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OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HYGIENE V

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SELECTED CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM OCCUPATIONAL
SAFETY AND HYGIENE (SHO 2017), GUIMARÃES, PORTUGAL, 10–11 APRIL 2017

Occupational Safety and Hygiene V

Editors
Pedro M. Arezes
University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal

João Santos Baptista


University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

Mónica P. Barroso, Paula Carneiro, Patrício Cordeiro


& Nélson Costa
University of Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal

Rui B. Melo
Technical University of Lisbon, Cruz Quebrada—Dafundo, Portugal

A. Sérgio Miguel & Gonçalo Perestrelo


University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal

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Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

Table of contents

Foreword xi

Environmental risk assessment for discharge of hazardous ship waste 1


F. Ferreira, C. Jacinto & H. Vaz
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as a model for accessing ergonomic risk 7
E.F. dos Santos, K.B. de Oliveira & A.S. de Carvalho
Risk evaluation in the transportation of dangerous goods 13
D.M.B. Costa, M.V.T. Rabello, E.B.F. Galante & C.V. Morgado
Understanding the management of occupational health and safety risks through
the consultation of workers 17
I. Castro & D.G. Ramos
Influence of cold thermal environment on packing workers from the frozen food
processing industry 23
T. Zlatar, B. Barkokébas Jr, L. Martins, M. Brito, J.T. Costa, M. Vaz & J. Santos Baptista
Risk mapping and prioritization—case study in a Brazilian industrial laundry 29
G.L. Ribeiro, A.N. Haddad & E.B.F. Galante
Blood alcohol concentration effect on driving performance: A short review 35
N. Durães, S. Ferreira & J. Santos Baptista
HazOp study in a wastewater treatment unit 41
J.E.M. França, G.F. Reis, A.N. Haddad, E.B.F. Galante, D.M.B. Costa & I.J.A. Luquetti dos Santos
A framework for developing safety management competence 47
S. Tappura & J. Kivistö-Rahnasto
Workaholism and burnout: Antecedents and effects 53
G. Gonçalves, F. Brito, C. Sousa, J. Santos & A. Sousa
Are there health risks for teenagers using mobile phones? A study of phone use amongst 14–18 year olds 59
J. Fowler & J. Noyes
Wearable technology usefulness for occupational risk prevention: Smartwatches
for hand-arm vibration exposure assessment 65
I. Pavón, L. Sigcha, J.M. López & G. De Arcas
Accompanied method risk management and evaluation method of exposure
risks to biological agents 71
R. Veiga, I. Miguel & C. Pires
The importance of Workplace Gymnastics and of the Rehydrating Serum to the
health of the rural sugarcane worker 75
A.R.B. Martins, B. Barkokébas Jr, B.M. Vasconcelos & A.R.M. de Moraes
Thermal sensation assessment by young Portuguese adults in controlled settings 81
D.A. Coelho & P.D. Silva
Measurement of physical overload in the lumbar spine of baggage handlers at a Brazilian airport 87
L.F. Monteiro, J.W. dos Santos, V.V. Franca, V.M. dos Santos & O.L.S. de Alsina

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Occupational exposure assessment of ramp operators of a Brazilian airport to the heat and noise 93
L.F. Monteiro, J.W. dos Santos, V.V. Franca, M.B.G. dos Santos & O.L.S. de Alsina
The health and welfare of working judges in Brazil: A quantitative and qualitative analysis 99
F.M. Junior, C. Pereira & M. Santos
Risk assessment of chemicals used in a brewery and safety function analysis of a large container 105
J. Freitas, C. Jacinto, C. Martins & A. Correia
Levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in firemen from the Northeast of Portugal 111
M. Oliveira, K. Slezakova, M.C. Pereira, A. Fernandes, M.J. Alves,
C. Delerue-Matos & S. Morais
Improving the thermophysiological behaviour of sports players with human
body cooling techniques 117
A.M. Raimundo, M.D. Ribeiro, D.A. Quintela & A.V.M. Oliveira
Management tools for workplace safety in building sites—implementation and evaluation 123
E.M.G. Lago, B. Barkokébas Jr, F.M. da Cruz & M.C.B.S. Valente
Whole-body vibration exposure in forklift operators—a short review 127
C. Botelho & M. Luisa Matos
Effects of noise on the cognitive response of BAJA vehicles operators: A case study 133
F.M. da Cruz, B. Barkokébas Jr, E.M.G. Lago & A.V.G.M. Leal
Health and safety guidelines in laboratories of higher education centers 137
F.G. dos Santos, F.M. da Cruz, B. Barkokébas Jr & E.M.G. Lago
Safety in the maintenance of elevators in residential buildings 143
B.M. Vasconcelos, B. Barkokébas Jr, E.M.G. Lago & E.N. Carvalho
Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in classrooms of schools: Risk assessment
for primary school teachers 147
K. Slezakova, M.C. Pereira, J. Madureira, E. de Oliveira Fernandes, M. Oliveira,
C. Delerue-Matos & S. Morais
The process of knowledge transmission and regulation of work and its relation to the aging process 153
L. Silva & L.M. Cunha
Performance evaluation of PC mice 157
M.L. Lourenço & D.A. Coelho
Nanomaterials in textiles and its implications in terms of health and safety 163
D.G. Ramos & L. Almeida
Evaluation of environmental risks and security of work in a metallurgical industry 169
M.B.G. Santos, S.A. Colaço, T.C.F. Da Silva, Y.I.A. Nóbrega & L.F. Monteiro
Occupational risks in the Disassembly, Transportation and Reassembly (DTR) operations
of drilling probes 175
A.R. Thais, M.B.G. Santos & O.O. Ronildo
Recognition of hazards in worker exposure to salt dust: Practical study on saltworks of
Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil 181
P.C. Neto, T.C.N.O. Pinto, J.A. da Silva, A.M.T. Bon & C.C. Gronchi
Contributions of participatory ergonomics in research involving people with disabilities 187
G.S. Ribeiro & L.B. Martins
Neck and upper limb musculoskeletal symptoms in assembly line workers of an automotive
industry in Portugal 193
M. Guerreiro, F. Serranheira, E.B. Cruz & A. Sousa-Uva
The prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) in professional
bus drivers—a systematic review 199
A. Cardoso & M. Luisa Matos

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Determinants of workplace occupational safety and health: A case study 203
A. Kawecka-Endler & B. Mrugalska
Joinpoint regression analysis applied to occupational health indicators: An example
of application to Spain 209
S. Martorell, V. Gallego & A.I. Sánchez
Psychosocial risk management in the service industry: Linking motivation and performance 215
J. Guadix, J.A. Carrillo-Castrillo, D. Lucena & M.C. Pardo-Ferreira
Safety culture in Andalusian construction sector 221
J. Guadix, J.A. Carrillo-Castrillo, V. Pérez-Mira & M.C. Pardo-Ferreira
Historical and scientific review—whole body vibration exposure in urban bus drivers 225
S. Barbosa & M. Luisa Matos
Exposure to chemical mixtures in occupational settings: A reality in oncology day services? 231
S. Viegas, A.C. Oliveira & M. Pádua
Management system maturity assessment based on the IMS-MM: Case study in two companies 235
J.P.T. Domingues, P. Sampaio, P.M. Arezes, I. Inácio & C. Reis
Occupational noise in urban buses—a short review 241
M. Cvetković, D. Cvetković & J. Santos Baptista
Integrated management systems—short review 247
C. Correia, M.J. Mendes & J. Santos Baptista
Typification of the most common accidents at work and occupational diseases in tunnelling
in Portugal 253
M.L. Tender & J.P. Couto
Topics for the prevention of accidents in tunnels—the Marão Tunnel experience 257
M.L. Tender, J.P. Couto, J. Baptista & A. Garcia
Livestock-associated MRSA colonization of occupational exposed workers and households
in Europe: A review 263
E. Ribeiro & A.S. Zeferino
Using BIM for risk management on a construction site 269
J. Fernandes, M.L. Tender & J.P. Couto
Factors influencing quality of accident investigations—a case study 273
M. Shahriari & M.E. Aydin
Worker’s nasal swab: A tool for occupational exposure assessment to bioburden? 277
C. Viegas, V. Santos, R. Moreira, T. Faria, E. Ribeiro, L.A. Caetano & S. Viegas
Pilot study regarding vehicles cabinets and elevator: Neglected workstations in occupational
exposure assessment? 283
C. Viegas, T. Faria, L.A. Caetano, E. Carolino & S. Viegas
Effect of a safety education program on risk perception of vocational students: A comparative
study of different intervention methodologies 289
M.A. Rodrigues, C. Vales & M.V. Silva
Ergonomic design intervention in a coating production area 293
M.F. Brito, A.L. Ramos, P. Carneiro & M.A. Gonçalves
Eye blinking as an indicator of fatigue and mental effort in presence of different
climatic conditions 299
R.P. Martins & J.M. Carvalho
Quantitative risk assessment of tower cranes based on conformity 305
F.O. Nunes & P.E. Lamy
Underground coal mine explosions: Main parameters to think about 311
M.K. Gökay & M. Shahriari

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An overview of occupational diseases: Recognition and certification processes 317
D. Ferreira & L. Cunha
Control Banding applied to engineered nanomaterials: Short review 323
A. Pereira, A.C. Meira Castro & J. Santos Baptista
Health effects on workers exposed to engineered nanomaterials: Short review 329
A. Pereira, A.C. Meira Castro, J.T. Costa & J. Santos Baptista
Impacts of the operation of vibratory machines on the health of workers in the rock
processing industries: Systematic review 335
A.M. do Couto & B. Barkokébas Jr
Environmental risks associated with falls on sidewalks: A systematic review 341
E.R. Araújo & L.B. Martins
The safety culture and noise level of a beverage industry 347
B.A.B. Nóbrega, M. Lourdes, B. Gomes, R.M. Silva, A.M. Oliveira & D.A.M. Pereira
Risk-taking behavior among drivers and its correlation with dangerousness, and
sensation seeking 351
H. Boudrifa, M. Aissi, H. Cherifi & D.Z. Dalila
Thermal stress and acclimation effects in military physiological performance 357
J. Duarte, A. Ferraz, J.C.C. Guedes, M. Álvares, J.A.R. Santos, M. Vaz & J. Santos Baptista
Non-ionizing radiation in vertical residences of heat islands, João Pessoa, Brazil 363
R.B.B. Dias, L.B. Silva, E.L. Souza, M.B.F.V. Melo, C.A. Falcão & J.F. Silva
Experience in working shifts: The spouses/partners vision of shift workers and day workers 369
D. Costa, I.S. Silva & A. Veloso
Total Productive Maintenance implementation. A way to improve working conditions 375
M.F. Valério & I.L. Nunes
Emotional demands of physiotherapists activity: Influences on health 381
L.S. Costa & M. Santos
Exposure to pollutants in nightlife establishments 387
V. Custódio, J.P. Figueiredo & A. Ferreira
Thermal environment in the hospital setting 393
D. Guimarães, H. Simões, A. Ferreira & J.P. Figueiredo
Study on injuries/diseases in workers in the municipality of Coimbra, Portugal 399
M. Afonso, S. Paixão, S. Cabral, J.P. Figueiredo & A. Ferreira
The essence of ergonomic innovation in modern manufacturing enterprises 403
A. Dewicka, A. Kalemba & A. Zywert
Ergonomic analysis in the industry of beverages expedition sector 407
B.A.B. Nóbrega, L.L. Fernades, A.M. Oliveira, D.A.M. Pereira, W.R.S. Silva & G.A.S. Biazzi
Indoor radon in dwellings: An increment to the occupational exposure in
Portuguese thermal spas 411
A.S. Silva & M.L. Dinis
Hazards identification during design phase 415
F. Rodrigues, A. Barbosa & J. Santos Baptista
Non-ionizing radiation levels in environments with VDT of UFPB’s technology center,
João Pessoa, Brazil 419
S.L. Silva, L.B. Silva, M.B.F.V. Melo, E.L. Souza & T.R.A.L.A. Cunha
Measurement of the reverberation time and sound level for improvement acoustic condition
in classrooms—a case study 423
A.P. Meran & M. Shahriari

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WRMSDs symptomatology in home care service workers: Risk factors associated to the
work activity 427
D. Chagas & F. Ramalho
Does workload influence the prevalence of neck pain in Portuguese physiotherapists? 431
A. Seixas, T. Marques & S. Rodrigues
Impaired sense of balance in an ergonomic evaluation of forklift operators 435
A. Zywert, A. Dewicka & G. Dahlke
“HugMe”—Validation of a prototype of an inclusive toy for children 441
R. Ferreira, D. Matos, F. Soares, V. Carvalho & J. Gonçalves
Review of the state of knowledge of the BIM methodology applied to health and safety
in construction 447
A.J.A. Aguilera, M. López-Alonso, M. Martínez-Rojas & M.D. Martínez-Aires
Analysis of whole-body vibrations transmitted by earth moving machinery 453
M.L. de la Hoz-Torres, M. López-Alonso, D.P.R. Padillo & M.D. Martínez-Aires
Mental workload of nurses at an intensive care unit, João Pessoa, Brazil 457
R.L. Silva & L.B. Silva
Application of statistical tools to the characterization of noise exposure of
urban bus drivers 461
L. Pedrosa, M. Luisa Matos & J. Santos Baptista
Mental health and well-being among psychologists: Protective role of social support at work 467
C. Barros, C. Fonte, S. Alves & I. Gomes
The application of TRIZ and SCAMPER as innovative solutions methods to ergonomic
problem solving 473
A. Kalemba, A. Dewicka & A. Zywert
Diagnosis of occupational hygiene and safety of work in an industry of the footwear sector 479
J.C.M. Cunha, M.B.G. Santos, R.S. Carvalho, P.B. Noy & M.B. Sousa
Influence of different backpack loading conditions on neck and lumbar muscles activity
of elementary school children 485
S. Rodrigues, G. Domingues, I. Ferreira, L. Faria & A. Seixas
Risk perception associated with noise-induced hearing loss. State of the art and design
of interactive tools for workers training and awareness 491
L. Sigcha, I. Pavón, L. Gascó, J.E. González, J. Sánchez-Guerrero & D.M. Buitrago
Psychosocial risks in radiographers work 497
A. Neves, D. Durães, A. Saraiva, H. Simões & J.P. Figueiredo
Management of the activity of the safety coordinator 503
C.M. Reis, C. Oliveira, A.A.M. Márcio & J. Ferreira
Control Banding—Qualitative risk assessment system for chemical handling tasks: A review 509
P.E. Laranjeira & M.A. Rebelo
Prevalence and incidence of upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders at repetitive
task workstations in a dairy factory 513
A. Raposo, J.T. da Costa, R. Pinho & J. Santos Baptista
Particle exposure levels in cement industries 519
D. Murta, H. Simões, J.P. Figueiredo & A. Ferreira
Safety control evaluation of food storage in mass caterer 525
A.L. Baltazar, J.P. Figueiredo & A. Ferreira
Risk perception and hearing protector use in metallurgical industries 529
I.C. Wictor, A.A. de P. Xavier & A.O. Michaloski

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Standards of heat stress—a short review 535
T.F.O. Galvan, A.O. Michaloski & A.A. de P. Xavier
LEED certification in a commercial enterprise in Brazil 541
G.M. Zellin, A.S.C. Fernandes, L.A. Alves & J.L. Fernandes
Chemical risks of plant protection products—preventive measures 547
A.L. Baltazar, A. Ferreira, A. Lança, D. Barreira, J. Almeida & T. Neves
Effect of occupational activity on ambulatory blood pressure behavior in university teachers 551
J. Pereira, A. Teixeira & H. Simões
A proposal for a project plan on quality, human resources and stakeholders for events
in the tourism area 555
G.R. Freitas, J.L. Fernandes, A.S.C. Fernandes & L.A. Alves
Occupational exposure to chemical agents released on cooking processes at professional kitchens 559
A. Ferreira, A. Lança, D. Barreira, F. Moreira, J. Almeida & T. Neves
Bacteria load a surrogate to assess occupational exposure to bioaerossols? 563
A. Monteiro, M. Santos, T. Faria, C. Viegas & S.C. Verde
Health risks for the public and professionals exposed to sewage wastewaters: A review on
legislation and regulatory norms in Brazil 569
S.D. Santos & T. Zlatar
Noise propagation emitted by the pile driver in building sites inside the urban zone 575
E.M.G. Lago, P. Arezes & B. Barkokébas Jr
Fragmented occupational identities. A study on Portuguese and British contact centre workers 579
I.M.B. Roque
An integrated risk assessment and management for the rehabilitation of a university department 585
L.A. Alves, E.G. Gravatá, A.S.C. Fernandes, J.S. Nobrega & E.G. Vazquez
Development of innovative clean air suits to increase comfort and simultaneously decrease
operating room infections 591
P. Ribeiro, C. Fernandes, C. Pereira & M.J. Abreu
Identify minimum training requirements for the chainsaw operators 597
M.C.P. Ferreira, J.C.R. Romero, A. Lopez-Arquillos & F.C.G. Reyes
Risks and preventive measures in building demolitions 603
C.M. Reis, S. Paula, J. Ferreira & C. Oliveira

Author index 607

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Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

Foreword

This book is the fifth volume of the “Occupational Safety and Hygiene” series. It presents a selection or
112 articles submitted to SHO2017—International Symposium on Occupational Safety and Hygiene, the
13th edition, which is annually organised by the Portuguese Society of Occupational Safety and Hygiene
(SPOSHO). These articles were written by 395 authors from 12 different countries. Each manuscript
was peer reviewed by at least 2 of the 110 members of the International Scientific Committee of the
Symposium. These international experts cover all scientific fields of the event.
The editors would like to take this opportunity to thank the academic partners of the organisation of
SHO2017’s, namely, the School of Engineering of the University of Minho, the Faculty of Engineering
of the University of Porto, the Faculty of Human Kinetics of the University of Lisbon, the Polytechnic
University of Catalonia and the Technical University of Delft. We also would like to thank the scientific
sponsorship of more than 20 academic and professional institutions, the official support of the Portuguese
Authority for Working Conditions (ACT), as well as the valuable support of several companies and
institutions, including the media partners, which have contributed to the broad dissemination of the event.
Finally, the editors wish also to thank all the reviewers, listed below, which were involved in the process of
reviewing and editing the included papers. Without them, this book would not be possible.
To conclude, we hope that this book will be a valuable contribution to improving the results and
dissemination of research by academics involved in SHO2017. It is work done in different areas, showing
new research and methodologies, giving visibility to emerging issues and presenting new solutions in the
field of occupational safety and hygiene.

The Editors,
Pedro M. Arezes
J. Santos Baptista
Mónica P. Barroso
Paula Carneiro
Patrício Cordeiro
Nélson Costa
Rui B. Melo
A. Sérgio Miguel
Gonçalo Perestrelo

Reviewers involved in the process of reviewing and editing the papers included in this book

A. Sérgio Miguel Guilherme Buest Marino Menozzi


Alfredo Soeiro Gyula Szabó Mário Vaz
Álvaro Cunha Hernâni Neto Marta Santos
Ana Ferreira Ignacio Castellucci Martin Lavallière
Anabela Simões Ignacio Pavón Martina Kelly
Angela Macedo Malcata Isabel Loureiro Matilde Rodrigues
Antonio Lopez Arquillos Isabel Nunes Miguel Diogo
Beata Mrugalska Isabel Silva Mohammad Shahriari
Béda Barkokébas Junior J. Santos Baptista Mónica Paz Barroso
Bianca Vasconcelos Jesús Carrillo-Castrillo Nélson Costa

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Camilo Valverde João Ventura Olga Mayan
Carla Barros Jorge Gaspar Paul Swuste
Carla Viegas Jorge Patrício Paula Carneiro
Carlos Guedes Soares José Cabeças Paulo Carvalho
Catarina Silva Jose Cardoso Teixeira Paulo Flores
Celeste Jacinto José Carvalhais Paulo Noriega
Celina P. Leão José Keating Paulo Sampaio
Cezar Benoliel Jose L. Melia Pedro Arezes
Cristina Reis José Pedro Domingues Pedro Ferreira
Delfina Ramos José Torres Da Costa Pedro Mondelo
Denis Coelho Juan C. Rubio-Romero Pere Sanz-Gallen
Divo Quintela Laura Martins Ravindra Goonetilleke
Ema Leite Liliana Cunha Rui Azevedo
Emília Duarte Luis Franz Rui B. Melo
Emília Rabbani Luiz Bueno Da Silva Rui Garganta
Enda Fallon M.D. Martínez-Aires Salman Nazir
Evaldo Valladão Mª Carmen Rubio-Gámez Sérgio Sousa
Fernanda Rodrigues Mahmut Ekşioğlu Sílvia Silva
Filipa Carvalho Manuela Vieira da Silva Susana Costa
Filomena Carnide Marcelo Silva Susana Viegas
Florentino Serranheira Maria Antónia Gonçalves Teresa Patrone Cotrim
Francisco Fraga Maria José Abreu Walter Correia
Francisco Rebelo

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Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

Environmental risk assessment for discharge of hazardous ship waste

F. Ferreira & C. Jacinto


UNIDEMI, Research Unit—Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Universidade Nova de Lisboa,
Caparica, Portugal

H. Vaz
Cleanport, S.A., Lobito, Angola

ABSTRACT: This paper reports a study of an environmental and occupational risk assessment of
two processes, regarding the transfer/discharge of hazardous ship waste (sludge and oily waters). Fol-
lowing the methodology suggested by the Spanish Standard UNE 150008:2008, a number of accident
scenarios (n = 7) were created and their respective risks evaluated, focusing on environmental matters.
The results pinpointed several aspects needing priority attention, mostly within procedures and equip-
ment. To improve the safety of those processes, the authors proposed a number of recommendations.

1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND although with an emphasis on the latter case. The
processes studied were:
In the aftermath of major accidents like Seveso
1. the discharge of waste in the Port of Lobito,
or Chernobyl, specialists started to look for ways
from the ship to a truck-tanker;
to assess the risks in their industries. Interna-
2. the discharge of such waste into the company
tional Bodies provided complex methodologies
storage facilities.
like ARAMIS (Accidental Risk Assessment for
Industries in the framework of Seveso II) (Salvi The case described here focuses on one particu-
& Debray 2006), or FSA (Formal Safety Analysis) lar hazard: “spill of hazardous ship waste in the
established by the IMO (International Maritime soil and the sea water”.
Organisation) (Kontovas & Psaraftis 2009). Major The company studied is called Cleanport
accidents involving dangerous substances repre- (Lobito, Angola) and is specialized in industrial
sent a significant threat to humans and the envi- waste management, industrial cleaning and naval
ronment. Furthermore such accidents might cause maintenance.
massive economic losses and disrupt sustainable
growth (EU Directive Seveso-III 2012).
The application of some well-known methodol- 2 METHODOLOGY
ogies can be difficult due to their range being either
quite specific (narrow) or, too wide, requiring high The methodology applied in this study was selected
level knowledge of experts of different areas. That upon three factors: it is easy to understand, to apply
is why industries started to look for simpler and and provides all tools one needs to perform the risk
qualitative methods (Bahr 2006, p. 2795). analysis and assessment. Another plus is that the
The Spanish Standard UNE 150008:2008 pro- way the results are presented makes it understand-
vides a practical and easy to understand meth- able for any person who has only a notion of the
odology. It includes instructions for hazard subject matter.
identification and tools for risk evaluation. The standard UNE 150008:2008 is composed
Despite a large variety of studies on risks related of 5 main steps. It is recommended a multidiscipli-
to maritime transportation of hydrocarbons, less is nary team to take into account the several facets.
found in the literature with regard to ship’s sludge The first step is the “hazard identification”. This
and oily waters (ship waste) (eg: Ronza et al. 2006, step is essential because everything will revolve
Zuin et al 2009). around those identified hazards. The second step
The objective of this work was to carry out a risk is the “accident scenario design” where accident
assessment of two processes, regarding the transfer/ scenarios are created. The third step is called “fre-
discharge of hazardous ship waste. The assessment quency/probability estimation”. For each accident
covered both occupational and environmental risks, scenario, it is necessary to estimate its probability

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Table 1. Environmental risk assessment of accident scenario #5 (illustration example).

Accident Scenario #5

Accidental scenario Spill of sludge in the facilities (grounds/soil)


Causes of the accident Collision of truck-tanker against one of the large deposits in land
(3000 m3 capacity)
Initial element (event) Deposit rupture
Scenario description The truck-tanker hits the lateral wall of the deposit during maneuvering.
This causes a rupture and a spill
Existing control and Containment basin with 50 m3
mitigation measures Spill response equipment ready at the site
Workers are trained in containment procedures
Recommended control Maintenance and enlargement of the current containment basin
measures (additional Create a safety perimeter around the deposit, preventing vehicle access
improvement) (e.g.: concrete or iron pins)
Segmentation of the deposit
Replacement of the deposit by several others with lower capacity
Impermeabilization of the installation floor/soil

Frequency classification scores

Frequency Likely—this occurrence is directly related to an human error 2

Classification of quantity, dangerousness and extension of release

Quantity (Q) The tear in the wall is likely located 1.5 meters from the floor. Assuming 4
that the deposit is almost full, with a level height of 14 meters and
storing around 3 millions of liters, the release will correspond to the
remaining 12.5 meters of residue, which is equivalent to 2 million
and 678 thousand liters (2678 m3)
Residue average density (it depends on the quantity of water) = 0.90 kg/dm3
Q = 2.678 m3 × 0,90 kg/dm3 = ∼2410 ton > 500 ton (very high quantity)
Dangerousness Inflammable, toxic, toxic for water species 3
Extent of release Very extensive area—given the quantity of residue spilled, it is very likely 4
that it could occur underground water and sea water contamination,
since the installation is located near the coast

Natural environment classification

Acute Losses exceeding 50% of all species and biomass that were in contact 3
with the residue, only a long term recovery is possible

Human environment classification

Very high Impossible to determine the number of people affected by the 4


contaminated drinking water and the contaminated species/biomass
losses (likely to be > 100 people)

Socioeconomic environment classification

High Extensive damages to the company installations and equipment.


Might affect local livestock and agricultural activity 3

Severity of the outcome—classification (c.f. Table 2) Severity Score Classification

Natural 4 + 2 × 3 + 4 + 3 = 17 4 Serious
Human 4 + 2 × 3 + 4 + 4 = 18 5 Critical
Socioeconomic 4 + 2 × 3 + 4 + 3 = 17 4 Serious

Risk Classification
Environmental risk classification—final score (scenario #5)

Natural 2×4=8 Moderate risk


Human 2 × 5 = 10 Moderate risk
Socioeconomic 2×4=8 Moderate risk

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Table 2. Formulas for severity and environmental risk classification.

Severity on natural environment = Quantity + 2 × Dangerousness + Extent + Quality of the environment


Severity on human environment = Quantity + 2 × Dangerousness + Extent + Affected population
Severity on socioeconomic environment = Quantity + 2 × Dangerousness + Extent + Patrimony and productive
capital

Environmental risk classification = Frequency × Severity scores.

or frequency of occurrence. In this study, the esti- they expanded their activity to naval maintenance,
mation of frequency was based on the company’s as well as industrial cleanings and industrial waste
accident historical data. management. Their liquid waste storage capacity is
The forth step is “risk assessment”. This step over 7400 m3 of which 6000 m3 are reserved for oily
can be divided into two phases: “severity of the waste from ships and industrial machinery (two high
outcome” (or consequences) and “environmental capacity deposits, approximately 3000 m3 each).
risk estimation”. The severity of the outcome is The first process analysed was the discharge
estimated for three dimensions (or environments): of ship waste in the Port of Lobito. This waste is
human, natural environment and socioeconomic. discharged to a truck-tanker parked in the dock,
For that, it uses four variables, three of which are using the ship’s pump and high pressure hoses. At
common to all three dimensions. The common var- each end, there is an emergency stop button for the
iables are: the quantity of spilled/released/burned pump. This process requires one chief of opera-
residue, the dangerousness of the residue and the tions and 2 field workers. The workers are respon-
extent of release (i.e., affected area). The forth sible for the preparation and connections (hoses
variable is specific for each environment. For the and gaskets), as well as verifying the level of resi-
human dimension, it evaluates the affected popu- due in the truck-tanker. The chief of operations,
lation, whereas natural environment is assessed in addition to supervision, is responsible for the
in terms of damage caused to natural species and equipment inspection before and after the pump
alike. Finally, the socioeconomic environment is starts.
evaluated through monetary and capital losses. The second process takes place at the company’s
The standard UNE 150008:2008 provides tables facility where the land deposits are located. The pro-
with criteria and scores for all the variables used cedures are very similar to each other (i.e., from ship
in the assessment process. Some of these variables to truck-tanker and from this to land deposit). The
are rated 1–4 (being 4 the worst case), while oth- amount of residue handled in both processes may
ers are rated 1–5 (being 5 the worst case). At the vary from 5 m3 to 30 m3 (maximum capacity of tank-
end, after combining all variables, one will obtain ers), and pumps that can have a flow over 100 m3 per
the final level of risk, for which the highest level is hour. For instance, in one of the scenarios analysed
“very high risk” (scored 21–25). In this approach the estimated amount of spilled residue exceeded
the final assessment returns three risk results, one 2000 m3, which indicates a major spill event.
for each dimension (human, natural environment
and socioeconomic). As in any other methodol-
ogy, the last step (5th) refers to “recommenda- 3.2 Results and discussion
tions” where analysts should suggest measures for
As mentioned before, the main hazard analysed
improvement.
was the spill of dangerous residues, i.e., oily
The methodology is partially demonstrated in
ship waste. The 7 accidental scenarios created
Tables 1 and 2.
involved hoses and deposit ruptures, incorrect
connections, insufficient inspections and valve
malfunctions.
3 RISK ASSESSMENT
The first scenario (Acc Scenario #1) considers
a rupture in a high pressure hose during the dis-
3.1 Description of case study
charge from the ship to the truck-tanker. This task
This application case-study was carried out in the is illustrated in Figure 1.
company Cleanport, located in Lobito (Angola). This kind of accident has already occurred in
Being a fairly new company (3 years of activity), it the company and it was due to the hose degrada-
was created to help complying with the MARPOL tion. Since this work is performed outdoors, next
(marine pollution convention) in Angola, which to the sea, in a tropical country (extreme humidity,
was neglected. Their activity started in Port of radiation, high temperature), the equipment suf-
Lobito but after performing 100 services to ships, fers a fast ageing and degradation.

OSH2017_Book.indb 3 2/20/2017 9:21:06 AM


likely to be affected, hence score 4 (very high, >100
people).
With regard to the natural environment (in Acc
Scenario #1), even though this type of residue is
toxic for marine species, the quantity involved was
fairly low, resulting in a score of 2 (chronic). It is
important to note that the sediments eaten by the
species can cause mutations at medium/long term.
In relation to the socioeconomic environment, it
was found that this accident #1 would have caused
very few losses to the company, which represents a
score of 1 (very low impact in economic terms).
Using the previous scores and following step-
by-step the whole assessment procedure the final
risk for scenario #1 was found to be:
• “moderate” (9) for human environment;
Figure 1. Discharge from ship. Connecting hoses. • “medium” (12) for natural environment;
• “moderate” (9) for socioeconomic.
For demonstrating purposes, Table 1 gives a bet-
The frequency of hose rupture due to ageing was ter understanding of the assessment details, in this
estimated based on the company’s records, which case for scenario #5, in which case all three envi-
indicated that this type of occurrence happened 2 ronmental risks were classified as “moderate”.
times in the first 3 years of activity. This is trans- Table 2, on the other hand, gives the formulae
lated in a score of 3 (likely) by the UNE standard. for combining all the criteria.
Then, the variables relative to the residue (sludge) Table 3 summarises the results obtained for all
were estimated. The quantity of spilled residue was 7 accident scenarios, including a brief description
estimated using an average time of the potential of each scenario.
spill and the pumping flow.
Based on past experience, an average of 15 sec-
3.3 Recommendations
onds spill was considered plausible; such time, with
a flow of 20 m3/h, resulted on a calculated spill of This risk assessment provided the necessary
83.3 litres, which received a score of 1 (very little information as to where the main problems
quantity, <5ton). reside. The majority were related to the poor
Since hydrocarbons are inflammable and toxic, condition of the equipment. In the course of
the dangerousness was classified with a score of time, this kind of failures (blowing hoses, leaks,
3 (dangerous). Additionally, 5 occupational risks deficient joints and valves) are likely to occur
were identified: 1) contact with hazardous sub- more often. This can be avoided with an efficient
stances (through nose and mouth, via inhalation), and frequent maintenance, as well as by perform-
2) contact with a hot fluid or hose, 3) struck by ing a good rotation of the available equipment.
object (whiplash effect), 4) fall of worker against A record with hours of use, date of last mainte-
the floor, and 5) drowning in the sea. All these nance, replaced parts and description of the mal-
occupational risks were assessed as “high risk functions, can be useful to prevent/control future
level”, with the exception of “being struck” by the equipment failures.
projected hose (#3), which was classified “very As for the deposits area (storage tanks), it was
high risk”. found that a restricted perimeter should be created
As for the extent of release, in scenario #1, it was using concrete or metal pins (safety pins) to dis-
established that this accident might cause contami- able the circulation of vehicles in the vicinity. This
nation of sea water, which can affect an area over would prevent any contact between the deposits
1 km radius (score 4 - very extensive area). Even and an “object” that can cause a rupture.
though the company uses containment booms to To avoid soil contamination in the premises,
control the spill, there is always some residue left the waterproofing of the soil could be a solution.
behind and solid sediments that sink into the bot- This way, even after a spill of large proportions,
tom. Those can never be scooped from the water the contamination could be prevented and the
and are usually eaten by wild life. cleaning process would be quicker, without resort-
For the human dimension, the effect was hard ing to soil removal. It should too be performed
to classify, since a large number of people with the enlargement of the containment basin, as
food poisoning (from contaminated fish) were well as its proper and regular maintenance.

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Table 3. Environmental risk assessment results (summary table for the 7 scenarios).

Severity of the outcome Environmental risk—final risk level


Accident
Scenario Brief description Natural Human Socioeconomic Natural Human Socioeconomic

#1 Sludge spill on the 3 Moderate 4 Serious 3 Moderate 9 Moderate 12 Medium 9 Moderate


dock (hose rupture
& whiplash effect)
#2 Oily waters spill in the 3 Moderate 4 Serious 3 Moderate 9 Moderate 12 Medium 9 Moderate
dock (blowing hose)
#3 Waste spill on board of 1 Light 1 Light 1 Light 9 Moderate 9 Moderate 9 Moderate
the vessel (pump
premature initiation)
#4 Residue spill in the 3 Moderate 4 Serious 3 Moderate 6 Moderate 8 Moderate 6 Moderate
dock (Deficient joint
connections)
#5 Waste spill in the 4 Serious 5 Critical 4 Serious 8 Moderate 10 Moderate 8 Moderate
installation soil
(Deposit rupture)
#6 Waste spill in the instal- 2 Light 2 Light 2 Light 6 Moderate 6 Moderate 6 Moderate
lation soil (blowing
hose/deficient joint)
#7 Waste spill in the instal- 4 Serious 4 Serious 4 Serious 4 Low 4 Low 4 Low
lation soil (malfunc-
tion of the deposit
valve)

Even though the company has in place an Inter- environment, it provided the authors a good insight
nal Emergency Plan, it should also have an External on the risks existing in the processes scrutinised.
Emergency Plan established with the local authori- Moreover, it also allowed identifying measures to
ties (fire department, hospitals, etc.). prevent or mitigate potential consequences of the
To finish, it was recommended providing some accidents mapped in the 7 scenarios considered.
kind of information and training to workers on the This method can be used in various industries.
hazards. This way, they would be aware of what A more thorough analysis can be achieved with
could go wrong and be prepared if something more resources, e.g., time, personal, knowledge of
happens. the processes, etc.
The innovative aspects in this work are twofold:
3.4 Comments on the standard
• the methodology itself, which is not yet well dis-
In the course of the study, it was felt that the risk seminated in the specialty literature,
matrix proposed by standard UNE 150008:2008, • the country where it took place (Angola), show-
to estimate the environmental risk, does not pro- ing genuine efforts towards safer workplaces and
mote a conservative attitude toward the protection environments in developing countries.
of the environment, contrary to what one should
expect.
Of all possible interactions between frequency ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
and severity, 40% represent “low risk”, 28% “mod-
erate risk”, 16% “medium risk”, 12% “high risk” The authors are grateful to Cleanport SA for open-
and only 4% return “very high risk”. In the authors’ ing their doors and participating in this assessment.
opinion this aspect should be taken into account Study made under UNIDEMI (ref. PEst-OE/EME
before suggesting “light” or no measures for an /UI0667/2014).
apparent “low risk” or “moderate risk”, as if “noth-
ing too serious might result from such scenario”.
REFERENCES
4 CONCLUDING REMARKS Bahr, N. J. 2006. System safety engineering and risk
assessment. International Encyclopaedia of Ergo-
Even though this methodology estimates an environ- nomics and Human Factors. Vol. 3: 2794–2797. Boca
mental risk in a way that is not conservative for the Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

OSH2017_Book.indb 5 2/20/2017 9:21:07 AM


EU—Directive Seveso III. Directive 2012/18/EU, of 4 Salvi, O. & Debray, B. 2006. Convergence in risk assess-
July 2012, on the control of major-accident hazards ment for SEVESO sites from ASSURANCE results
involving dangerous substances. Official Journal of to ARAMIS method. Symposium “Quantitative risk
the European Union L 197/1. analysis: Quo vadis?”, Mar 2006, Tutzing, Germany:
Kontovas, C. & Psaraftis, H. 2009. Formal safety assess- 56–59.
ment: critical review. Marine Technology, 46(1): UNE 150008. 2008. Análisis y evaluación del riesgo
45–59. ambiental. Madrid: Asociación Española de Normal-
Ronza, A., Carol, S., Espejo, V., Vílchez, J. A., Arnaldos, J. ización y Certificación (AENOR) (in Spanish only).
2006. A quantitative risk analysis approach to port Zuin S., Belac E., Marzi B. 2009. Life cycle assessment
hydrocarbon logistics. Journal of Hazardous Materi- of ship-generated waste management of Luka Koper.
als, 128(1): 10–24. Waste Management, 29(12): 3036–3046.

OSH2017_Book.indb 6 2/20/2017 9:21:07 AM


Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as a model for accessing


ergonomic risk

Eduardo Ferro dos Santos


University of São Paulo, Engineering School of Lorena, EEL/USP, Lorena, Brazil

Karine Borges de Oliveira


Salesian University Center of São Paulo, UNISAL, Brazil

André Solon de Carvalho


University of São Paulo, Engineering School of Lorena, EEL/USP, Lorena, Brazil

ABSTRACT: The existence of methodologies for priority and control the risk in different areas sup-
port the realization of safety and security process practice. However, endeavors to create tools and
methodology to rank the ergonomic risk activities are mostly devoted on product design. Motivated by
such scarcity, the goal of this study is attempted to develop a modified FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect
Analysis) as means to access the criticality of ergonomic risk in operations. An improved model to the
ranking ergonomic risk by using Risk Priority Number (RPN) is proposed and applied in a case study,
in the attempt to help decision makers to debate the problems occurred.

1 INTRODUCTION The packing area is presented to be the object


of the evaluation, specifically the Packing Machine
The ergonomic work analysis is proposed to con- Operator (workstation). In this machine, the proc-
duct the analysis of work activities in an organiza- ess takes the following steps: pack the product,
tion with the presupposition that makes the worker check the weight of the bag; seal the bag; send
in the production process identifies the ergonomic them to belts for palletizing.
risks (Mhamdi et al., 2015). The primary objec- In order to better organize these elements, the
tive of the FMEA is the prevention of problems in group led a simple study of crono-analysis in
processes or products before they occur (Ghasemi the process flow. The timings were systematized
et al, 2016). through a sample of 10 workers, in which the arith-
In this paper is presented an ergonomic risk metic averages of the execution times of each ele-
analysis by a model integrated to FMEA for appre- ment of the task were observed.
ciation of ergonomic risk to identify priorities and
to control the observed conditions. This model can
2.2 Preliminary
contribute to companies to develop the improve-
ment in ergonomics projects and process (Santos Through a review, gathering findings of the study
& Nunes, 2016). with the appreciation of all members of the group,
the following considerations were observed:
− The plastic bag was instable. The operator acted
2 FMEA AS A MODEL FOR ERGONOMICS
many times so that he could prevent some waste
of product. In three of the observations made, it
2.1 Focus
was necessary to add some more product with a
During a meeting in a case study, members of specific spoon after the inspection to reach the
the company and an ergonomist researcher got right weight, because the way the plastic bag was
together and presented what could be grouped and handled (instability) caused some waste of prod-
defined as homogeneous to the execution of mod- uct that fell out of the bag. A bucket was placed
eling of the process in analysis. next to the scale to meet this need. What could

OSH2017_Book.indb 7 2/20/2017 9:21:07 AM


represent a waste of time in the process, waste 2.3 Mapping
of product and what could make the workers to
Given these findings, it was proceeded with the
perform unnecessary movements;
ergonomic mapping by assessing variants. The
− In 60% of the observation, it was necessary to
group went to the field for this activity, filmed,
hammer the output funnel of the packing line
interviewed and confronted the initial findings
with a rubber hammer so that the product could
with workers experiences. The problems were dis-
be pushed out of the machine more easily. This
cussed at a formal meeting attended by all involved
problem is a result from the high relative air
(group, ergonomist) and jot down into the form
humidity of the place (72%) once the job is per-
with the initial description of each of the problems
formed next to the cooking area that produces
found. This assessment demonstrates the under-
vapors going around the packaging area as it
standing of the group about the problems involved
was an open shed divided in two areas. These
in the manual packaging.
situations caused the waste of time once they
Based on the previous mapping and on the
do not allow a continuous and uniform flow of
modeling of the activities, it is possible to look
product, besides demanding unnecessary move-
deeper and systematically into the response to the
ment from the workers;
problems found in this step. Items related to the
− There was not any proper place to put away the
kinesiology of upper limbs were added (displace-
hammer and the plastic bag. The space desig-
ment, catching and positioning) and cognitive
nated to the plastic bags store could only prevent
demands (adjustments and inspections). These
them from being damaged or torn. The bags were
items allow the elements of the process to be more
stored in an area that was out of the reach of the
precisely analyzed in terms of its needs (unneces-
operator, so that they had to bend the body to
sary movements) and possible losses in the proc-
get them. This results in unnecessary movements
ess. The sample has represented the same made by
of the worker. If the relative air humidity could
the focus group once all of them were recorded in
be improved it would also reduce the use of the
a video.
hammer;
The findings were reviewed in its root cause and
− Equipment layout was also inappropriate,
the conclusions are as follow:
demanding the operator to turn his body, to
carry the load and to move unnecessarily. This − The waiting time represents 48.2% of the cycle
item was also considered a waste of time and time. It is assumed that if the “building up” did
biomechanical overload due to the execution of not exist, the flow could be higher and the wait-
unnecessary movements (the efforts to hold the ing time reduced;
bags), that may victimize the worker with muscle − The transportation represents the biggest time
fatigue and strain injuries; waste in the cycle. 19.2% of the time is wasted
− The sealing machine was placed higher in rela- due to the transportation of the loads from one
tion to the height of the scale that may overload point to another. It is assumed that the improve-
the body and the spine because the operator ment of the layout of the machines could mini-
needed to lift the bags to compensate the depres- mize or even eliminate this waste. This item is
sion victimizing the workers with muscle fatigue also considered the one that demands the body
and strain injuries. The image of the process is turns, load handling and unevenness of the
illustrated in Figure 1. heights (scale-sealing) which caused overloads to
the upper and lower limbs and spine;
− The item preparation consumes 12.5% of the
cycle. The longest time of elements occurs when
the packing is adjusted in the scale so that it can
be placed vertically. Due to the plastic bag, the
operator spends on average 4 seconds (out of the
total 7) trying to place the package in a vertical
position;
− Relative humidity can contribute to the increase
of waiting time and unnecessary movements
of hammering which can also damage the
equipment;
− The displacement of materials is the highest risk
of the process. Besides the waste of time, it can
be responsible for human costs (medical leaves
and complaints on spine and shoulders) and
Figure 1. Packing machine operator. administrative costs (lawsuits);

OSH2017_Book.indb 8 2/20/2017 9:21:07 AM


− The quality of some input items of the process, Table 1. Defining FMEA—Severity.
such as the position of the packaging material
and the package itself can contribute with the Indicator Human Organization
improvement of timing in the cycles of produc- 1 Do not generate Little or no interference
tion and with the organization of the work; human in the process.
− Possibilities of introducing shift rotation or overload
programmed pauses in this job post should be 2 Generate situa- The isolated agent may
considered, where there is a strong risk of physi- tions of dis- interfere in temporary
ological overload due to the long lasting stand- comfort and stops and minor losses of
ing position the activity demands. fatigue. productivity.
3 Hazards that Entails significant delays in
can jeopardize the process, reduction of
2.4 Ergonomic Risks Analysis health, planned work. Items that
causing inju- do not meet the legislation
The results of the evaluation were grouped in a ries and leaves. in effect.
form based on FMEA that was adapted to the
Ergonomic Risks Analysis shown in Appendix 1.
The following steps were taken: Table 2. Defining FMEA—Probability.
− The variants were classified according to the
Indicator History Exposure
form of field research and described in system-
atic observations through a text written by the 1 Any event related to the Shortly, less than
member of the focus group and the ergonomist. agent 10% of the time
The application had come up, then, the criteria sampling (day or
were standardized (specific form) and will be cycle).
the base for future application in the OHSAS 2 There are complaints Reasonable time of
18001 management in the company (Fernández- and events 11 to 30% of sam-
Muñiz, 2012); in terms of pling time (day or
− Many documents mentioned in the observed verbalization cycle).
items were studied (tables) throughout the form. 3 The complaints are fre- Shortly, less than
quent and specific to 10% of the time
The illustration and tools were also mentioned the agent, with sampling (day or
and attached to the reports; indicators and cycle).
− The existent means of control of each situa- demonstrative records
tion were mentioned and assessed in terms of
efficiency by the focus group and ergonomist,
against scales elaborated to the organization to Table 3. Defining FMEA—Control.
control them;
− The definition of Risk Indicators (Severity x Indicator Control
Probability × Control) was discussed in specific
events (Kaizen) through brainstorming and 1 There are good control plans to handle the
reviews. risk.
2 There is a plan to handle the risk, but there
Then, a specific legend was created for each one is a lack of formal procedures and the
of the items, as presented in Tables 1 to 3, with efficiency is uncertain.
the results of Table 4. When the indicator showed 3 There is no plan and awareness to deal with
duplicity (two items in Severity and Probability the risk. The operational practices show the
fields), the higher value was proposed. exposure seems to be out of control.
The major risks were in the surroundings of dis-
placement activities that take Based on the find-
ings, a spread sheet was created and the reviews rotation and displacement of loads could be
made consider that: eliminated;
− High relative humidity contributes with the
− Place around equipment because they are acted reduction of the speed of the flow of the prod-
simultaneously with load handling. Such situa- uct. The high rate of humidity is originated in
tions do not only causes hazards of biomechani- the cooking area that stayed next to the packing
cal overload on the shoulders and spine but also area. Ways to isolate the area should be studied;
causes waste of time in the process. The reorgan- − A program of prevention against fatigue should
izing of the layout stands out, so that it could also be taken into consideration, so that brings
be projected in a way that the equipment could along the specific or compensatory pauses on
be placed closer to each other and that body the muscular groups that were under stress at the

OSH2017_Book.indb 9 2/20/2017 9:21:07 AM


Table 4. Risk priority number.

General Biomedical OHSAS 18001


Risk Level Classification Equivalence (BSI, 2007)

1 Minor Normal technical Action or with no No action is required and no documents to be


significant risk filed are necessary
2–3 Tolerable Unlikely risk of injury, they are more related The control practices should be maintained and
to the sporadic difficulties. monitored
4–9 Moderate Situations which cause muscle fatigue if Control/Prevention practices should be
performed for a long period and/or implemented
with no control practices
12–18 Substancial Situations which cause injuries The activities should be sistematically studied,
an implementation plan should be approved
by the high leadership team so that the hazard
could be mitigated or eliminated within a given
period.
27 Intolerable These situations can potentially cause serious Systematic studies should be implemented,
injuries, diseases and accidents that can and an immediate implementation improve-
generate medical leaves or functional ment plan should be created. This should be
disabilities. The company does not give approved by the high leadership team so that
the situations the proper attention, the hazard could be mitigated or eliminated.
neglecting them. The execution of the plan should be monitored
and evaluated.

Table 5. Action plan. performance of the activities. Once the activity takes
place 100% of time, without any pause, full time;
What to do How to do it − The package of the product should be substi-
tuted by another one less flexible.
Rearrange the layout Projecting new filling
project, where the equipment. An action plan that involved the responsible and
filling, sealing and Acquiring new paper seam future controls was created then. (Table 5).
belt are placed side by system, with compatible The high leadership of the company assured the
side, eliminating the height to be placed next implementation and the extension of ELSS project
displacement of loads, to the scale. all over the company through the standardization
body rotation and Insert a semi-automated belt
weight management. of the system and definition of an operational sys-
at the output of the filling
system
tem. Due to the success of the method four more
Replacing the plastic Projecting new design of four-hour-events were conducted and the proce-
packaging for packing packing paper more resist- dure of ergonomic management was installed.
paper (less polluting ant and test the material.
and more resilient). Implement recycled packing 3 CONCLUSIONS
paper, and inform customer
about the change.
Isolate the packing area Building brick and mortar
In general, the process of generating a plan of step
from the cooking area. walls to separate the areas by step implementation, aligned to the reality of
Insert seats next to the Placing semi-sitting seats next the organization, may result significant gains and
job posts. to the job post so they can may positively feedback the efforts to change on
be used as an alternative the ergonomic management.
relay posture. Then, it is possible to join FMEA and Ergo-
Inserting pauses for Hiring a specialized company nomics in an integrated way on the solution of
stretching (labor gym). to implement the program. problems. This proposition was validated inside
Function rotation with Carrying out ELSS project to the scope of this study, once, through FMEA the
the pallet position at make the process viable. improvement process go beyond the results of risk
every 2 hours. assessment and can also represent priority classi-
Provide safety shoes with Buying bi-density shoes to fications. In this study, could be noticed that the
bi-density soles. replace the existing model.
problems were analysed in a structured way, pre-
Place an anti-fatigue mat Acquiring the product and
opposite the workplace place them on the job posts.
senting a hybrid model that could meet the current
methodologies of management around the world.

10

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REFERENCES Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess, 30: 737. doi:10.1007/
s00477–015–1104–7
BSI. 2007. British Standards Institute. BS OHSAS Mhamdi, A.; Magroun, I.; Youssef, I.; Damak, N.; Amri,
18001:2007: Occupational health and safety manage- A.; Ladhari, N. 2015. Analyse ergonomique du travail
ment systems—Requirements. London: BSI Global. dans une entreprise de confection en Tunisie, Archives
Fernández-Muñiz, B.; Montes-Peón, J.M.; Vázquez- des Maladies Professionnelles et de l’Environnement,
Ordás, C.J. 2012. Occupational risk management under Volume 76, Issue 5, October, Pages 449–457.
the OHSAS 18001 standard: analysis of perceptions doi:10.1016/j.admp.2015.01.006.
and attitudes of certified firms, Journal of Cleaner Santos, E.F.; Nunes, L.S. 2016. Methodology of Risk
Production, Volume 24, March, Pages 36–47. doi: Analysis to Health and Occupational Safety Integrated
10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.11.008. for the Principles of Lean Manufacturing. Advances in
Ghasemi, S.; Mahmoudvand, R.; Yavari, K. 2016. Social & Occupational Ergonomics, July 27–31, 2016.
Application of the FMEA in insurance of high- doi: 10.1007/978–3-319–41688–5_32
risk industries: a case study of Iran’s gas refineries.

Appendix 1. FMEA in ergonomic risk analysis.

Aspects Existing Admin- Root Cause


and istrative and Main of the
Issue hazards Controls Effect P G C RPN problem

Deambulation Displacement with The employees 9.37% waste in the 2 2 3 12 The layout is distrib-
20 kg bags on the receive a training time of the proc- uted so that there
filing, sealing and course on how ess and Fatigue is displacement
belt areas. to handle heavy of lower limbs of the employee
materials with Overload in efforts 3 3 2 18 with unnecessary
efficiency. There on upper limbs load. There was no
are procedures and spine attention to this
to prevent indi- item in the design
vidual lifting of process
loads heavier
than 30 kg.
Displacement Inexistent. 7.14% waste in 2 1 3 6
without any load the time of the
between the belt process.
and filling area. Fatigue of lower 2 2 3 12
limbs
Horizontal Displacement Inexistent. Effort overload 3 3 3 27 As the previous one.
Distance filling-sealing and by rotating
sealing-belt trans- with load the
porting 20 kg lumbar spine.
loads.
Vertical Efforts on the Inexistent. Overload in 3 3 3 27 The leveling of the
Distance displacement of flexor efforts room was not
bags through the on shoulder taken into con-
areas with differ- and spine. sideration at the
ent levels conception.
Quality The plastic pack Inexistent. 12.5% waste in 2 2 3 12 As a matter of
is difficult to the time of design, the packag-
handle. the process. ing used is plastic,
and the quality
of operational
handling was not
tested.

(Continued )

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Appendix 1. (Continued ).

Aspects Existing Admin- Root Cause


and istrative and Main of the
Issue hazards Controls Effect P G C RPN problem

Positioning The plastic bag is There is a good Inadequate specific 2 1 2 4 There was a concern
stored in an inap- positioning of site at the input about the proper
propriate place the load on the of the process. place, since the bar
(suspended on the side protections ensures the proper
frame of the fill- of the filling positioning of the
ing equipment) device. pack.
The hammer is The worker can Body inclination in 2 2 2 8 The hammer was not
an area that is place it his way. the area of dif- predicted to take
difficult to be ficult access part in the proc-
reached. ess, and then there
was no conception
on the plan for its
location.
Movements Repetitive tasks. There are pauses Physiological over- 2 3 2 12
for lunch (60 m) load with the risk
and two (15 m) of muscle fatigue
pauses for cof- in upper and
fee and personal lower limbs
needs.
Humidity High Relative There are evalua- Unnecessary effort 2 2 8 The shed has no
Humidity (72%). tions of occu- with the upper separation between
pational hygiene limbs to perform the rooms, which
that do not hammer in an makes that the
consider risks attempt to decon- humidity of the
since the legisla- gest the product kitchen facility be
tion refers to the in the filling transferred to the
minimum met nozzle with the packaging area,
by the company possibility of building up the
(40%). damaging the product by group-
equipment. ing wet particles.
Pauses Absence of There are pauses Physiological over- 2 2 8 There is not staff
necessary for lunch (60 m) load with the risk enough to ensure
pauses. and two pauses of muscle fatigue the pause at the
(15 m) coffee and in upper and current demand
personal needs. lower limbs. of the production
Movements Repetitive tasks. There are pauses Physiological 2 2 12 procedures
for lunch (60 m) overload with the
and two (15 m) risk of muscle
pauses for cof- fatigue in upper
fee and personal and lower limbs
needs.
Statics Long lasting Inexistent. Physiological 2 3 12 For the current
standing overload with the layout and need
posture risk of muscle to travel, it can
fatigue in lower not work with the
limbs. rotating position.

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Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

Risk evaluation in the transportation of dangerous goods

D.M.B. Costa
FEUP—Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

M.V.T. Rabello
UFRJ—Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

E.B.F. Galante
IME—Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

C.V. Morgado
UFRJ—Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

ABSTRACT: This work presents a risk assessment of a road transport company that delivers fuel to
distribution stations and seaports by tanker trucks in Brazil. Road transportation of dangerous goods
is a critical activity due to the occupational exposure of workers to these products as well as potential
consequences following accidents, which may include personal injury, property damage, fuel spills, among
others. Considering the need of including environmental aspects in the occupational health and safety
assessment towards a more integrated evaluation, the Methodology of Integrated Evaluation of Risks
(MIAR) was applied in the product transportation, identified through a risk matrix as the most critical
activity developed by the company. An evaluation of legal compliance to national standards was also
performed for the verification of gaps in performed activities, revealing 73 items requiring corrective
actions.

1 INTRODUCTION This work unfolds into five distinct sections.


After the present introduction, the case study is
Final refinery operation consists on loading gases described in Section 2. In Section 3, risk evalua-
and liquid hydrocarbons into pipelines, tanker cars, tion methodologies are applied and their relevance
tanker trucks and marine vessels and barges for examined. Finally, results and discussion are pre-
transport to terminals and consumers. This proc- sented in Section 4 followed by the conclusions.
ess requires clear determination of product charac-
teristics, distribution needs, shipping requirements,
fire prevention, environmental protection and 2 CASE STUDY
operating criteria to ensure safety in the activities
performed (Kraus 1988). Accidents involving haz- The case study is a company that operates within
ardous products may lead to spills, which in turn the transport sector and is primarily engaged in
leads to hazards such as fire, explosion, chemical transportation of dangerous goods in Brazil. The
burn, or environmental damage, representing seri- transported goods are mostly petroleum-based
ous consequences to life and property. fuels (except ethanol) for fuel distribution stations,
Generally, these consequences cannot be fully seaports, and vessels.
contained or otherwise reduced, requiring risk The company started its operations in 2010 and
management strategies such as preventive meas- currently employs 23 people, 15 of whom are tanker
ures to mitigate either the probability of occurrence truck drivers, and possesses 24 Tanker Trucks
or the magnitude of the consequences (Laarabi (TT). It delivers fuels in the modality FOB (Free
et al. 2014). Considering this, a risk assessment of on board) to gas stations and CIF (Cost, Insurance
the activities of a company in the transport sec- and Freight) to seaports and ships. All operational
tor engaged in road transportation of dangerous activities are performed by the TT drivers and the
goods in Brazil was conducted by the evaluation workflow can be summarized as follows: (i) TT
of its legal compliance and by the application of enters the facility towards the loading platform, (ii)
Methodology of Integrated Evaluation of Risks TT enters loading platform, (iii) loading inspection,
(MIAR) in its operational activities. (iv) hatch opening for inspection, (v) fuel pumping,

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OSH2017_Book.indb 13 2/20/2017 9:21:07 AM


(vi) fuel loading and unloading and (vii) product Table 1. Risk indexes. Source: Antunes et al. (2010).
transportation to customer/receiver.
Although no serious environmental incidents RI Value Meaning
took place in 2015, the company has recorded
1 1–90 Minor
occasional leaks and spills, including five episodes 2 91–250 Medium
of marine diesel oil leakage during the unloading 3 251–500 High
operation (overall 153 liters leaked), demonstrat- 4 501–1.800 Very High
ing the need of evaluation of this operational
aspect. Environmental accidents can be defined as
unplanned and unwanted events that can cause,
directly or indirectly, damage to the environment
and health. In 2014, 744 environmental accidents
in Brazil were reported, widely spread in the coun-
try, but more frequently in the southeastern region
(64.3%), and mostly associated with road trans-
port (28.3%), a trend also observed in past years
(IBAMA 2014).
Among all existing risk assessment methodolo-
Figure 1. Distribution of non-compliances.
gies, MIAR was selected since it allows the inte-
gration of quality, environment, and occupational
health aspects of the activities. MIAR allows the
tional factors towards a more representative risk
evaluation of synergistic effects and reduces sub-
evaluation and identification of opportunities of
jectivity, resulting in a comprehensive and balanced
improvement. The MIAR is a recently developed
evaluation (Ferreira & Santos Baptista 2013). Fur-
method in University of Porto which has been con-
thermore, this method is a tool that supports the
tinuously validated in other case studies (Antunes
improvement of critical aspects in Integrated Man-
et al. 2010, Ferreira et al. 2013, Bessa et al. 2015).
agement System (IMS) of the company.
The method is based in the composition of a
Risk Index (RI) based in the following parameters:
3 MATERIALS AND METHODS G—gravity, E—impact extension, EF: exposure
frequency, PC—prevention and control systems
To perform the quantitative and qualitative assess- and C—costs and complexity of corrective meas-
ment of the case study, audits were conducted in ures. G is a result of the sum of P (Potential Haz-
the company and its activities. Legal compliance ards) and Q (quantification aspect). All parameters
aspects and the quantitative methodology applied receive a score based on its consequences or intensi-
are described in sections 3.1 and 3.2. ties, as fully described in Antunes et al. (2010). The
RI is built following Equation 1 and the meanings
3.1 Legal compliance assessment of possible results are presented in Table 1.

Legal compliance was based on the Brazilian RI = G × E × EF × PC × C (1)


Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) regula-
tory standards (which are also known as “Normas The methodology was applied only in the opera-
Regulamentadoras” or NR). These standards are a tional activity of the company, namely, the trans-
responsibility of the Ministry of Labor and Social port phase. This process was considered the most
Welfare1, supported by the Law 6.514/77, among critical out of the operational procedures of the
other legal documents. Following the identifica- company, as evidenced by a previous evaluation of
tion of noncompliance with regulatory standards, all existing sectors using a hazard matrix (Haddad
a Gravity, Urgency and Tendency (GUT) Priority et al. 2008).
Matrix was applied to identify preventive and cor-
rective measures.
4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.2 MIAR Methodology
4.1 Legal compliance assessment
The choice of this method is based on the possi-
bility of integrating environmental and occupa- After the verification of compliance to national
safety standards, a compilation of the audits was
performed evidencing a total of 73 nonconformi-
1
Free translation from Portuguese of “Ministério de ties distributed across 7 standards, as presented in
Trabalho e Previdência Social”—MTPS. Figure 1. These standards are related to: (i) the usage

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Table 2. MIAR methodology applied to dangerous goods transportation.

(1) Aspect Aspect Characterization Hazard G (Q+P) E EF PC C RI (2)

1 TT enters the Internal traffic—cars Motor vehicle 2 3 2 2 3 72 1


facility to the collision (MVC)
loading platform Internal traffic—people Run overs 5 1 2 2 3 60 1
2 TT enters loading Excessive proximity to Entrapment 3 1 2 2 3 36 1
platform equipment Crushing 10 1 2 2 3 120 2
3 Loading inspection Work in high Slips, trips and falls 10 1 3 1 3 90 1
places > 2,0 meters
4 Hatch opening for Exposure to chemical Dermal and respiratory 1 4 3 2 3 72 1
inspection hazards and toxic exposure to
substances chemical agents
Equipment accident Hand injury 2 1 1 4 3 24 1
5 Fuel pumping Static electricity Fire 5 1 2 1 3 30 1
Explosion 10 1 2 1 3 60 1
6 Fuel loading and Spill or accidental Cutaneous conditions 1 1 2 3 3 18 1
unloading release of fuel or Environmental 4 (1+3) 1 2 4 2 64 1
other combustible contamination
material
7 Product Traffic Accident MVC 10 3 2 4 2 480 3
transportation Rollovers 10 3 2 4 2 480 3
to customer/ Run overs 10 1 2 4 2 160 2
receiver Fuel or another 8 (5+3) 3 1 4 2 192 2
combustible
material spill
Atmospheric emissions Atmospheric pollution 5 (2 +3) 2 3 4 2 240 2

(1) Activity / (2) Classification.

of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – NR 6, sion factor for road transport using diesel as fuel
(ii) occupational health control program—NR 7, was considered equivalent to 74.10 kg de CO2/GJ
(iii) safety in workplace facilities—NR 8, (iv) elec- (IPCC 2006). Following these steps, a risk evalu-
tric systems—NR 10, (v) ergonomics—NR 17, ation accordingly to MIAR was performed and
(vi) fire prevention systems and (vii) work at summarized in Table 2.
heights—NR 35. All 7 stages of the workflow were evaluated and
A priority sequence was established for the further associated to 16 hazard categories or sce-
actions with the implementation of GUT Priority narios. From these 16 categories, 62.5% were clas-
Matrix, leading to 18 recommendations to achieve sified as minor, 25% as medium and 12.5% as high.
their legal compliance. Among corrective actions Product transportation to customer/receiver can
identified, 8 are related to work at heights and be considered as the most critical activity since the
the most critical aspect was the ergonomics risks associated risk categories concentrated the highest
involved in the activities performed by drivers. classification.
In terms of ergonomics, it was evidenced that Considering this result, preventive measures for
bottom loading system may be prioritized to minimizing traffic accidents and transportation risks
avoid the need of climbing in the truck. For work were delimited focusing on causes identified in lit-
at heights, definition of working procedures, risk erature. The main causes of accidents involving dan-
analysis of tasks and inspection at workplaces are gerous goods have been assigned as drivers’ errors
some of the measures necessary to fulfill the legal (44.3%), others (23.61%), vehicle failure (21.83%)
compliances. and road conditions (3.71%) (Ferreira 2003).
Considering this aspect, the main preventive
measures for the process is the reduction of driv-
4.2 MIAR Implementation
ers’ errors by intensification of training as well as
The first phase of the study consisted in the sys- better compliance with safety regulations, such as
tematic and organized collection of the exist- Law 13.103/2015, which provides specifications for
ing information related to OHS in the company, the exercise of professional drivers. Furthermore,
followed by a survey of existing hazards in the organizational factors may be improved such as
transportation process. For the evaluation of the monitoring of working hours, resting hours,
atmospheric emissions, carbon dioxide (CO2) emis- and establishment of psychological monitoring.

15

OSH2017_Book.indb 15 2/20/2017 9:21:08 AM


In terms of vehicle failure, the company main- REFERENCES
tains a rigid maintenance control and pursues a
contract of preventive maintenance with the TT Antunes, F., Santos Baptista, J. & Tato Diogo, M. 2010.
manufacturer authorized agency to ensure safety Methodology of integrated evaluation of environ-
and comfort conditions within the fleet. Addi- mental and occupational risks. In SHO 2010 - Interna-
tionally, all TT are less than five years old, which tional Symposium on Occupational Safety and Hygiene.
Guimarães.
reduces both mechanical failures and spill risks. Bessa, R., Santos Baptista, J. & Oliveira, M. J. 2015.
In terms of atmospheric emissions, all existing Comparing three risk analysis methods on the evalua-
TT run on low Sulphur diesel, reducing emissions of tion of a trench opening in an urban site. In Occupa-
particles and white smoke. The TT are also equipped tional Safety and Hygiene III.
with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems Brazil. 1997. Lei nº 6.514, de 22 de Dezembro de 1997.
and make use of a reagent to chemically reduce emis- Brasília, Brasil: Presidency of the Republic.
sions of nitrogen oxides present in exhaust gases. Brazil. 2015. Lei nº 13.103, de 2 de Março de 2015.
In addition to these aspects, it is worth men- Brasília, Brasil: Presidency of the Republic.
tioning that emergency response and informa- Ferreira, C. & Santos Baptista, J. (2013). The risk in
choosing the method of Risk Assessment. Occupa-
tion systems are important gaps in controlling the tional Safety and Hygiene, 1(1), 138–139.
consequences of these events at national level. In Ferreira, C. E. C. (2003). Acidentes com motoristas
the USA, e.g., accidents involving the transporta- no transporte rodoviário de produtos perigosos.
tion of dangerous goods and hazardous materials São Paulo em Perspectiva, 17, 68–80. doi: 10.1590/
can be reported and registered in proper data- S0102–88392003000200008
bases, such as the one maintained by the Pipeline Haddad, A. N., Morgado, C. V. & Desouza, D. I. 2008.
and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Health, safety and environmental management risk
(PHMSA), an agency of the national Department evaluation strategy: Hazard Matrix application case
of Transportation. studies. Paper read at 2008 IEEE—International Con-
ference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering
In Brazil, national databases are still limited. Management (IEEM), at Singapore.
The creation of a database integrating different IBAMA, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos
national institutions would allow the development Recursos Naturais Renováveis. 2014. Relatório de
of better transportation routes and accident indi- Acidentes Ambientais. edited by IBAMA. Brazil:
cators, especially in driver related incidents. IBAMA.
IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
2006. Mobile Combustion. In IPCC Guidelines
5 CONCLUSIONS for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories edited by
IPCC.
Dangerous products transportation can have very Kraus, Richard S. 1988. “Oil and Natural Gas.” In ILO
serious consequences for the population in general Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety,
edited by Jeanne Mager Stellman. Geneva: ILO, Inter-
and particularly for workers exposed to these prod- national Labour Organization.
ucts, as well as property and environmental dam- Laarabi, Mohamed Haitam, Boulmakoul, Azedine,
age. The assessment conducted evidenced several SACILE, Roberto & Garbolino, Emmanuel. (2014).
noncompliance items according to the national A scalable communication middleware for real-time
OHS standards, which were ranked in a GUT Pri- data collection of dangerous goods vehicle activities.
ority Matrix. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technolo-
In the evaluated company, a previous risk assess- gies, 48, 404–417.
ment was conducted through a hazard matrix, Mtps, Ministério do Trabalho e Previdência Social.
which identified the most critical sector as the 1978a. NR 17 – Ergonomia. Brasilia, Brazil.
Mtps, Ministério do Trabalho e Previdência Social.
operational activities. Following this, the applica- 1978b. NR 23 – Proteção Contra Incêndios. Brasilia,
tion of MIAR methodology supported the ranking Brazil.
of risks among its workflow, identifying transpor- Mtps, Ministério do Trabalho e Previdência Social. 2001.
tation itself as the most critical stage in the opera- NR 8 – Edificações. Brasilia, Brazil: MTPS.
tional process, in which more urgent interventions Mtps, Ministério do Trabalho e Previdência Social. 2004.
are required to minimize their risks. NR 10 – Segurança em instalações e serviços em elet-
Future works should explore the possibility of ricidade. In Brasilia, Brazil.
conducting other risk evaluations in the opera- Mtps, Ministério do Trabalho e Previdência Social. 2009.
tional process, such as the identification of risks NR 6 – Equipamento de Proteção Individual. Bra-
silia, Brazil.
on route. Transportation of dangerous goods is an Mtps, Ministério do Trabalho e Previdência Social. 2012.
important subject to ensure the mobility of goods NR 35 – Trabalho Em Altura. Brasilia, Brazil.
and should be the focus of improved enforcement Mtps, Ministério do Trabalho e Previdência Social. 2013.
to ensure the safety of people and the preservation NR 7 – Programa de Controle de Controle Médico de
of the environment. Saúde Ocupacional. Brasilia, Brazil.

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Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

Understanding the management of occupational health and safety risks


through the consultation of workers

I. Castro
Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave, Barcelos, Portugal

D.G. Ramos
School of Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave, Barcelos, Portugal
Algoritmi Centre, University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal

ABSTRACT: Understanding the perceptions of employees on the risk management system is very
important, but there is still a lack of full understanding of how the workers characterize the risk. This
study aimed, through the consultation of workers, understanding the perception of risk by these and thus
improve the risk management system. A questionnaire addressed to 201 employees of a metalworking
industry has been prepared. The results of the questionnaire showed that it is necessary a higher involve-
ment of the workers in the process of management of occupational hazards and accidents at work and
the corresponding communication. Since the organization is preparing the process of certification of the
Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) management system, according to ISO/DIS 45001, it was impor-
tant in this study to analyse, discuss and understand the perception of workers of OHS risk.

1 INTRODUCTION to risk behaviours, providing an important vision


for safety management. According to ILO (2011)
The risk perception reflects the needs, issues, training in OHS is essential and should be ongo-
knowledge, beliefs and values of the stakeholders ing in order to assure the system of knowledge
(ISO Guide 73, 2009). The understanding of work- and also that the instructions related to changes
ers’ perceptions of the risk management system in the organization are always updated. In this
is very important, but there is still a lack of full sense, communication between the different levels
understanding of how the workers characterize of the company should be effective and in both
the risk (Alexopoulos et al., 2009). According to directions, once the health and safety related con-
Wachter and Yorio (2014) in a behavioral perspec- tributions offered by workers should be taken into
tive, workers bring their beliefs, culture, values consideration by the management, which demon-
and vision when performing its work, and this is strates the importance of focusing the system on
important when designing and implementing an workers.
Occupational Health and Safety Management According to ISO Guide 73 (2009) communica-
System (OHSMS). Also according to Alexopoulos tion and consultation are continuous and iterative
et al. (2009), there are cultural differences in the processes that an organization conducts in order to
perception of risk of activities that pose threats to provide or share information, and to engage in dia-
occupational health and safety. Thus, it is impor- logue with stakeholders with regard to risk man-
tant to evaluate the perception of risk by workers agement. The authors Arocena and Núñez (2009)
in order to develop an adequate safety culture. and Torp and Grøgaard (2009) also report that the
Experience has a vital role in the perception of risk legislative compliance influences the implementa-
because, for example, misleading experiments may tion and improvement of OHSMS. The consulta-
be linked to the tendency for a worker to believe that tion of workers on OHS in Portugal must be made
he is personally immune to many dangers. Accord- in written form once a year, covering the content
ing to the study made by Wachter and Yorio (2014), of all the paragraphs contained in section 1 of art.
employee involvement in occupational health and 18 of Law No. 102/2009 of 10 September, amended
safety reduces the probability of human error. by Law No. 3/2014, of 28 January, as there is the
Workers are more involved and aware of their assumption that it is the employer’s obligation to
tasks and the associated risks. According to Rundmo take appropriate measures to carry out the activi-
(1996) the perception of risk is significantly related ties listed in article 18.

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Risk management is one of the priorities for on the intel-ligibility and ambiguousness of the
research related to OHS in Europe over the period questions. Some improvements in the instrument
2013–2020 according to the European Agency for formatting was car-ried out to facilitate its fill. The
Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA, 2013). full questionnaire, validated by the administra-
An adequate risk management system leads to a tion, is presented in Appendix. The query data to
reduction in the costs of accidents, incidents and employees concerns the year 2015.
diseases, increased competitiveness and produc-
tivity of organizations and contributes effectively
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
to the sustainability of social protection systems.
According to EU-OSHA (2016) and Ramos
Out of the 201 workers of the company, 166 work-
(2013), it must be observed that poor OHS has
ers both of productive and non-productive sectors
costs. Ramos et al. (2016) show that there is a direct
have responded to the questionnaire. The response
relationship between good management of OHS in
rate was thus 83%.
the organization and the improvement of perform-
The perception of risk is the stakeholder view on
ance and profitability. Everyone loses when OHS is
a risk (ISO Guide 73, 2009; ISO/DIS 45001, 2016).
neglected, from the workers at the individual level
In this study, the stakeholders are the employees.
to the national health systems. However, this means
For the present study were selected only the issues
that everyone can benefit from the implementation
of sections 2 “professional risks” and 6 “work acci-
of adequate policies and practices that inevitably
dents” because they are the most relevant for this
will prove to be the most effective. Ramos and
study.
Costa (2016) emphasized the importance of a risk
Table 1 shows the results for the questions of
management system appropriate to increase the
sections 2 and 6 of the consultation questionnaire
competitiveness and productivity of the organi-
to employees in OHS.
zation. Such a system depends on technical and
Figure 1 shows the results of the consultation
human aspects and can lead to fewer accidents and
questionnaire to employees concerning the sec-
result in increased employee motivation.
tion 2 “professional risks”.
The aim of this study was, through the consulta-
Given the importance of understanding the
tion of workers, understanding the perception of
perceptions of the employees on the management
risk by these and thus improve the risk manage-
ment system in an organization of the metalwork-
ing sector. Table 1. Results of the questionnaire of consultation of
workers (n = 166).

% Answers
2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
No
2.1 Case study Questions n Yes No opinion

This study was conducted in an organization 2. Occupational Risks


linked to the area of metalworking. The organiza- 2.1 Do you receive 166 71 23 6
tion is distinguished by different areas of interven- information about
tion. The organization is certified by the quality the risks to which you
management system according to ISO 9001 and are exposed in your
is in process of certification of the occupational workplace?
2.2 Do you receive 166 68 25 7
health and safety management system, according
information about the
to ISO 45001 and the innovation management sys- preventive measures to
tem according to NP 4457. The organization has eliminate risks in your
201 workers. workplace?
6. Work accidents
2.2 Research methodology 6.1 Have you had any 166 45 53 2
accident at work?
According to the legislation, the health and safety 6.2 The results of 166 27 22 51
technician of the organization prepared a ques- investigations of
tionnaire to all the 201 employees of the company. accidents have been
The questionnaire was divided into 10 sections, communicated?
with the possible answers “yes”, “no” and “no 6.3 If you have suffered 166 28 38 34
any accident, have you
opinion”. The questionnaire was tested in a pilot
been involved in the
survey that was conducted for a sample of 2 work- research?
ers to detect any possible weak points, get feedback

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These results reflect the need to prevent work acci-
dents in a more efficient / effective way. It is also
important that the company develops channels to
better communicate to employees the results of
investigations of accidents. Given these results, it is
proposed that the organization should implement
the following measures: i) make quarterly disclosure
of accidents occurred in the company, ii) promote
actions awareness to prevent work accidents, iii) bet-
ter involve workers in the investigation of accidents.

4 CONCLUSIONS

An appropriate risk management system is vital


to increase the competitiveness and productiv-
ity of the organization. The conditions of work-
Figure 1. Results of the questionnaire of consultation ers and their perceptions in terms of OHS should
of workers. Section 2 “professional risks”. be observable. According to Alexopoulos et al.
(2009), the understanding of workers’ perceptions
of the risk management system is very important,
but there is still not a full understanding of how
the workers characterize the risk.
Risk management is one of the priorities for
research related to OHS in Europe over the period
2013–2020, according to the European Agency for
Safety and Health at Work. The new ISO 45001 will
force organizations that adopt this new framework
to have a management system with greater focus on
risk, in order to succeed in controlling health and
safety at the level required by the organization.
Since the organization under study is prepar-
ing the certification process of the occupational
health and safety management system, according
to ISO 45001, the organization should pay special
attention to the results of the annual consultation
Figure 2. Results of the questionnaire of consultation
of workers. Question 6 “work accidents”. of employees, reflecting on them. It was central
to this study to investigate, analyse, discuss and
understand the perception of risk of the workers
system of occupational risks in the organization, in terms of OHS.
the results of Question 2 shown in Figure 1 con- Thus, communication between the different
firm that a greater involvement in the process of levels of the organization must be effective and
management of occupational risks is necessary. in both directions, as in fact the health and safety
Given these results, it is proposed that the organi- related contributions given by the workers should
zation should implement the following measures: be taken into consideration by the administration,
i) restructuring of the risk assessment for the work- which demonstrates the importance to focus the
place, ii) promote training activities held in the OHS system on workers.
previously completed risk assessment, in order to From this research, important academic and
provide to the workers knowledge concerning the managerial implications on risk management in
risks associated with their professional activity, as OHS can be addressed. Indeed, it is necessary to
well as preventative measures to be considered. understand the dynamics of adoption and institu-
Figure 2 shows the results of the consultation tionalization of risk management practices in OHS
questionnaire to employees concerning section 6 systems.
“work accidents”. The results of the questionnaire of consultation
45% of employees who responded to the ques- of workers show that there are important measures
tionnaire have already suffered accidents. However, that should be taken into account by the organiza-
most workers who have suffered work accidents have tion, especially in terms of professional risks and
not been involved in the corresponding research. of work accidents.

19

OSH2017_Book.indb 19 2/20/2017 9:21:08 AM


Risk Management is a shared continuous and Hygiene IV, Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN
interactive process, for which all company employ- 978-1-138-02942-2, pp. 597–601.
ees can and must contribute at different times and Rundmo, T. (1996). Associations between risk perception
for different stages of the risk management proc- and safety. Safety Science 24, 197–209. http://dx.doi.
org/10.1016/S0925-7535 (97)00038-6.
ess. The contribution of different employees can Torp, S. & Grøgaard, J. B. (2009). The influence of
occur in different ways, considering the various individual and contextual work factors on work-
process steps. ers’ compliance with health and safety routines.
This contribution may evolve as the risk man- Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 185–193. doi:10.1016/j.
agement process becomes mature and institutional- apergo.2008.04.002.
ized (definitely embedded in day-to-day business). Santos, G., Ramos, D., Almeida, L., Rebelo, M., Pereira, M.,
Barros, S. & Vale, P. (2013). Implementação de Sis-
temas Integrados de Gestão: Qualidade, Ambiente
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS e Segurança., 2ª Edição, ISBN: 978-989-723-038-7.
Publindústria, Edições Técnicas.
Wachter, J. K. & Yorio, P. L. (2014). A system of safety
The authors would like to thank the company for management practices and worker engagement for
supplying the data and for its collaboration in the reducing and preventing accidents: An empirical and
questionnaire. theoretical investigation. Accident Analysis and Pre-
vention 68, 117–130.

REFERENCES
APPENDIX: Questionnaire
Alexopoulos, E. C., Kavadi, Z., Bakoyannis, G. and Papan-
tonopoulos, S. (2009). “Subjective Risk Assessment CONSULTATION TO WORKERS IN TERMS
and Perception in the Greek and English Bakery Indus- OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
tries”. Journal of Environmental and Public Health SYSTEM (OHS)
Volume 2009. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. General Information
Arocena, P. & Núñez, I. (2009). The effect of occupational Name, gender, age, education, number of years
safety legislation in preventing accidents at work: tra- working in this firm, function/activity, number of
ditional versus advanced manufacturing industries. work accidents.
Environment and Planning C: Government and Pol-
icy, 27(1), 159–174. Retrieved from http://ideas.repec. 1. General
org/a/pio/envirc/v27y2009i1p159–174.html. 1.1. Do you consider that the company fulfils
EU-OSHA (2013). European Agency for Safety and its obligations in terms of OHS?
Health at Work. Priorities for occupational safety and 1.2. Do you consider that the company has ade-
health research in Europe: 2013–2020. ISBN 978-92-
quate OHS conditions?
9240-068-2. Luxembourg.
EU-OSHA (2016). Agência Europeia para a Segurança e 2. Occupational risks
Saúde no Trabalho. Bons níveis de SST são um bom 2.1. Do you receive information about the risks to
negócio. Consulted in April 2016, available at https:// which you are exposed in your workplace?
osha.europa.eu/pt/themes/good-osh-is-good-for- 2.2. Do you receive information about the pre-
business. ventive measures to eliminate risks in your
ISO/DIS 45001 (2016). Occupational health and safety workplace?
management systems—Requirements with guidance 3. Emergency
for use. 3.1. Do you have some kind of knowledge of
ISO Guide 73 (2009). Risk Management. Vocabulary.
firefighting?
OIT—Organização Internacional do Trabalho (2011).
Sistema de Gestão da Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho: 3.2. Can you properly handle a fire
um instrumento para uma melhoria contínua. ISBN extinguisher?
978-92-2-224740-0. Torino. 3.3. Do you have basic knowledge in first aid?
Ramos, D. G. (2013). “Análise Custo-Benefício em 4. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Avaliação de Risco Ocupacional”. PhD Thesis is 4.1. Do you have available adequate PPE to pre-
Industrial and Management Systems. University of vent the risks inherent to your job function?
Minho. 4.2. When you use PPE, do you know against
Ramos, D., Arezes, P.M. & Afonso, P. (2015). Analy- what kind of risk you are being protected?
sis of the Return on Preventive Measures in Mus-
4.3. Do PPE present good condition?
culoskeletal Disorders through the Benefit-Cost
Ratio: a Case Study in a Hospital. International 4.4. Are PPE adjustable and comfortable?
Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. DOI: 10.1016/j. 4.5. Are they compatible with other PPE?
ergon.2015.11.003. 4.6. Are they available in sufficient number?
Ramos, D. & Costa, A. (2016). Occupational Health and 5. Equipment and Machinery
Safety Management System: a case study in a waste 5.1. Equipment and machines have adequate
company. Arezes et al. (eds), Occupational Safety and security conditions?

20

OSH2017_Book.indb 20 2/20/2017 9:21:09 AM


5.2. The maintenance is up to date? 8. Social Spaces
5.3. Do equipment and machines have electrical 8.1. Do you regularly eat food in your job?
cords in good condition? 8.2. Has the company space for the meals with
6. Work accidents means to heat food, benches/chairs and
6.1. Have you had any accident at work? tables?
6.2. The results of investigations of accidents 8.3. Do you consider important that the com-
have been communicated? pany provides a space for meals?
6.3. If you have suffered any accident, have you 9. Training
been involved in the research? 9.1. Does the company provide training for
7. Comfort and hygiene and sanitary conditions workers?
7.1. Are workplaces clean, maintained, organ- 9.2. o you consider it appropriate?
ized and sanitized? 10. Occupational health
7.2. Are workplaces properly illuminated in 10.1. Does the company provide health
order to perform its function? screenings?
7.3. Do workplaces ensure a suitable 10.2. Do you consider the occupational health
temperature? services appropriate?
7.4. Are sanitary facilities cleaned, preserved
and well organized?

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OSH2017_Book.indb ii 2/20/2017 9:21:06 AM
Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

Influence of cold thermal environment on packing workers


from the frozen food processing industry

T. Zlatar
Research Laboratory on Prevention of Occupational and Environmental Risks (PROA/LABIOMEP),
University of Porto, Portugal

B. Barkokébas Jr
University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil

L. Martins
Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil

M. Brito
Centre of Mathematics of the University of Porto CMUP, Portugal

J. Torres Costa, M. Vaz & J. Santos Baptista


Research Laboratory on Prevention of Occupational and Environmental Risks (PROA/LABIOMEP),
University of Porto, Portugal

ABSTRACT: In the fresh food industry the working activities are conducted in environmental tem-
peratures from 0ºC to 10ºC, while in the frozen food industry usually are at temperatures below −20ºC
which influences the variations in core and skin body temperatures and affects the working performance,
health and safety of the employees. The aim of this work is to contribute with a study on the influence of
cold thermal environment on core and skin body temperatures in packing workers from the frozen food
industry. By using the core body pill sensor and 8 skin temperature sensors a study was conducted on 4
workers during 11 days. The lowest recorded temperature was for hand 14.09ºC, mean skin temperature
had variations of 1.10 to 3.20ºC along the working period and the mean body temperature on two occa-
sions decreased below 35ºC. The core temperature was found to increase. The mean body temperature
showed small changes along the time.

1 INTRODUCTION chilled and frozen food, and its future trend is


shown clearly through the development in recent
The frozen food deliver high quality, good value, years (Baldus, Kluth, and Strasser 2012).
safe foods with an extended storage life, helping Indoor working exposure to cold offer constant
the dietary portion control and reducing waste, and predictable climate conditions, which facilitates
offer the possibility to preserve and use seasonal cold risk management and workers cold adaptation.
foods all year round (Young et al. 2010). In emerg- The different types of cold adaptations are related
ing markets like Latin America, South East Asia to the intensity of the cold stress and to individual
and Eastern Europe, an increase demand for richer factors such as body fat content, level of physical fit-
and more varied diets will occur and, importantly, ness and diet. The hypothermic general cold adap-
increase demand for large domestic appliances tation seems the most beneficial for surviving in the
such as freezers (Kennedy 2000). Further on, shifts cold but the interest of the development of general
in global economic, social and demographic trends cold adaptation in workers in the cold are question-
will continue to put pressure on food supplies, as we able since occupational activities can be organized
already witness today, more frozen foods to be sold to avoid cold disturbances (shelter, clothes, heat
each year and new products introduced to swell the sources, time sharing). For the workers working in
total sales (Artley, Reid, and Neel 2008). The struc- cold environments, adaptations of extremities are
ture of the labour market is constantly undergoing beneficial, as are developing cold induced vasodi-
change, away from fresh and homegrown towards lation, improving manual dexterity and pain limits

23

OSH2017_Book.indb 23 2/20/2017 9:21:09 AM


(Launay and Savourey 2009). Workers with less 2 METHODOLOGY
years of activity seem to be more satisfied with the
cold thermal ambient than veterans with more than 2.1 General data
10 years (Oliveira et al. 2014). Cold work involves
The experiments were conducted in the cold pack-
several adverse health effects that are observed in
ing sector from the frozen food processing industry.
indoor work. Many of these adverse outcomes may
All the documents (informed consent, participa-
be further aggravated in persons having a chronic
tion and trial forms, information for the volun-
disease (Mäkinen and Hassi 2009).
teers) were translated into Brazilian Portuguese
Severe Cold thermal Environment (SCE)
and reviewed and culturally adapted by a native
reduces skin body temperature (Tskin) and there-
Brazilian speaker. The experiment was approved
fore physical working performance, lower muscle
by the Ethics Committee of the University of
performance, maximal grip frequency and grip
Porto, approval number: 06/CEUP/2015.
strength, hand and finger dexterity, maximal vol-
In Table 1 is shown the outside environmental
untary contraction, while increase muscle fatigue
conditions at near the industry location, gath-
(Zlatar, Baptista, and Costa 2015). In cold, muscu-
ered by the National Institute of Meteorology
loskeletal complains and symptoms are common
(INMET), station of meteorology of Macau, Rio
(Oksa, Ducharme, and Rintamäki 2002), which
Grande do Norte, Brazil.
further on might lead to work accidents (Mäkinen
All workers usually spent their time in moderate
and Hassi 2009). By a questionnaire conducted
cold thermal environment, conducting moderate
by Taylor, Penzkofer, Kluth and Strasser (Penz-
to heavy physical work (packing 400 grams pack-
kofer, Kluth, and Strasser 2013), it was found that
ages into 20 kg packages, check the stored material,
order-picking work in the cold leads to frequent
organize materials on pallets, separate materials
complaints especially in the upper part of the body.
from pallets, move pallets and heavy loads with fork-
Repeated, prolonged and chronic hyperpnoea with
lifts, once a week breaking the ice on the floors in
cold dry air represents a significant environmental
SCE chambers and do heavy lifting). The only male
stress to the proximal and distal airways, leading
with low intensity work was the volunteer number 1
to the development of respiratory symptoms, air-
which was the leader of logistics. The logistic leader
way hyper-responsiveness and injury, and inflam-
had to delegate working tasks, control, supervise,
mation and remodelling of the airway (Sue-chu
and count packages. He was a connection between
2012). When the human body is exposed to cold,
offices and the stock, therefore no heavy work was
the initial response is to preserve heat by reduc-
conducted, but still, in order to check the packages
ing heat loss. The skin blood flow, especially in
and organize them, his exposure to SCE was with
extremities is reduced by vasoconstriction (Chark-
greater intensity compared with other workers.
oudian 2010), which leads to increased systolic and
Other volunteers selected to be fully monitored were
diastolic blood pressure, lowered heart rate and
male packing operators, spending mostly their time
body temperature in extremities (Gavhed 2003). It
in moderate cold thermal environment, and several
is very well documented that there is an increase
times per day storing frozen packages in the SCE
mortality related to Acute Myocardial Infarction
chambers. The thermometer in the moderate cold
(AMI) during the cold season (Chang et al. 2004;
sector was showing environmental temperature of
Kriszbacher et al. 2009). Some authors considered
18 ± 2°C, but as it was placed at 7 meters height,
fluctuation in air temperatures as a major influ-
it was showing the highest room temperature. The
ence on AMI and stroke, especially when it comes
workers were exposed to much lower temperature
to sudden decrease in temperature in a 24-hour
as they were working on a lower height, and they
period (Gill et al. 2013). A 5ºC reduction in mean
were located in front of SCE chambers with −25 to
air temperature was associated with 7% and 12%
increase in the expected hospitalization rates of
stroke and AMI, respectively (Chang et al. 2004). Table 1. Outdoor air temperature, relative humidity
On other hand, Kriszbacher suggested that beside and velocity data from the measuring days.
temperature fluctuations, the barometric pressure
and front movements greatly contributed to AMI 09:00 12:00 13:00 17:00
cases (Kriszbacher et al. 2009). Nevertheless, car-
diovascular diseases can be reduced by good man- Mean temp. 25.1 29.3 29.8 29.7
agement program of risk factors at work (Mitu ±SD (°C) ±0.84 ±1.48 ±2.13 ±2.00
and Leon 2011). Mean Relative 87.8 68.0 67.0 67.0
The objective of this work was to evaluate the Humidity ±3.86 ±9.95 ±11.81 ±11.00
±SD (%)
influence of cold thermal environment on the core
Mean Air velocity 1.9 3.6 4.2 5.6
and skin temperature of packing workers in the ±SD (m/s2) ±0.34 ±1.66 ±1.29 ±1.00
frozen food processing industry.

24

OSH2017_Book.indb 24 2/20/2017 9:21:09 AM


−30°C, which would cool the moderate cold sector each test (usually before going to sleep); travelled
each time the SCE chamber was opened. along the digestive tract harmlessly, and leaving
naturally within 24 to 72 hours. The sensors began
to transmit one minute after the capsule activa-
2.2 Fully monitored workers tion by the external monitor, sending details every
Four workers from the cold packing sector were 15 seconds to the EQ02 Life Monitor—Electronics
chosen to be fully monitored during their work- Sensor Module (SEM), which transmits the data
ing activities. Three of them were screened dur- via Bluetooth. The SEM is transported in a belt,
ing 3 working days, while one during 2 working recording the data from Tcore, chest skin tempera-
days. In total, a sample of 11 measurements was ture, heart rate and respiratory frequency.
achieved. The mean age ± sd of the successfully
fully monitored workers was 29 ± 6.3 years old, 2.3 Clothing
mean body height was 167.4 ± 5.4 cm, mean weight Clothes were given by the company as uniforms.
of all 11 measuring days was 79.7 ± 17.9 kg, mean The subjects normally wore normal cotton cloth-
Body Mass Index (BMI) was 28.4 ± 6.3 kg/m2. The ing (socks, underpants, t-shirt, trousers) and above
medical examination was conducted by the indus- it the cold protective clothing (jacket with a hood,
trial medical doctor. All subjects were informed trousers, boots), and sometimes gloves when enter-
about the goals and risks of the experiments, and ing the cold chamber.
signed the informed consent prior to participating.
The subjects were examined and asked to drink 2.4 Data analysis
the usual amount of coffee, tea, to avoid drink-
ing alcohol for at least 12 h before the test; not to The references were searched through databases by
eat spicy food at least 12 h before the test; sleep using the institutional IP address or University of
normally before the test (about 8 h); not conduct Porto federate credentials. References were man-
greater physical exertion than it is usual for the aged using the Mendeley 1.15.3. Tcore was recorded
volunteer at least 1 day before the test. Accord- by using the Equivital Manager and EqView pro-
ing to volunteer’s answers to the participation and fessional programs. Tskin was recorded by using
trial forms, all were non-smokers, didn’t drink tea, the MonitorPlux program, later on to be processed
alcohol, eat spicy food, were right handed and had by using the Matlab software program. The mean
a usual physical exertion the day before the trial skin temperature was calculated using the weight-
was conducted. Every day before the trial, it was ing coefficients as suggested by ISO 9886:2004
recorded what they ate in their previous meal, what (ISO 2004). Statistical analysis was done by using
time they ate, if they took some medicines, the time excel statistical toolbox.
when they went to sleep and when they woke up,
as well the number of hours they slept. All subjects 3 RESULTS
had the same working period of 8 hours, the morn-
ing part from 07:30 till 11:30, the pause of 1 hour, As an example of Tskin and Tcore, results from two
and finally the afternoon part from 12:30 till 16:30 volunteers are illustrated in the Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4,
(working hours varying depending on the process
situation).
The experiments were conducted during a nor-
mal working day, with the subjects performing the
usual tasks being exposed to SCE as usual and over
the usual time period. Workers conducted usual
industrial work of 8 hours at 16 to 18°C (measured
at the height of 7 meters) and entered for several
times in the frozen food chamber at air tempera-
ture of −25°C. Tskin was measured with Bioplux
skin temperature sensors. The sensors were put on
8 measuring points (forehead, right scapula, left
upper chest, right arm in upper location, left arm
in lower location, left hand, right anterior thigh
and left calf) according to ISO 9886:2004 (ISO
2004). For measuring the core temperature (Tcore)
was used an Equivital ingestible pill sensor (ther- Figure 1. Results for the volunteer 1 on day 1 morn-
mometer telemetry capsule) with dimensions of ing, left hand, Tcore and Tskin (1-working on a compu-
8.7 mm by diameter and 23 mm by length. It was ter, 2-touching the cold package, 3-walking, counting,
swallowed with water for at least 5 hours before standing).

25

OSH2017_Book.indb 25 2/20/2017 9:21:09 AM


Table 2. Minimal and maximal temperatures (ºC).

Left Core Mean Mean body


hand Forehead Temp. skin Temp. Temp.

Min 14.09 18.55 36.55 29.08 34.94


Max 34.64 35.41 37.91 34.29 36.59

Temp. - temperature

where 1 and 2 represent the data of one volunteer


in the morning and afternoon, while 3 and 4 repre-
sent the data of the other worker. On the left side
axis are illustrated values for the hand and mean
Figure 2. Results for the volunteer 1 on day 1 afternoon, skin temperature varying from 14 to 35°C, while
left hand, Tcore and Tskin (logistic leader—delegate on the right side axis are illustrated values for the
working tasks, control, supervise, count the packages). core temperature varying from 37 to 38°C. The
vertical lines represent the exposure to SCE, which
is in accordance with radical dropping of hand
temperature.
In Table 2 are presented the mean, minimal
(min) and maximal (max) values of two volun-
teers where the mean body temperature decreased
below 35ºC.

4 DISCUSSION

The workers experienced big fluctuation in air


temperatures along the working days between
outdoor and indoor environments, which might
result with AMI and stroke (Gill et al. 2013),
therefore the workers should be controlled on
regular basis and the risk should be managed and
Figure 3. Results for the volunteer 2 on day 1 morning, reduced21.22.
left hand, Tcore and Tskin (1-packing packets (400 g), In the Figure 1, there is visible one radical drop-
2-pushing 80 kg, 3-pushing 100 kg packets, 4-hanging ping of hand temperature without the worker
20 kg packet).
being exposed to SCE. In that case, the worker was
touching the frozen food package in order to meas-
ure its temperature, but without using cold protect-
ing gloves. The hand and forehead where found to
have the highest and most frequent fluctuation in
Tskin, which is reasonable as they were mostly not
covered with the cold protective clothing. The fore-
head had a difference between the min and max
recorded values, on average at least one time was
recorded a drop of 5.32 ± 3.64°C, with in one case
dropping even to 18.55°C.
The hand had the biggest differences between the
min and max recorded values, on average at least one
time was recorded a drop of 10.43 ± 4.87°C, with in
one case dropping even to 14.09°C. The hand skin
temperature recovery was fast, but when exposed to
cold air or touching cold products or material it also
Figure 4. Results for the volunteer 2 on day 1 after- dropped fast, making the changes of its temperature
noon, left hand, Tcore and Tskin (loading packets with frequent, fast and with greater differences.
20 kg of shrimps, washing out, shaking, transfer to other The mean Tskin show some small changes along
package). the time, but without great and fast lowering or ris-

26

OSH2017_Book.indb 26 2/20/2017 9:21:09 AM


ing of the means Tskin, with a maximal variation 6 CONCLUSIONS
between the min and max recorded value in one
case of 5.14°C along all the measuring working Highest and most frequent fluctuations were found in
period, and an average of between 1.10 to 3.20°C the hand and forehead skin temperature. The mean
difference among the workers along all the meas- Tskin showed some small changes along the time,
ured working period. but without great or rapid changes. The mean Tbody
The mean body temperature (Tbody) has no showed small fluctuations along the working period,
small change along the working period. As it but in two cases dropped slightly below 35°C which in
is shown in the Table 2, on two occasions: for the current literature has been described as the start
V01_D3_1 and V02_D2_1, the mean Tbody of the mild form of hypothermia (general freezing).
drops slightly below 35°C (on the min measured Tcore variations were always less then 1°C difference
values 34.98°C and 34.94°C respectively. The between the min and max value, in most of the cases
current literature has described it as the start of between 37 and 38°C. It was concluded that Tcore
the mild form of hypothermia (general freezing) was rising when exposed to SCE (because of vaso-
which occurs when the body temperature drops constriction) and with higher physical exertion. Fur-
to 32–35°C, and appears with shivering, tachy- ther experiments should be conducted with a higher
cardia, tachypnea and slowness of ideation and number of volunteers, greater exposure to SCE, hav-
compensated dysarthria. On appearing of men- ing a bigger sample with same working activities,
tioned clinical features, the workers should start thermal environment and time of exposure.
the rewarming process22.24.
Tcore variations were always less then 1°C differ-
ence between the min and max value, in the most REFERENCES
of the cases between 37 and 38°C. Tcore seems to
be raising with the exposure to SCE, which could Artley, David, David Reid, and Stephen Neel. 2008.
be explained with vasoconstriction (Charkoudian “Frozen Foods Handling & Storage.” WFLO Com-
2010). Nevertheless, the exposure to SCE was short modity Storage Manual, 1–12.
and should be studied with larger time of exposure Baldus, Sandra, Karsten Kluth, and Helmut Strasser.
to SCE before making further conclusions. The 2012. “Order-Picking in Deep Cold—Physiological
type of movement with its speed (accelerometry) Responses of Younger and Older Females. Part 2 :
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ture.” Work 41: 3010–17. doi:10.3233/WOR-2012-
raising of Tcore, and should be therefore further- 0557-3010.
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Was Associated with an Increased Risk of Hospitali-
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when they entered the chamber and staying close Thomas Hanff, Rafael J Tamargo, and Paul Nyquist.
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Interventie Sociala 33 (1): 197–208. ill Building, Howard Street, and Charlotte Harden.
Mäkinen, Tiina M, and Juhani Hassi. 2009. “Health 2010. “The British Frozen Food Industry—A
Problems in Cold Work.” Industrial Health 47 (3): Food Vision.” British Frozen Food Federation, no.
207–20. November.
Oksa, Juha, Michel B Ducharme, and Hannu Rintamäki. Zlatar, T, J Baptista, and J Costa. 2015. “Physical Work-
2002. “Combined Effect of Repetitive Work and Cold ing Performance in Cold Thermal Environment: A
on Muscle Function and Fatigue.” Journal of Applied Short Review.” In Occupational Safety and Hygiene
Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 92 (1): 354–61. III, edited by SHO 2015 International Symposium on
Oliveira, A. Virgílio M., Adélio R. Gaspar, António M. Safety and Hygiene, 401–4. CRC Press. doi:10.1201/
Raimundo, and Divo A. Quintela. 2014. “Evaluation b18042-81.

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Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

Risk mapping and prioritization—case study in a Brazilian


industrial laundry

G.L. Ribeiro & A.N. Haddad


Escola Politécnica, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

E.B.F. Galante
IME—Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

ABSTRACT: The Brazilian legislation 6.514/1977 provides guidance on how to manage health and
safety aspects in the work environment. Under such legislation, this work aims to identify and map haz-
ardous activities and substances within a case study, which is an industrial cleaning company that works
on cleaning and dyeing clothes. The methodology divides the work in two main sections: the first address-
ing risk mapping and the second presenting and applying the Hazard Matrix (HM) risk assessment tool
to this case study. The work concludes that the most critical hazards is the chemical storage room (with
29.3% of the hazards of the whole case study), followed closely by thermo-presses (25.9%), while the
most severe hazards to be dealt with are associated with fire and explosion (which stands for 17.3% of the
hazards) and noises (14.3%).

1 INTRODUCTION legislation NR05 (Brazil—MTE 2008; MTE 1978;


Brazil—MTE 2007) followed by hazards priori-
The Brazilian legislation 6.514/1977 (Brazil 1977) tization through the hazard matrix methodology
provides guidance and protocols for companies to (Haddad et al. 2012), which is described just before
manage health and safety aspects in the work envi- the results, for simplicity purposes.
ronment. Regardless of the company type, size or
complexity, every single one of them must comply
with this legislation and follow standards, known 4 CASE STUDY
as “Normas Regulamentadoras” or just “NR”.
Among those NR, one in particular is addressed in The case study is an industrial cleaning company
this paper: NR15 (Brazil—MTE 2008; MTE 1978). that works on cleaning and dyeing clothes. The
The NR15 addresses hygiene aspects and imposes industrial laundry has a staff of 30 people, who
threshold limits for exposure to chemical, biologi- work a regular 44 hours/week. The company’s job
cal and physical agents, such as heat and noise. descriptions include financial manager, department
The case study is a company whose activities relate staff, laundry aid, washer, chemical technician and
to industrial cleaning, which means dealing with sev- driver, among others. The company has its premises
eral chemicals and other hazardous substances. inside a covered warehouse, which holds several
different and isolated working environments.
The flow process starts with the arrival of the
2 OBJECTIVES
clothes into the laundry room, which are accom-
modated in the reception room while administra-
The aim of this work is to identify and map hazards
tive procedure takes place. After being received
(activities) related to industrial hygiene (chemical,
and catalogued the items are machine washed,
biological and physical agents exposure), following
dried (if needed) and ironing. After this process,
a prioritization of such risks. Ultimately, we hope
the parts are in stock “stand by” in specific rooms
that this work could offer guidance on managing
to be delivered to customers.
such risks in other similar companies.

3 METHODOLOGY 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This paper describes a study that carried out a quali- This part of the paper is divided in two main sec-
tative risk mapping, under the guidance of Brazilian tions: one addressing risk mapping and a second

29

OSH2017_Book.indb 29 2/20/2017 9:21:10 AM


presenting and applying the Hazard Matrix (HM) • Sector B: Dryers and effluent treatment units,
risk assessment tool to this case study. compressor and pressure vessel. In this sector
work 3 employees.
5.1 Risk mapping • Sector C: Thermo-presses, steam iron, area
crafts. In this sector work 20 employees overall.
Risk mapping is mandatory under Brazilian legis- • Sector D: Chemical storage room, compressor,
lation (Item 5.16 of NR05) (Brazil—MTE 2007) pressure vessel, and operational office, handling
and it should be carried out by a commission team room chemicals, storage, bathroom and dressing
maybe by employers and employees. It is also rec- room. In this sector work 17 employees.
ommended to present the results in a graphical • Sector E: Washing machines with different
manner, which helps visualization and publicity of capacities, homogenization boxes, two boilers,
such hazards. Several guides are available to aid in water tank of 25.000 L. In this sector work 8
mapping hazards on a workplace environment. employees overall.
The Manual for Risk Mapping issued by the • Sector F: Disposal Area. In this sector work 10
Government of Goiás/Brazil (Brazil—Goiais employees
2012) recognizes environmental risks as any • Sector G: Washing Machines, ozone generator,
related to any activity conducted by the company one rest room and bathroom. In this sector work
and suggests five hazard groups and colours code 9 employees.
(Table 1).
Prior to applying this mapping technique to the In this case study the environmental risks of
case study, it is helpful to split the area in smaller the above-referred 7 sectors are listed in Table 2.
sectors, which are classified by risk and activ- In sector A the risks identified as ergonomic are
ity similarities as much as possible. In this work, due to handling of laser-based machine, which
the case study has been divided in seven sectors pushes the operator to work under cycles of repeti-
(sectors A to G), as follows: tive movements (thus monotonous). Accident risks
are mainly originated from the presence of loose
• Sector A: Distribution Rooms and stock stand wires, hence electrical hazards. When coupling
by goods ready for delivery, reception of goods this with the combustible material (clothing), one
room, kitchen, dining room and bathrooms. In can expect significant likelihood of both fire and
this sector work 13 employees. explosion (there is cooking in stove). Everything is
aggravated by poor layouts.
In sector B we identified risk as physical hazards
Table 1. Hazard groups and colour codes for mapping. those originated in gas compressor and dryers,
which generate noise levels above 85 dB(A) (thresh-
Hazards Colour old provided by NR 15). The Effluent Treatment
type code Examples
Plant requires handling of chemical products, thus
Physical Green Noise, heat, vibrations, abnor- suggesting chemical hazards. Regarding accident
Hazards mal pressures, radiation and hazards we catalogued electricity (lack of protec-
humidity tive conduits upon live wires), likelihood of fire or
Chemicals Red Dust, fumes, right-flies, gases, explosion (mostly because the combined electricity
Hazards vapours, mists, chemicals issues with cloths and chemicals) and unprotected
and chemical compounds in ladders might cause operator falls.
genera The predominant hazards within sector C are
Biohazards Brown Viruses, bacteria, parasites, heat exposure, mainly due to ironing activity, oper-
protozoa, fungi, bacilli ating heat presses and irons. The safety manage-
Ergonomic Yellow Physical exertion, leaks ment group working in the case study assessed heat
Hazards weight, poor posture, tight
exposures under the guidance of NR 15 (Brazil—
control of productivity,
stress, work at night time, MTE 2008) and it has been determined breach
long working hours, monot- in those values. Ergonomically wise, the tasks are
ony and repetitiveness and repetitive and monotonous, as well as demanding
intense routine enforcement of wrong body posture.
Accident Blue Inappropriate physical During interviews, workers reported in the
hazards arrangement, machinery shoulders region (which can be consequence of
and equipment without operating with heads down). The operation of
protection, inadequate or heat iron presses also causes the burning accident
defective tools, electricity, hazards, which exist along risk of falling; electric-
fire or explosion, poisonous
animals
ity (due to the presence of scattered wireless and
electro-products); fire and explosion.

30

OSH2017_Book.indb 30 2/20/2017 9:21:10 AM


Table 2. Hazards identified and mapped within case study.

Hazards

Chemicals Ergonomic
Sector Physical Hazards Hazards Biohazards Hazards Accident hazards

A Not identified Not identified Not identified Monotony and Electricity, Fires and
repetitiveness explosions, poor
layout
B Noise Chemicals, Not identified Not identified Electricity, Fires and
several explosions, falls.
C Heat Not identified Not identified Monotony and repe- Burnings, falls, electric-
titiveness, requirement ity, fire and explosion,
of odd body hand cuts.
positions
D Noise Chemicals, Not identified Illumination Chemical burns, Fires
several and explosions,
poor layout
E Heat and noise Chemicals, Not identified Not identified Electricity, Fires and
several explosions, poor
layout, unprotected
machinery
F Noise Chemicals, Contaminated Monotony and Fire and explosions
several Air repetitiveness
G Noise Chemicals, Not identified Monotony and repe- Fire and explosions
several titiveness, requirement
of odd body
positions

D sector in characterized by its significant noise (handling chemicals) and ergonomic hazards. This
levels generated by gas compressor. The chemi- last hazard is due to demand for improper posture
cal hazards relate to storage area and handling during machine operations coupled with repeati-
of chemicals. The poor illumination causes one tivity and monotony of such tasks. In the office
to determine an ergonomic hazard in the area. rooms there are also ergonomic risks due to the
Accident possible causes are chemical burns, poor employee’s position in her job and biohazard is
layout (which compromises any evacuation proce- originated from lack of control in cleaning the air
dure) and the possibility of fire and explosion due condition system. Accident hazards are mainly fire
to activity of the gas compressor and electricity and explosion in blasting machine and electricity
due to the presence of scattered wireless and cable due to the presence of scattered wireless and cable
ducts. ducts.
In the sector E the main physical hazards Usually, the next phase of risk mapping would
risks are noise from the operation of washing be to plot these risks in a blueprint and make it
machines, and heat due to the presence of two known by everyone within the facility. This phase
boilers and poor ventilation in the area. The is not disclosed in this paper to avoid disclose the
chemical hazard is characterized by handling case study recognizable features.
miscellaneous chemicals. Accident risks are elec-
tricity, the inadequacy of the control cabinet, and
this, easy access to all people circulating on the 5.2 Risk prioritization
spot; risk of fire and explosion due to the activity According to Haddad et al. (2012), this meth-
of the boilers and the presence of large amounts odology helps to understand and set priorities
of combustible material (clothing); poor lay- between several risks in complex systems. The
out allowing the presence of clothing furniture technique is recommended when managing risks
containers blocking the way as well as incorrect and is particularly efficient to highlight the criti-
distance between equipment’s. The last potential cality of the hazards and sectors within a case
cause of an accident is unprotected machinery study. The HM consists of identifying and classi-
and equipment. fying hazards related to every activity within each
The physical hazards within both sectors F and sector of a company. This classification takes into
G arise from the noise generated by the dyeing account to two aspects: kind of danger (physical,
activity, which also causes both chemical hazards chemical, biological, ergonomics and accident,

31

OSH2017_Book.indb 31 2/20/2017 9:21:10 AM


Table 3. Risk codes for HM application.

100.0
25.9
29.3
14.7
10.8
7.0
2.6

9.7
%
Code Meaning

100,0
2781
195

720
816
408
300
270
machinery explosion Burnings Electricity cuts layout Falls FS

72
0 No hazard exposure
3 Exposure to hazard considered low.

2,4
66
No control required

0
6
0
0
6
0
0
6 Exposure to hazard considered

Hand Poor

189
medium.

6,8
3
0
0
6
6
0
0
Control recommended
9 Exposure to hazard considered

120
4,3
medium.

0
0
6
0
0
0
0
Control required, urgently.

12,2
339
for example) and their severity. The severity

3
3
3
6
9
3
3
parameters are determined using the values from
in Table 3.
The methodology for the calculation of the

10,1
282
Hazard Matrix (HM) in this case study follows

0
0
9
6
0
0
0
what has been proposed by Haddad (Haddad et al.

Repetitive Unprotected Fire and


2012) that determines that the matrix is mapped

17,3
Accident hazards

480
for each sector (Si) making a line (from 1 to y),

3
3
3
9
6
9
9
followed by a column that stands for the number
of workers on that sector (Wi). As for the other
columns, they take all the hazards (Hj) identified
in all the sectors, drawing column from 1 to x. The

2,6
72
intensity level (or frequencies according to HM

0
0
0
0
9
0
0
methodology) of hazards is calculated for each
sector (fs1) and for each hazard (fH1), using equa-
Illumination labour

tions 1 and 2.

156
5,6
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
x
fsi ∑W * R
j =1
i i, j , Where
W 1≤ i y (1)

1,8
fHj ∑W * R , Where
W 1≤ j x (2) 51
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
i i, j
Ergonomic

Chemicals Contaminated Poor body

i =1
Hazards

posture

The final HM for this case study is presented in


216
7,8

Table 4.
3
0
6
0
0
3
3

According to the HM applied to the case of


study, the sector most critical is the sector D
Hazards Biohazards
Hazard Matrix applied to the case study.

(with 29.3% of all the hazards) (Figure 1). The


sector with lower criticality is B (2.6%) and less
Sector Workers Noise Heat handling Air

1,1

critical danger is air contamination (1.1%). The


30
0
0
0
0
0
3
0

second most critical sector is C (25.9%), followed


Chemicals

by sector E (industry, 14.7%). Sector F hazards


sum 10.8%, sector G with 9.7% and sector A with
237
8,5

7.0%.
0
3
0
9
6
0
3

With regard to hazards, fire and explosion


144
5,2

(17.3%) is the top priority, followed by noise


0
0
6
0
3
0
0
Physical
hazards

(14.3%) and electricity (12.2%). Burnings comes


14,3
399

next with 10.1%, followed by chemicals (8.5%) and


0
9
0
9
6
9
9

Ergonomic factors (poor posture, 7.8%), inap-


propriate layout (6.8%), monotony and repeti-
tiveness (5.6%) and the least critical hazards are
13

20
17

10
3

heat (5.2%), hand cuts (4.3%) and unprotected


Table 4.

machinery (2.6%). Figure 2 puts hazards levels in


%
FR
D

G
A

C
B

E
F

comparison.

32

OSH2017_Book.indb 32 2/20/2017 9:21:10 AM


Likewise, the most severe hazards to be dealt with
are associated with fire and explosion (17.3%) and
noises (14.3%). Comparing these results with those
from the risk mapping, it is clear that the risk per-
ception is consistent.

REFERENCES

Brazil, 1977. Federal Bill 6.514/1977. Brasilia, Brazil:


Ministry of Work and Employment (available in Por-
tuguese only).
Brazil—Goiais, 2012. Guidelines for elaboration of Risk
Figure 1. Hazard levels per sector. maps. Brazil. Available at: http://www.sgc.goias.gov.
br/upload/arquivos/2012–11/manual-de-elaboracao-
de-mapa-risco.pdf (available in Portuguese only).
Brazil—MTE, 1978. NR 15—Annex 11—Chemical
Agents with Exposure limits. Brasilia, Brazil: Ministry
of Work and Employment. Available at: http://portal.
mte.gov.br/data/files/8A7C812D3F9B201201407C
E4F9BC105D/Anexo n.? 11_ Agentes Quimicos—
Tolerância.pdf (available in Portuguese only).
Brazil—MTE, 2008. NR 05—Internal Comission of Acci-
dents Prevention. Brasilia, Brazil: Ministry of Work
and Employment (available in Portuguese only).
Brazil—MTE, 2008. NR 15—Activities and unhealthy
activities. Brasilia, Brazil: Ministry of Work and
Employment (available in Portuguese only).
Haddad, A. et al., 2012. Hazard Matrix Application in
Health, Safety and Environmental Management Risk
Evaluation. In InTech.
ISO, 2009. ISO 31.000—Risk Management—Principles
and Guidelines, Geneva, Switzerland: International
Organisation for Standardization.
SI, 2007. OHSAS 18001:2007 Occupational Health And
Figure 2. Hazard levels. Safety Management Systems—Requirements., OHSAS
Project Group—British Standards Institution.
USDoD (US Department of Defence), 1993. MIL
6 CONCLUSIONS STD 882-C-SYSTEM SAFETY PROGRAM
REQUIREMENTS,
USDoD (US Department of Defence), 2000. MIL STD
The results from the HM implementation indicate 882-D—Standard Practice for System Safety, Wash-
that the most critical area is the chemical storage ington, USA: USA.
room, Sector D (29.3%), followed closely by thermo- USDoD (US Department of Defence), 2012. MIL STD
presses, Sector C (25.9%). These two sectors should 882-E—Standard Practice for System Safety, Wash-
be prioritized when implementing mitigation plans. ington, USA: USA.

33

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OSH2017_Book.indb ii 2/20/2017 9:21:06 AM
Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

Blood alcohol concentration effect on driving performance:


A short review

Norberto Durães, Sara Ferreira & J. Santos Baptista


Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

ABSTRACT: Driving performance may be affected differently according to Blood Alcohol Concentra-
tion (BAC) levels. We conducted a short review in accordance with PRISMA statement guidelines follow-
ing a search strategy which includes the combinations of keywords: alcohol; driver errors; driving influence;
Acute protracted error; Acute tolerance; Ascending and descending blood alcohol Concentrations; Cognitive
performance on 25 search engines and 34 scientific publishers. Nine studies met inclusion criteria; the
studies were analyzed regarding the type of experiment and procedures including a total of 230 partici-
pants who drove under BAC influence. Results of the studies agreed to be in the descending phase of the
BAC curve that more driving errors are recorded, with loss of motor skills and cognitive impairments
mainly due to the effect of acute tolerance, which affects the perception of the drivers about the risks of
driving by minimizing the BAC effects.

1 INTRODUCTION driving under the influence of alcohol in the blood


can cause a considerable amount of traffic acci-
Road accidents with motor vehicles and alcohol dents. All those studies also observed that women
consumption have drawn attention of governments and elderly comply more with the legal limits regu-
of various countries from Japan to Norway, from lations and that women, even under the influence
United States to New Zealand, from Canada to of alcohol, are more careful than men (Blomberg
China. Although countries like Turkey, Australia, et al. 2009). Studies focusing on the consequences
Austria, Argentina, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, of BAC in drivers, which cognitive impairment and
Portugal, South Africa, and Spain have a legal driving performance are harmed by this consump-
limit for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of tion, have been contributing to providing rules at a
0.49 g/l, studies reveled that drivers with that value general and personal levels (Desapriya et al. 2007,
on the limit were more involved in accidents than Charlton and Starkey 2015).
drivers with zero BAC (Karakus et al. 2015). The The impairing effect of alcohol on driving per-
influence of BAC on drivers, even within mod- formance is well established. Laboratory research
erate levels (<0.5 g/l), affects the ability to drive indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a
(Desapriya et al. 2007). broad range of behavioral and cognitive functions,
In what can be considered as large-scale stud- and any of these could contribute to overall driv-
ies, in several countries significant improvements ing performance (Weafer and Fillmore 2012).
were registered in accident rates by reducing the Despite most of the studies focus on BAC
maximum permitted BAC. In Japan the decrease effects early after the dose is rising, the concept
of the alcohol level allowed by law from 0.5 g/l to of acute tolerance has been introduced on the
0.3 g/l, is associated to a significantly decrease of subject referring to the diminished intensity of
the number of traffic violations (Desapriya et al. impairment at a given BAC during the descending
2007). The same occurs in USA, where reduction compared to the ascending limb of the BAC curve.
of the BAC to 0.8 g/l has contributed to a consid- This phenomenon is of particular importance as
erable decrease of fatalities and accidents without decisions to drive are often made after a drinking
casualties (Kaplan and Prato 2007). In Sweden the episode. Acute tolerance to the effects of alcohol
reduction of the legal limit from 0.5 g/l to 0.2 g/l has been observed in several behaviors, including
led to a decrease of 9.7% on single-accidents and motor coordination, reaction time, and subjective
a decrease of 7.5% of the total of accidents that intoxication (Fillmore et al. 2005, Schweizer and
have occurred in the six years of law enforcement Vogel-Sprott 2008, Marczinski and Fillmore 2009,
(Norstrom 1997). Considering the results and con- Cromer et al. 2010, Weafer and Fillmore 2012).
clusions pointed out by those authors, it is clear that Bearing in mind these studies it is clear that BAC

35

OSH2017_Book.indb 35 2/20/2017 9:21:12 AM


seriously compromises both driving and cognitive TRIS Online; Web of Science; ACM Digital Library;
skills. ACS Journals; AHA Journals; AIP Journals; AMA
The effects caused by the presence of BAC on Journals; ASME Digital Library; BioMed Central
drivers can be evaluated using driving simulators, Journals; Cambridge Journals Online; CE Data-
naturalistic driving tests and/or other experimen- base; Directory of Open Access Journals; Emerald
tal tests, which allow assessing the consequences Fulltext; Highwire Press; Informaworld; Ingenta;
of drinking in individuals with different charac- IOP Journals; MetaPress; nature.com; Oxford
teristics. Those types of laboratorial trials require Journals; Royal Society of Chemistry; SAGE Jour-
specific procedures to control the measured param- nals Online; SciELO—Scientific Electronic Library
eters and the reliability of the results. For instance, Online; Science Magazine; ScienceDirect; Scitation;
to consider the influence of the physical differences SFX A-Z; SIAM; and Wiley Online Library.
among the participants during the tests under- The search strategy was the same for all data-
taken to check the variation in time of the effect of bases, using the following search key-words: (1)
a dose of alcohol (i.e. acute tolerance), parameters alcohol and driver errors; (2) alcohol and driving
such as blood pressure, temperature, weight and influence; (3) alcohol and acute protracted error;
height are usually measured. On the other hand, (4) alcohol and acute tolerance; (5) driving and dur-
food with high fat content, sugar, or substances ing ascending and descending blood alcohol concen-
with caffeine can affect the absorption of alcohol. trations; (6) driving and cognitive performance.
So, participants should avoid the ingestion of food
or drinks that affect alcohol absorption (Liu and
2.2 Procedures
Fu 2007).
In this study, a short review is presented aiming A selection procedure was carried out according
to analyze the BAC effects on driving performance to the flow diagram shown in Figure 1. Firstly,
focusing on the comparison of that performance potential relevant articles were identified using
between ascending phase and descending phase of the key-words aforementioned. After that, dupli-
BAC rates in laboratorial trials. cate articles were removed. Secondly, articles dated

2 MATERIALS AND METHOD

This short review was performed in accordance


with PRISMA Statement guidelines (Liberati
et al. 2009). The review was based on the analysis
of several scientific papers reporting cases of driv-
ing under the influence of alcohol. In this sense,
the following research questions were established
to guide the short review:
− How alcohol ingestion affects driving
performance?
− What are the differences on driving behavior for
different levels of BAC?
− When driving mistakes are more pronounced,
during the ascending or descending phase of
alcohol curve?
Were select articles published in scientific jour-
nals describing studies involving experiments with
humans, reporting the existence of an informed
consent form and other relevant information
regarding the experiment methodology in order to
be possible to compare and reproduce the trials.

2.1 Data sources and search strategy


Were searched 39 electronic databases and scientific
publishers: Academic Search Complete; CiteSeerX; Figure 1. Flow diagram of studies selection: sum-
Compendex; ERIC; Inspec; Library, MEDLINE; mary of the results in accordance with the PRISMA
PsycArticles; PubMed; ScienceDirect; SCOPUS; Statment.

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OSH2017_Book.indb 36 2/20/2017 9:21:12 AM


for more than 10 years as well as articles missing not sufficiently described to be applied and results
relevant information were excluded. Addition- compared.
ally, the research questions were used to guide the Each article was deeply analyzed regarding
screening phase. Therefore, articles that in some the experimental procedures in order to identify
way do not meet those questions were excluded. and compare the following descriptors: par-
Thirdly, the eligibility criteria aforementioned were ticipants (sample, gender, age, weight, height),
applied to the final selection. To do that, data was the substance used, experiment description
extracted from each study to identify specific ele- including type, tests, measures and procedures
ments describing the experiment and methodology (Table 1).
used in each study. All experiments were real-time clock and all
participants have valid driver’s license. All studies
used a driving simulator to develop the experiment
3 RESULTS except one that applied cognitive and psychologi-
cal tests supported on a visual analog scale specifi-
The search identified 3429 articles for assessment cally designed for the study (Cromer et al. 2010).
(Figure 1). Additionally, 14 more articles were Sample sizes of included studies ranged from 8–61
included as relevant bibliography. From this first participants. Most of the selected articles (Marc-
outcome, 1484 duplicate articles were excluded. zinski and Fillmore 2009, Cromer et al. 2010,
Of the remaining 1959 articles, 104 articles were Starkey and Charlton 2014, Charlton and Starkey
excluded by insufficient or incorrect identification, 2015) report the differences found in driving per-
846 because were published more than 10 years ago formance between the ascending and descending
and 990 were out of the topic. At the end, 19 eligi- limb of the BAC curve. Two (Weafer and Fillmore
ble articles were identified and evaluated to satisfy 2012, Tremblay et al. 2015) others are focused
the research purpose. Data extraction and analy- only in the descending limb in order to analyze
sis was undertaken and 9 articles were selected as the effect on driving performance of acute alcohol
meeting the criterion that the experiments were consumption.
supported by an informed consent form. The 10 The 9 articles published over a period of
excluded articles did not provide information eight years, from 2007 to 2015, are identified in
about this issue and/or the used methodology was Table 1.

Table 1. Selected studies: Summary of the experimental procedures.

Author (Year) Participants Substances


1 2 3 4
(Liu and Fu 2007) 8 S : 6 M and 2 F ; 4 S: [20–24] yo , 4 S: [25–30] yo Alcohol (Vodka)
(Marczinski et al. 2008) 40 S (2 Afr-Am, 1 Asian, 36 Caucasian and 1 Nat-Am): Alcohol (Beer)
20 M, 20 F; [21–29] yo; 24 binge drinkers and 16 non and drugs.
binge drinkers.
(Marczinski and 28 S (Afr-Am, 1 Asian American, Americano, 23 Alcohol (Beer)
Fillmore 2009) Caucasian and 1 “other”): 16 M, 12 F; [21–28] yo; and drugs
At least twice a week drivers, with and without
drinking habit
(Cromer et al. 2010) 17 S: 9 M and 11 F at the beginning, 3 discarded Alcohol (vodka) and
after screening. Remaining total = 17; [21–25] yo; drugs (spritzer of
Social-drinking adults vodka)
(Weafer and Fillmore 20 S: 10 M, 10 F; [21–31] yo; Social-drinking adults Alcohol and drugs
2012)
(Helland et al. 2013) 20 S, M: 20 driving simulator + 10 instrumented Alc (vodka) – drugs;
vehicle. [25–35] yo (non-alc vodka);
placebo pill.
(Starkey and Charlton 2014) 61 S: 33 M, 28 F; [20–50] yo; occasional drinkers Alcohol and drugs
(Charlton and Starkey 2015) 44 participants: 21 M, 23W, [20–47] Alcohol (vodka) or drugs
(Tremblay et al. 2015) 16 S: 10 M, 6 F; G5-1: (6 M, 2 F), Average age 21,6; Alcohol
G-2: Average age 20,9 ± 2,35 years (4 M, 4 F).
1
S-subjects; 2M-mail; 3F-female; 4yo-years old; 5G-Group; Afr-Am-African-Americans; Nat-Am-Native-American;
Alc-Alcohol.

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4 DISCUSSION on by Marczinski and Fillmore (2009) that have
found differences between ascending and descend-
In this short review, it becomes clear that driving ing limb of the BAC curve regarding driver’s per-
under the influence of alcohol increases the risk ception. The authors observed that the perception
of traffic accidents and seriously impairs driver’s that one is not able to drive is the same whether
performance as analyzed, observed and confirmed for drivers who consume alcohol moderately (non-
in the nine studies. As it is difficult and dangerous binge drinkers) or for drivers who consume large
to study this phenomenon with naturalistic studies, amounts of alcohol at once (binge drinkers), when
laboratory trials were developed to carry on those asked in the ascending phase of the alcohol curve.
studies, most of them using driving simulators. In In contrast, in the descending phase of the alcohol
this point, the work developed by Helland et al. curve, although none of the drivers has the ability to
(2013) becomes very important. These authors drive, binge drinkers have the false perception that
compared naturalistic studies with simulator stud- they are capable of driving. They also noticed that
ies, and concluded that studies held in driving during the descending phase of the alcohol curve,
simulator are effective to perceive the influence of drivers make more mistakes due to being more
alcohol on driving performance. Nevertheless, the tired and eventually sleepy while in the ascending
same authors stressed that differences were found phase they still have some energy. Finally, it is clear
between naturalistic and simulated experiments that binge drinkers lose the ability to perceive their
regarding risk perception, which is more noticeable degree of intoxication, creating a certain tolerance
in the naturalistic driving as expected. However, as to alcohol, i.e. acute tolerance.
this difference is not significant to the main objec- Cromer et al. (2010) corroborated, to some
tive, the driving simulator is accepted as a valuable extent, the same conclusions of the authors above,
tool for the evaluation of driving under the influ- through undertaking cognitive and psychologic
ence of alcohol consumption. tests namely visual analog scale, instead of a driv-
Regarding the influence of alcohol on driv- ing simulator. Cromer et al. (2010) concluded that
ing performance, Liu and Fu (2007) found that alcohol seriously affects cognitive abilities how-
the higher the level of alcohol in the blood, the ever, they observed that in some cases, these capa-
higher the number of driving mistakes and thus, bilities are more affected during the rise of BAC
committing driving performance. It was observed while other are affected during the decreasing of
that once the BAC increases, the ability of atten- BAC level. Despite the descending phase of the
tion on the various factors that compromise the BAC curve does not affect all the capabilities, it is
driving performance decreases. In addition, the at this stage that there is the illusion that one is not
increase of BAC is associated with a decrease of intoxicated by alcohol and thus, considering him-
cognitive capacities and motor skills. Additionally, self able to drive. In fact, Cromer et al. observed
Marczinski, et al. (2008) state that the influence that a candidate in the descending phase of the
of alcohol on driving performance is correlated alcohol curve, with a BAC of 0.8 g/l, showed the
with the amount of alcohol ingested, whereas illusion of being already with zero BAC, revealing
drivers who ingest moderate amounts of alcohol that he/she has acute tolerance.
(nonbinge drinkers) have a more realistic percep- Weafer and Fillmore (2012) also concluded that
tion of whether they are qualified to drive. In con- during the descending phase of the BAC curve
trast, drivers who ingest large amounts of alcohol drivers make more mistakes and the drivers with
at once (binge drinkers) block the ability to real- acute tolerance have a false perception of their
ize they are not able to drive. This is due to the abilities to drive safely. Curiously, the authors
fact that binge drinkers are more accustomed to observed that despite drivers with acute tolerance
alcohol, which allows them to have a perception make more mistakes not all skills are affected. In
of a better response to its effect as a result of the fact, acute tolerance was observed specifically to
tolerance they developed (acute tolerance) which alcohol effects on motor coordination. However,
in turn gives them a false sensation that they are and despite any acute recovery from the impair-
capable of driving under those alcohol conditions. ing effects of alcohol on motor coordination might
From the nine included studies, six analyzed the allow for some degree of recovery of driving abil-
effect of the acute tolerance on driving perform- ity, the study findings showed that acute tolerance
ance and/or driver’s behavior (Marczinski and to alcohol-impaired motor coordination was not
Fillmore 2009, Cromer et al. 2010, Weafer and Fill- accompanied by any acute tolerance to alcohol-
more 2012, Starkey and Charlton 2014, Charlton impaired driving performance.
and Starkey 2015, Tremblay et al. 2015), showing In line with the previous studies, Starkey and
the BAC curve resulting from their experiments, Charlton (2014) pointed out that the driving perform-
i.e., BAC levels as a function of time after alcohol ance is affected by the BAC level and by the acute
consumption. It was the case of the study carried tolerance. Also, they distinguish the ascending phase

38

OSH2017_Book.indb 38 2/20/2017 9:21:12 AM


from the descending phase in which the second is traffic conflicts and accidents when drivers are
associated to a decrease of driving performance. under influence of moderate BAC. Indeed, it was
Tremblay et al. (2015) studied the BAC influ- observed that drivers with acute tolerance feel that
ence on young drivers. Among others, they con- they are capable of driving well, minimizing the
cluded that even with a low level of BAC, young risk perception.
drivers tend to increase driving speed as well as the Overall, the studies selected in this review are in
number of driving mistakes. The authors noted line inasmuch as they concluded that it is during
that during the descending phase, after 4 hours of the descending phase of the BAC curve that it is
alcohol ingestion and with a BAC ranging between observed higher number of mistakes, however diverg-
0.5 g/l and 0.7 g/l, the number of driving mistakes ing on the type of capabilities most affected. Indeed,
is higher than in the ascending phase of the BAC during the descending phase same authors found an
curve. Additionally, Charlton and Starkey (2015) acute tolerance to alcohol effects on motor coordi-
mentioned that social drinking highly affects nation, however no acute tolerance was observed to
the perception of driving capabilities as well as the impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory con-
increases the acute tolerance. Hence, the decision trol as individuals remained just as disinhibited by
of driving and drinking on a social event should be alcohol when BAC was declining as when it was ris-
made before. In this study, more driving mistakes ing. Additionally, when BAC begins to decline, other
were reported during the descending phase of the factors, such as fatigue or impaired attention, might
BAC curve even for the same BAC values of the play a role in determining driving impairment.
ascending phase, confirming the main conclusions The studies pointed to the importance of a deep
of the previously mentioned studies. analysis of BAC effect on driver’s performance,
especially regarding the acute tolerance. This phe-
nomenon may be a common issue during social
5 CONCLUSIONS events, confounding the drivers and others about
their driving capabilities compromising the right
An extensive review of literature was performed decision of not driving and thus, exposing them
focusing on BAC influence on driving perform- to the risk of accident. Proving this assumption,
ance, particularly regarding the difference between the decision of driving should be made before any
ascending and descending phases of the BAC alcohol consumption otherwise the accident risk
curve, and acute tolerance on drivers. Taking into increases due to poor driver performance. More-
account the particular condition of the partici- over, the legal limits in several countries may be
pants in this type of experiments, i.e. under the questioned regarding the desirable effects on acci-
influence of alcohol consumption, laboratory trials dent and injury prevention.
and particularly driving simulators are a safe tool
in a controlled environment that provide insights
into situations that are difficult to measure in a REFERENCES
naturalistic driving study.
The experimental studies undertaken using driv- Blomberg, R.D., Peck, R.C., Moskowitz, H., Burns, M.,
ing simulators and cognitive and psychological tests Fiorentino, D., 2009. The long beach/fort lauder-
analyzing the responses of the participants under dale relative risk study. J. of Safety Research 40 (4),
various tasks, showed that the cognitive and motor 285–292.
skills are affected both on ascending and descend- Charlton, S.G., Starkey, N.J., 2015. Driving while
ing phases of the BAC curve, however in different drinking: Performance impairments resulting from
ways. During the ascending phase, the mistakes social drinking. Accident Analysis & Prevention 74,
210–217.
regarding motor skills are more pronounced inas- Cromer, J.R., Cromer, J.A., Maruff, P., Snyder, P.J., 2010.
much as the response to an unexpected task is exag- Perception of alcohol intoxication shows acute tol-
gerated and it is observed a variation of the speed erance while executive functions remain impaired.
around the desired speed as set for the experiment. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 18 (4),
In the same studies, during the descending phase, 329–339.
and despite in some cases are observed a reduction Desapriya, E., Pike, I., Subzwari, S., Scime, G., Shimizu, S.,
on the magnitude of alcohol impairment of motor 2007. Impact of lowering the legal blood alcohol
coordination, cognitive mistakes are observed, concentration limit to 0.03 on male, female and teen-
affecting not only the driving performance but also age drivers involved alcohol-related crashes in japan.
I.J. of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 14 (3),
the risk perception. In this point, studies showed 181–187.
that drivers have a wrong perception of their driv- Fillmore, M.T., Marczinski, C.A., Bowman, A.M., 2005.
ing capabilities in the descending phase of the Acute tolerance to alcohol effects on inhibitory and
BAC curve. These findings described the acute tol- activational mechanisms of behavioral control. Jour-
erance phenomenon that may be associated with nal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 66 (5), 663–672.

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Helland, A., Jenssen, G.D., Lervåg, L.-E., Westin, A.A., Marczinski, C.A., Harrison, E.L.R., Fillmore, M.T.,
Moen, T., Sakshaug, K., Lydersen, S., Mørland, J., 2008. Effects of alcohol on simulated driving and
Slørdal, L., 2013. Comparison of driving simulator perceived driving impairment in binge drinkers. Alco-
performance with real driving after alcohol intake: holism: Clinical and Experimental Research 32 (7),
A randomised, single blind, placebo-controlled, cross- 1329–1337.
over trial. Accident Analysis & Prevention 53, 9–16. Norstrom, T., 1997. Assessment of the impact of the
Kaplan, S., Prato, C.G., 2007. Impact of bac limit reduc- 0.02 percent bac-limit in sweden. Studies on Crime and
tion on different population segments: A poisson fixed Crime Prevention 6 (2), 245–258.
effect analysis. Accid. Analysis & Prevention 39 (6), Schweizer, T.A., Vogel-Sprott, M., 2008. Alcohol-
1146–1154. impaired speed and accuracy of cognitive functions:
Karakus, A., İdiz, N., Dalgiç, M., Uluçay, T., Sincar, Y., A review of acute tolerance and recovery of cognitive
2015. Comparison of the effects of two legal blood performance. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharma-
alcohol limits: The presence of alcohol in traffic acci- cology 16 (3), 240.
dents according to category of driver. Traffic Injury Starkey, N.J., Charlton, S.G., 2014. The effects of mod-
Prev. 16 (5), 440–442. erate alcohol concentrations on driving and cognitive
Liberati, A., Altman, D.G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., performance during ascending and descending blood
Gøtzsche, P.C., Ioannidis, J.P.A., Clarke, M., alcohol concentrations. Human Psychopharmacology:
Devereaux, P.J., Kleijnen, J., Moher, D., 2009. The Clinical and Experimental 29 (4), 370–383.
prisma statement for reporting systematic reviews and Tremblay, M., Gallant, F., Lavallière, M., Chiasson, M.,
meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare inter- Silvey, D., Behm, D., Albert, W.J., Johnson, M.J.,
ventions: Explanation and elaboration. BMJ 339. 2015. Driving performance on the descending limb of
Liu, Y.-C., Fu, S.-M., 2007. Changes in driving behavior blood alcohol concentration (bac) in undergraduate
and cognitive performance with different breath alco- students: A pilot study. PLoS ONE 10 (2), e0118348.
hol concentration levels. Traffic Injury Prevent. 8 (2), Weafer, J., Fillmore, M.T., 2012. Acute tolerance to alco-
153–161. hol impairment of behavioral and cognitive mecha-
Marczinski, C.A., Fillmore, M.T., 2009. Acute alcohol nisms related to driving: Drinking and driving on
tolerance on subjective intoxication and simulated the descending limb. Psychopharmacology 220 (4),
driving performance in binge drinkers. Psychology of 697–706.
Addictive Behaviors 23 (2), 238–247.

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Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

HazOp study in a wastewater treatment unit

J.E.M. França
Departamento de Engenharia Civil, UFF, Niterói, Brazil

G.F. Reis & A.N. Haddad


Escola Politécnica, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

E.B.F. Galante
IME—Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

D.M.B. Costa
FEUP—Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

I.J.A. Luquetti dos Santos


Instituto de Energia Nuclear, IEN-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a case study that applies a Hazard and Operability Study (HazOp)
into a part of an industrial wastewater treatment plant under construction. The aim of this study is to
identify hazardous situations and operational risks before the occurrence of these scenarios, prior to the
plant start-up. HazOp is a structured and systematic qualitative examination of a process plant opera-
tion, based on guidewords and nodes, that identifies and assess hazardous and risks. Two risk scenarios
were identified and analysed by HazOp methodology, resulting in technical recommendations for the
management of these risks. These recommendations target safety in plant operations and, since they
are suggested prior to the beginning of plant operation, its implementation demands few resources and
presents high cost-effectiveness.

1 INTRODUCTION tunately, we do not always learn from the hazards


we have passed through.” Furthermore, Dunjó et al
This work is based upon the thesis written by Reis (2011) notes that HazOp study is a risk assessment
(2016), in which the wastewater treatment unit of tool applied worldwide, used for studying not only
a siderurgy company, named “Waters” (fictitious hazards, but also operability problems of a system
name) is evaluated. This study presents a risk by exploring the effects of any deviations from
assessment of the processes of an industrial waste- design conditions. This method reviews equip-
water treatment plant in executive design using ment, instrumentation, utilities, human factors
the Hazard and Operability (HazOp) method to and external events that might impact the proc-
analyse industrial process risks and to identify ess following Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams
possible facility improvements, such as changes (P&ID). This study explores this method to illu-
in equipment, instrumentation, automation and minate hazards inherent of a wastewater treatment
chemical handling before the industrial plant starts unit that handles with dangerous substances and
operating. Despite the existence of numerous risk to identify critical process parameters.
analysis techniques, such as PHA, FMEA and
FTA, HazOp was chosen for this project because it
presents the best methodology for identifying risks 2 METHODOLOGY
during all pashes of any industrial process plants,
especially during the operation. This paper carried out a quantitative HazOp study
According with Kletz (1999) apud Isimite & (Galante et al. 2014) of a wastewater treatment
Rubini (2016), “It is better to illuminate the hazards unit through a structured analysis of the system
we have passed through than not illuminate them and its processes by a multi-disciplinary team. In
at all, as we may pass the same way again, but we this method, the team follows the process lines,
should try to see them before we meet them … unfor- analysing possible deviations in each stage of

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process design or operation (Crawley, 2000). Even Table 2. Probability levels.
being systematic and rigorous, the analysis can also
be flexible. This analysis is done by a systematic Cat. Description Aspects
usage of words in combination with system param- A Frequent Likely to occur often
eters to identify deviations in the process workflow. in the life of an
According to Kotek & Tabas (2012) HazOp is item.
a systemic approach best suitable to carry out risk B Probable Will occur several
assessment in process units. HazOp method has times in the life of
been used: (i) systemic approach towards assess- an item.
ment of safety and operability; (ii) advantage of C Occasional Likely to occur
the keywords (see Table 1) for generation of devia- sometime in the
tions from the safe situation, and (iii) principle of life of an item
a brainstorming during the creative development D Remote Unlikely, but possi-
of the considered scenarios of events, originating ble to occur in the
life of an item.
from the deviation from the safe situation, fol-
E Improbable So unlikely, it can be
lowed by the identification of deviation causes, assumed occur-
safety functions and evaluation of their possible rence may not be
effects. experienced in the
The record of the study is realized by a usual life of an item.
form of the discussion of the HazOp team follow- F Eliminated Incapable of occur-
ing the scheme: deviation—causes—effects—safety rence. This level
functions—action/measure. Identification of sig- is used when
nificant deviations is made through guide parame- potential hazards
ter words coupled with process parameters. Table 1 are identified and
later eliminated.
lists some of the most commonly used parameters
and guidewords combinations used. Source: Mil STD 882-E (USDoD, 2012).
In order to structure the analysis, the process
is split into segments, each of them designated as
a “node”, which is a part of all process that usu-
ally has similar characteristics and equipment or Table 3. Severity categories.
low variation of the operating parameters. The
first attempt for nodes selection is to identify main Cat.Description Mishap Result Criteria
sections, which are easy to “disconnect” from
1 Catastrophic Could result in one or more of the
each other (e.g., feeds section, reaction section, following: death, permanent total
absorber section, distillation, etc.). Main sections disability, irreversible significant
are addressed as a wide number of equipment that environmental impact, or monetary
is involved in achieving a sub-aim: contributing to loss equal to or exceeding $10M.
the overall design intention of the process. This is 2 Critical Could result in one or more of the
following: permanent partial dis-
ability, injuries or occupational
Table 1. Deviations and parameters. illness that may result in hospitali-
zation of at least three personnel,
Parameter Guideword Deviation reversible significant environmental
impact, or monetary loss equal to
FLOW None, Less, No flow, Less flow, or exceeding $1M but less than
More, More flow, Reverse $10M.
Reverse flow, Other flow, 3 Marginal Could result in one or more of the
Other, Contamination following: injury or occupational
Also illness resulting in one or more lost
PRESSURE More More pressure work day(s), reversible moderate
Less Less pressure environmental impact, or monetary
TEMPERATURE More Higher temperature loss equal to or exceeding $100K
Less Lower temperature but less than $1M.
VISCOSITY More More viscosity 4 Negligible Could result in one or more of the fol-
Less Less viscosity lowing: injury or occupational ill-
REACTION None No reaction ness not resulting in a lost workday,
Less Reaction incomplete minimal environmental impact, or
More Intense reaction monetary loss less than $100K.

Source: (Galante et al. 2014). Source: Adapted from Mil STD 882-E (USDoD, 2012).

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Table 4. Risk assessment matrix Table 5. Ethanol storage conditions.

Storage period 29 days

Required volume 7,0 m3


Number of tanks 1 (TQE-E02-005)
Tank diameter 2,0 m
Tank useful height 2,3 m
Tank useful volume 7,0 m3

Ethanol consumption is 10 L/h (equivalent of


8 kg/h) and it is storaged under condition pre-
sented in Table 5.
The ethanol tank, shown under tag TQE-E02-
Source: Mil STD 882-E (USDoD, 2012). 005 in Figure 1 is protected against spills by a rein-
forced concrete tank (width 4,0 m; length 4,0 m;
height 1,0 m; total volume: 10,2 m3) and a level sen-
sor (LIT-E02-011).
the first chased size for breaking the process into
nodes (Dunjó et al, 2011).
In a typical HazOp, for each node, the team 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
maps possible deviation and identifies and analy-
ses its causes and effects. This work moves beyond The P&ID from Figure 1 corresponds to the node
a typical methodology by using quantitative under evaluation in this work, equivalent to ethanol
approach proposed by Galante et al (2014) in which transference and storage into the tank. Although
causes and consequences are qualitatively assessed. this entire HazOp was developing around 33 nodes,
Causes are converted into frequency of occurrence this work focuses on the most critical node, which
using a series of parameters (Table 2), while and its links preparation, storage and dosage of ethanol
effects are converted into consequences (severity) operations.
using the parameters from Table 3. For the assessment of these risk scenarios,
Probability and severity categories determines a only two parameters were considered applicable:
risk rating value, which supports decision making flow and pressure. Ethanol supply to the tank is
whereas a risk is tolerable, as well as its priority done by a dedicated truck connection coupled to
when it comes to mitigation. The combination of a pump, which has only one direction of rotation
frequency and severity is conducted by the usage and operates at a fixed flow rate. This assures con-
of risk matrices (Table 4). sistency with the internal pressure generated by the
fluid and supported by the hose. There are quick
couplers on connections (truck and pump connec-
3 CASE STUDY tions), coupling the truck-hose between these two
points.
The wastewater treatment plant under evaluation Tables 6 and 7 present the results from the
presents a series of hazards, which include the application of HazOp in the selected node. Table 6
usage of chemicals, high and low pressures, tem- addresses the transference of ethanol from the
peratures and flow. The inventories of chemicals transportation truck to the storage tank, while
include basic chemicals (sodium hydroxide and Table 7 stands for the analysis of the ethanol stor-
calcium hydroxide) and acids (sulphuric acid, citric age into the tank TQE-E02-005.
acid and ferric chloride). This HazOp analysis, in the operation of trans-
Hazards from these chemicals include cor- ference of ethanol from the transportation truck
rosively (sodium hydroxide and sulphuric acid to the storage tank, for the deviation “less flow”
and ferric chloride); irritant capability (calcium and “no flow”, has assessed one scenario as Low
hydroxide and citric acid); and flammability. Flam- Risk, two as Medium Risk, and others two as Seri-
mability is mainly due to the presence of Ethanol ous Risk. Once there are medium and serious risks,
(CH3CH2OH) with a flash point of 13°C, LEL it is necessary to provide recommendations for risk
(Lower Explosive Limit) of 3.3% by volume and management. In scenarios where there is the possi-
UEL (Upper Explosive Limit) of 19% by volume bility of ethanol accidental liberation, causing fire
(PubChem, 2016), i.e., small releases of ethanol or explosion due its flammability characteristics,
vapours may generate explosive atmospheres in the the study has recommended to remove or elimi-
surrounding area. nate explosion ignition sources during all steps

43

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Figure 1. P&ID of ethanol preparation and storage operations.

of operation, and ensure that the hose and con- “high level” deviation, it was suggested to enable an
nections are correctly grounded in the same earth automation interlock between LIT of TQE-E02-
equipotential of the tank trunk and the transfer- 005 and the transference pump, shutting down this
ence pump. Moreover, due ethanol viscosity and pump when the tank level reaches HH (High High)
its transference in pressure, static electricity build parameters.
up on the walls of the hose are a concern once a Furthermore, it is possible to evaluate the pos-
spark source can potentially starts afire. Taking sibility of having a backup automated system, not
pump, trunk tank, hose and connections by the having LIT as a reference, which also shut down
same earth equipotential, the risk of ignition from the transference pump when detects high ethanol
static electricity is greatly reduced. levels. For “low level” deviations, it was identified
The less pressure deviation had presented a seri- that, during normal operation of ethanol dosing,
ous risk, having as consequence the mechanical for the wastewater treatment process, if the LIT
tank truck implosion, caused by a failure in the top fail during the transmission of low level signals, the
vents of this tank. This implosion happens due an metering pumps will send continuously ethanol to
lower pressure (vacuum) inside of the tank, break- the process, till no more product is available inside
ing the mechanical structure of the tank and caus- the tank.
ing an ethanol spill that contaminates personal and These metering pumps are responsible for etha-
environment, as well as fire or explosion, due its nol dosing in the process and by design, cannot run
flammability. Recommendations for this scenario without fluids. If these pumps run dry it may cause
were similar to the less flow deviation, however serious cavitation damages, which can be mitigated
including procedures to ensure the all top vents of enabling an automation interlock between LIT of
the truck tank are in perfect condition and without TQE-E02-005 and the metering pumps, that when
obstruction before the operations stars, and also LIT reaches LL (Low Low) levels, all the metering
guarantee that all personal involved in this opera- pumps will be shutted down instantly.
tion has been trained to identify top vents failures An overall recommendation is to observe all
and obstructions. operational procedures, check materials and ver-
For ethanol storage operations in tank TQE- ify equipment integrity to ensure that all situa-
E02-005, two possible deviations were identified: tions that can cause a loss of ethanol containing
high level and low level. As defined in the P&ID, are controlled and identified. Safety must be the
the ethanol tank will have two LIT (Level Indica- prime concern in all actions during the operations
tor Transmitter), as redundancy. Although this of transference of ethanol from the transportation
redundancy control, LIT can fail, and this might truck to the storage tank and ethanol storage into
lead to leakage of ethanol. As recommendation for the tank TQE-E02-005.

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OSH2017_Book.indb 45

Table 6. HazOp table: transference of ethanol from the transportation truck to the storage tank.

Guide
Parameter word Deviation Cause Consequences Freq. Sev. Risk Recommendations

Ethanol flow transference None No flow Unplanned Locking of Delay in the E 4 L - Prevent the inadvertent closing of manual valves.
between truck and tank manual valves operations - In case of loss of containment, follow procedures
to avoid ethanol spreading.
Ethanol flow transference None No flow Fail in the hose integ- Ethanol spill, D 1 S - Remove or eliminate explosion ignition sources
between truck and tank rity or accidental causing con- during operation.
disconnection of any tamination, fire - Ensure that the hose and connections are cor-
quick coupler or explosion rectly grounded in the same earth equipotential of
the tank trunk and the transference pump.
- Ensure that the hose and connections are in per-
fect condition and operation.
- Evaluate the possibility of substitution of etha-
nol as a carbon source for other less dangerous
product.
Ethanol flow transference None No flow Pump fail Delay in the B 4 M - Ensure that the pump, its accessories and connec-
45

between truck and tank operations tions are in perfect condition and operation.
- Evaluate the possibility of having a backup pump
for this process.
Ethanol flow transference Less Less flow Partial fail in the hose Ethanol spill, D 2 M - Remove or eliminate explosion ignition sources
between truck and tank causing con- during all steps of operation.
tamination, fire - Ensure that the hose and connections are in per-
or explosion fect condition and operation.
- Ensure that the hose and connections are cor-
rectly grounded in the same earth equipotential of
the tank trunk and the transference pump.
Ethanol pressure transfer- Less Less pressure Failure in the top vents Mechanical tank D 1 S - Ensure that all top vents of the truck tank are
ence between truck and of the truck tank, implosion, in perfect conditions and without obstructions
tank causing internal causing etha- before transference operation begins.
vacuum nol contamina- - Ensure that all personal involved in this operation
tion, fire or has been trained to identify top vents failures and
explosion obstructions.
- Ensure that the hose and connections are cor-
rectly grounded in the same earth equipotential of
the tank trunk and the transference pump.
2/20/2017 9:21:13 AM
Table 7. HazOp table: ethanol storage into the tank TQE-E02-005.

Guide Devia-
Parameter word tion Cause Consequences Freq. Sev. Risk Recommendations

Ethanol level High High LIT fail during Ethanol spill, D 1 S - Enable automation interlock
in the tank level ethanol load- causing con- between LIT (level indicator) of
TQE-E02- ing to the tamination, fire TQE-E02-005 and the transfer-
005 tank or explosion ence pump.
- Evaluate the possibility of having
a backup automated system that
shut down the transference pump
when detected high ethanol level.
Ethanol level Low Low LIT fail during Damages in the D 2 M - Enable automation interlock
in the tank level normal opera- metering pumps between LIT of TQE-E02-005
TQE-E02- tion of the of the ethanol and the metering pumps.
005 tank dosing process - Evaluate the possibility of having
an automated system that shut
down the metering pumps when
detected low ethanol level.

5 CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
Crawley, F., Preston, M. & Tyler, B., 2000. HAZOP:
A HazOp analysis presents some operational recom- Guide to best practice. Guidelines to best practice for the
mendation to avoid economic and safety loss in the process and chemical industries., Institution of Chemi-
experimental works. However, besides the consid- cal Engineers (Great Britain), European Process Safety
eration of economic order, aspects concerning the Centre. United Kingdom: The Cromwell Press.
safety of a process are becoming more important Dunjó, J.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Darbra, R. M.; Vílchez, J.
by an increasing knowledge of the environmental A.; Arnaldos, J. Conducting HAZOPs in continuous
problems and life quality in a scenario of sustain- chemical processes: Part I. Process Safety and Environ-
able world growth. Safety assessment at workplaces mental Protection. Elsevier, v. 89, p. 214–223, 2011.
Galante, E., Costa, D.M.B. da & Nóbrega, M. Risk
involves operation risks as well as all other kinds of
Assessment Methodology: Quantitative HazOp. Jour-
tasks and hazardous activities, which, in this paper, nal of Safety Engineering, p. 8, 2014.
include the operations of a wastewater treatment Ghasemzadeh, K.; Morrone, P.; Iulianelli, A.; Liguori,
unit that is under construction, but its operational S.; Basile, A. H2 production in silica membrane reac-
risk were already identified, resulting in recommen- tor via methanol steam reforming: Modeling and
dations that will easily implemented. For instance, HAZOP analysis. International Journal of Hydro-
the recommendation of an automated system that gen Energy. Elsevier, v. 38, p. 10315–10326, 2013.
shut down the metering pumps when detected low Isimite, J. & Rubini, P. A dynamic HAZOP case study
ethanol level, for “low level” deviations, will demand using the Texas City refinery explosion. Journal of
Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Elsevier, v.
a simple installation of new two sensors, one trans-
40, p. 496–501, 2016.
mitter and few connecting wire in each metering Kotek, L. & Tabas, M. HAZOP study with qualitative
pump; a simple and not complex installation that risk analysis for prioritization of corrective and pre-
can im-prove operational safety, and can be easily ventive actions. Procedia Engineering. Elsevier, v. 42,
done be-cause was identified by a HazOp study dur- p. 808–815, 2012.
ing the construction phase. Although this particular National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem
HazOp attends a Wastewater Treatment Unit, this Compound Database; CID = 702, https://pubchem.ncbi.
study can be performed for any industrial plant, in nlm.nih.gov/compound/702 (accessed Nov. 6, 2016).
any phase of this life cycle: project, construction, Reis, G. F. “Assessment of operational risk and safety of
the work in a sewage treatment plant” (in Portuguese).
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ever, as evidenced, if HazOp is performed in the Janeiro, 2016.
project or construction phases, the safety recom- USDoD (US Department of Defence), 2012. MIL STD
mendations can be implemented quickly, economi- 882-E—Standard Practice for System Safety, Wash-
cally and effectively. ington, USA: USA.

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Occupational Safety and Hygiene V – Arezes et al. (Eds)
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-05761-6

A framework for developing safety management competence

S. Tappura & J. Kivistö-Rahnasto


Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland

ABSTRACT: The safety management competence plays a crucial role when managing safety in organi-
sations. Developing managers’ safety competence is one way of achieving better safety performance. The
aim of this study is to construct a Safety Management Competence Development (SMCD) framework
based on previous studies and empirical results in a Finnish case organisation. The framework consists of
definition of safety management competence requirements, self-assessment of the competence, definition
of development needs, and implementation of competence development activities. Assessing and develop-
ing managers’ safety competence provide them with knowledge of their responsibilities and expectations,
company-wide safety procedures and targets, as well as tools for promoting safety. The SMCD framework
provides the means for systematically improve managers’ safety competence as an integral part of general
competence development in organisations. Moreover, the assessment and development activities influence
managers’ perceptions of and attitudes toward safety and encourages their commitment to safety.

1 INTRODUCTION contributes to better safety performance, and,


therefore, to business performance (Blair 2003,
1.1 Safety management competence Clarke 2013, Köper et al. 2009, Wu et al. 2008).
To remain aligned with the dynamic needs of the Managers’ resources, competence, and com-
business environment, organisations need to ensure mitment are important in establishing success-
up-to-date competencies (Suikki et al. 2006). Com- ful organisational safety policies and procedures
petence is the ability to transform knowledge and (Conchie et al. 2013, Fruhen at al. 2014, Hale et al.
skills into practice in a qualified way and to achieve 2010, Hardison et al. 2014, Simola, 2005). Due to
the required level of performance (Boyatzis 1982, insufficient safety competence, managers may not
Dreier 2000, Königová et al. 2012). In this study, be aware of their responsibilities or the organisa-
safety management competence refers to man- tion’s safety policy, procedures, and tools. In addi-
agers’ ability to perform safety-related manage- tion, managers need leadership skills to maintain
ment activities and behaving appropriately for the safe performance in the workplace. (Carder &
required safety performance. Ragan 2005, Tappura & Nenonen 2014)
Since safety and related demands are increas- Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) regula-
ingly an integrated part of business (EU-OSHA tions provide the foundation for safety manage-
2011, Veltri et al. 2013), managers’ safety compe- ment competence requirements. The definitions of
tence should be developed accordingly. Current an effective OHS management system (Gallagher
work life presumes managers have different types et al. 2001, Frick et al. 2000) and voluntary OHS
of safety management and leadership competen- management systems (such as OHSAS 18001:2007)
cies (Conchie et al. 2013, Hale et al. 2010, Tappura form another perspective on managers’ safety com-
& Nenonen 2014). In organisations in which safety petence needs.
considerations are vital for the companies’ strategy, Previous studies (Biggs & Biggs 2012, Hardi-
competence requirements should be defined as a son et al. 2014) defined safety management com-
part of identifying core competencies (Prahalad & petencies in the construction sector. Tappura &
Hamel 1990, Rothwell & Lindholm 1999). How- Hämäläinen (2012) defined safety management
ever, in all organisations, safety management and competence requirements based on literature and
leadership are part of managing other business two safety management training cases in Finnish
activities, and should be closely integrated in general organisations (Table 1). Moreover, the effective
business management in organisations (e.g. EU- safety leadership competencies relating to safety
OSHA 2010, Hale 2003, Simola 2005, Veltri et al. performance were identified in Tappura & Nenon-
2013). Moreover, safety management competence en’s (2014) review.

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Table 1. Safety management competence requirements (Viitala 2005). In this study, the competence devel-
(Tappura & Hämäläinen 2012). opment framework is used as a broader concept
that includes competence requirement identifica-
Safety management competence requirements tion, competence assessment, and development
OHS regulations and their mandatory requirements activities.
Managers’ role, responsibilities, and authority to Competence development can be defined as
intervene in violations of OHS the general development of knowledge, under-
Motivation and justification of OHS from economic standing, and cognition for a specific domain
and ethical perspectives in a person (Hyland 1994), here, safety manage-
OHS policy, goals, programs, and procedures of the ment competencies. Competence development
organisation in question typically involves formal and informal learning
Continuous monitoring and improvement procedures (Schoonenboom et al. 2007). Management com-
of the working environment, the work community, petencies are generally learned through formal
and work practices training, induction, and work experience (Suikki
Hazard identification, risk assessment, and information et al. 2006). On-the-job experience, on-the-job
sharing to prevent risks from being actualised training, and experiential learning are considered
OHS orientation and training to be the most effective methods for developing
Occupational injuries and near-miss reporting, investiga-
managers’ competence (Fong & Chan 2004).
tion, and subsequent learning
Effective safety management training includes
Work-related health problems in the working commu-
nity and psychosocial work environment joint discussions with colleagues, demonstra-
Safety performance measurement and reporting tions, and hands-on techniques to strengthen
Corrective actions control managers’ commitment to safety (Tappura &
OHS communication (meetings, inspections rounds, and Hämäläinen 2011).
discussions) Management development studies have sug-
Encouraging employee participation gested that improving self-knowledge is the basis
OHS cooperation, supporting organisations, and for all true management development (Pedler
professionals et al. 1986, Viitala 2005), and managers’ own
interpretation of their competence development
needs should be supported in organisations (Vii-
tala 2005). A competence assessment is used to
Furthermore, Tappura et al. (2016) defined communicate goals and expectations, to give
safety management tasks at different organisa- feedback on the current competence level, and
tional levels. to identify development needs (Bergman & Moi-
sio 1999). Thus, the competence assessment is a
1.2 Safety management competence development basis for the competence development activities.
The competence assessment concept is based on
Acquiring and developing competences are critical cognitive learning theories, in which the student
strategic factors that ensure organisations’ com- is seen as an active participant sharing responsi-
petitiveness (Johannessen & Olsen 2003, Königová bility for the learning process and practices self-
et al. 2012, Suikki et al. 2006). Thus, organisations evaluation (Baartman et al. 2007, Birenbaum
should provide conditions to ensure sufficient 1996). Relevant competence assessment methods
competence development (Senge 1994, Viitala include behavioural assessment, simulations, and
2005). Much of the earlier research concentrated self-assessment. However, organisational support,
on management and leadership competence devel- reflection, and mentoring must accompany the
opment (e.g. Crawford 2005, Fong & Chan 2004, development of assessment programs (Epstein &
Rose et al. 2007, Suikki et al. 2006, White et al. Hundert 2002).
1996). However, only a few studies have examined These observations led to the proposition that
safety management and leadership competences safety management competences must be taken
(Biggs & Biggs 2012, Hale et al. 2010, Hardison into account in general management competence
et al. 2014). development in organisations. The main target of
Competencies can be managed with compe- this study is to construct a Safety Management
tency models (Königová et al. 2012, Rothwell & Competence Development (SMCD) framework
Lindholm 1999) to identify the knowledge, skills, to help organisations in safety promotion. The
abilities, and behaviour needed to perform effec- framework, based on previous studies and vali-
tively in an orgainsation (Lucia & Lepsinger dated in a case organisation, provides the means
1999). Competency models can serve as tools for for systematically improving managers’ safety
helping managers in self-reflection, identifying management competence as an integral part of
development needs, and developing and building general management competence development
collective comprehension concerning management procedures.

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2 MATERIALS AND METHODS to integrate safety issues into managers’ general
competence identification, assessment, and devel-
This study comprises a theory-based construction opment. The framework is based on the previous
of the SMCD framework and empirical reflec- literature and consists of the following phases:
tions. Thus, the study is located in the normative (1) definition of safety management competence
area of business studies. The study uses the qualita- requirements and needs, (2) managers’ self-assess-
tive approach since it is interpretative. The study is ment of their safety competence, (3) definition of
descriptive and does not state an explicit hypothesis. organisational and individual safety competence
The theoretical part of the study was conducted development needs and focus areas, (4) planning
as a review of the relevant literature to chart the and implementation of related safety competence
general competence development models and their development activities, and (5) evaluation of the
applicability to safety management as well as the managers’ safety competence.
safety management competence requirements. Identifying safety management competence
The empirical part of the study was conducted requirements was chosen as the basis for the
in a Finnish technical safety service organisation of SMCD framework. In the first phase, general and
about 200 employees. The employees work in vary- organisational safety competence requirements are
ing and demanding environments, including office defined. In the second and third phases, the rel-
and customer sites in almost all industrial sectors. evant issues are self-assessed to define the major
Thus, the safety management competence require- development needs at the organisational and indi-
ments for the managers are extensive. The motiva- vidual levels. When the assessment is carried out
tion of the study in the case organisation arises as a self-assessment, the managers reflect on their
from the need to increase line managers’ safety development needs directly. Moreover, the self-
management competence, to systematically assess assessment is a good way of improving the man-
it, to discover individual and organisational com- agers’ commitment to competence development
petence development needs, and to integrate safety activities. In the fourth phase, safety management
issues into general competence development. competence development activities are planned
The SMCD framework was validated in the case based on the development needs at the individual
organisation. First, a preliminary safety competence and organisational levels. When possible, the devel-
requirements list was produced based on the occu- opment activities are integrated in the general man-
pational safety regulations and the literature by the agement competence development activities. In
researcher. Second, the OHS and human resource the fifth phase, the evaluation of the adequacy of
professionals in the organsation (OHS commit- managers’ safety competence is also integrated in
tee) were interviewed (n = 7), and the list was com- the general management competence evaluation.
pleted based on this focus group interview. Third, a
self-assessment of ten line managers (a total of 18
3.2 Validation of the SMCD framework
line managers) was conducted using the agreed 17
competence areas. The self-assessment is used as an The SMCD framework was validated in the case
assessment method in this study due to its reflective organisation as follows. First, a preliminary list
nature. The self-assessment communicates the safety of 13 general safety management competence
management goals and competence requirements, as areas was defined based on the employers’ regula-
well as provides feedback on the current safety man- tory occupational safety requirements and previ-
agement competence level and development needs. ous literature (see Tappura & Hämäläinen 2012).
In addition, self-assessment and reflection encourage The preliminary list was presented to the occupa-
managers to discover their individual development tional safety committee of the case organisation.
needs and engage them in the development process. The competence areas were discussed and sup-
Based on the self-assessment, the main safety plemented in the committee. A final version of 17
management competence development needs were safety competence areas (Table 2) was accepted.
identified and presented to the management team Second, a self-assessment was carried out with
of the organisation. The safety management compe- ten line managers. According to the results, the
tence development activities and further competence major organisational development needs are related
evaluation were the responsibility of the case organi- to the OHS policy, reporting and inspection of
sation and, thus, are not available for this study. occupational accidents, OHS plan, and support for
OHS management in general. During the self-as-
sessment, the managers reflected on and identified
3 RESULTS
individual development needs, and, thus, started
the learning process. The self-assessment identified
3.1 Construction of the SMCD framework
the main individual and organisational competence
The SMCD framework was constructed to increase development needs. The results were presented and
managers’ safety management competence and discussed in the management group.

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