Time at the end of the heating period T s
Time at the end of the holding period T s
tb Batch reaction time T s
tc Circulation time T s
td Doubling time T s
tdn Total downtime T s
tpo Fed-batch time T s
th Half-life T s
thd Holding time T s
thv Time taken to harvest culture T s
t1 Lag time T s
tm Mixing time T s
tp Reactor-preparation time T s
tT Total batch reaction time T s
T Temperature O K
AT~ Arithmetic-mean temperature difference O K
Tc Cold-fluid temperature O K
T~w Cold-fluid temperature at the wall O K
TF Fermenter temperature O K
Th Hot-fluid temperature O K
Thw Hot fluid temperature at the wall O K
~TL Logarithmic-mean temperature difference O K
Tref Reference temperature O K
Ts Steam temperature O K
Linear velocity LT- 1 m s- 1
u Interstitial velocity LT- 1 m S- 1
u Specific internal energy L2T -2 J kg-1
uc Sedimentation velocity in a centrifuge LT- 1 m S- 1
Ug Sedimentation velocity under gravity LT- 1 m S- 1
Appendices 42,3

uG Gas superficial velocity LT- 1 ms-I

uL Liquid linear velocity LT-I ms -1

uL Liquid superficial velocity LT-I ms -1


u~ Liquid velocity at which reaction rate becomes LT-I ms -1
independent of liquid velocity
UpL Velocity of a particle relative to liquid LT-I ms -1
U Internal energy L2MT-2 J
U Overall heat-transfer coefficient MT-30-I Wm-2K-1
v Specific volume L3M-1 m 3 kg -1
/.I Velocity MT-I ms -1
Volumetric rate of reaction L-3MT-1 kgm-3 s-1
Maximum volumetric rate of reaction L-3MT-I kgm-3 s-1
V Volume L3 m3
Vl Volume of the first reactor L3 m3
Volume of the second reactor L3 m3
Volume ofeluant L3 m3
vf Volume of filtrate L3 m3
vG Volume of gas L3 m3
Internal volume L3 m3
Volume of lower phase L3 m3
Volume of liquid L3 m3

Vo Void volume L3 m3
V Particle volume L3 m3
Volume of solid L3 m3
VT Total volume L3 m3

L Volume of upper phase L3 m3


w Baseline width L m
Impeller blade width L m
w, Water regain value L3M-I m 3 kg -1
w, Shaft work L2MT-2 J
Rate of shaft work L2MT-3 W
wf Flowwork L2MT-2 J
x Distance L m
x Cell concentration L-3M kgm -3
x+ Concentration ofplasmid-carrying cells L-3M kgm -3
x- Concentration ofplasmid-free cells L-3M kgm -3
Mean value of x
Xl Cell concentration in the first reactor L-3M kgm -3
x 2 Cell concentration in the second reactor L-3M kgm -3
x C Number of carbon atoms 1
in.the molecular formula
Xim Concentration of immobilised cells L-3M kgm -3

Xmax Maximum cell concentration L-3M kgm -3

Xr Concentration of cells in the recycle stream L-3M kgm -3

Xs Concentration of suspended cells L-3M kgm -3


X Mass of cells M kg
Y Distance L m

Y Wave displacement L m
YAG Mole fraction of component A in gas 1
YC Weight fraction of cells 1
YI Yield in the lower phase 1
.Yvs True yield of product from substrate 1
r'ps Observed yield of product from substrate 1
rpx True yield of product from l~iomass 1
Y'vx Observed yield of product from biomass 1
ro Yield in the upper phase 1
Yxo Yield ofbiomass from oxygen 1
Yxs True yield ofbiomass from substrate 1
Appendices 424

r Observed yield ofbiomass from substrate 1


Yxs
Maximum yield ofbiomass from substrate 1 m
Yxs,max
z Distance L m
z Concentration of cellular constituent Z L-3M kgm -3

Valency of ionic component i


g-number in centrifugation

Script symbols
2~ Diffusion coefficient L2T-1 m2s-1
Binary diffusion coefficient L2T-I m2s-1
of component A in component B
Ae Effective diffusivity of component A L2T-! m2s-I

~L Binary diffusion coefficient L2T - ! m2s-I


of component A in liquid
~Aw Binary diffusion coefficient L2T-I m2s-I
of component A in water
Effective diffusivity ofsubstrate L2T-! m2s-l
Axial-dispersion coefficient L2T - l m2s-l

Greek symbols
Specific cake resistance LM- i mkg -l
a Exponent in Eq. (10.23) 1
a Ratio defined in Eq. (11.65) 1
Recycle ratio defined in Eq. (13.77) 1
or' Parameter defined in Eq. (10.2)
Thermal coefficient of linear expansion O-1 K-1
Dimensionless parameter equal to r.,/c~ 1
Biomass concentration factor 1
defined in Eq. (13.78)
Y Degree of reduction 1
Y Shear rate T-l S-1
Average shear rate T-! S-1
YB Degree of reduction ofbiomass 1
~p Degree of reduction of product 1
rs Degree of reduction ofsubstrate 1
Selectivity in chromatography 1
8c Concentration factor 1
A Difference
E Fractional gas hold-up 1
E Porosity 1 m
s Void fraction 1
s Rate of turbulent energy L2T - 3 Wkg-I
dissipation per mass of fluid
E Time inter;ral T S
G Fraction of available electrons 1
transferred to biomass
tie External effectiveness factor 1
rico External effectiveness factor for zero-order reaction 1
rl d External effectiveness factor for first-order reaction 1
l~em External effectiveness factor 1
for Michaelis-Menten reaction
r/i Internal effectiveness factor 1
r/i0 Internal effectiveness factor for zero-order reaction 1
r~il Internal effectiveness factor for first-order reaction 1
r]im Internal effectiveness factor 1
for Michaelis-Menten reaction
r/T Total effectiveness factor 1
Appendices 4z$

~T1 Total effectiveness factor 1


for first-order reaction
0 Half-cone angle 1 rad
;L Kolmogorov scale L m
p Specific growth rate T-1 S-1
f Specific growth rate ofplasmid-carrying cells T-I S-1

f Specific growth rate ofplasmid-free cells T-1 S-1


p Viscosity (dynamic) L-1MT-1 Pa s
P~ Apparent viscosity L-1MT-1 Pa s
Bulk-fluid viscosity L-IMT-1 Pa s
Filtrate viscosity L-1MT-I Pa s
Liquid viscosity L-1MT-I Pa s
Pma~ Maximum specific growth rate T-1 S-1
Fluid viscosity at the wall L-1MT-I Pa s
v Kinematic viscosity L2T-1 m 2 s-1
vL Liquid kinematic viscosity L2T-1 m 2 s-1

3.14159 1
P Density L-3M kgm-3
P~ Fluid density L-3M kgm -3
pg Density of wet gel L-3M kgm -3

PG Gas density L-3M kgm -3

PL Liquid density L-3M kgm-3


Particle density L-3M gm 3

9w Density of water L-3M kgm -3


a Surface tension MT-2 Nm-l
a Standard deviation
Z Summation
Z Centrifuge sigma factor defined L2 m2
in Eq. (10.18)
Average residence time T s
"t" Shear stress L-1MT-2 Pa
To Yield stress L-1MT-2 Pa
r Angle 1 rad
r Thiele modulus 1
r Thiele modulus for zero-order reaction 1
r Thiele modulus for first-order reaction 1
r Thiele modulus for Michaelis-Menten reaction 1
Observable Thiele modulus 1
Volume fraction of solids 1
Parameter defined in Table 12.3 1
O9 Angular velocity T-1 rad s -1
1"2 Angular velocity T-1 rad s -1
/'2 Observable modulus for external mass transfer 1

Subscripts
0 Initial
f Final
i Inlet
i Interface
L Logarithmic mean
o Outlet

Superscripts
Equilibrium with prevailing value in the other phase