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Edinburgh – General Presentation

Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is one of the most beautiful cities in

Europe. This distinction is partly an accident of Nature, for the city is built upon a
jumble of hills and valleys; however, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the
natural geography was enhanced by the works of a succession of distinguished
Georgian and Victorian architects. The result today is high drama; there are countless
spots where Edinburgh looks less like a city and more like a theatrical backdrop. The
view from Edinburgh's Calton Hill, across the River Forth to Fife, looks more like a
scene from ancient Rome.

Edinburgh incidentally, is named after Edwin, a king of ancient Northumbria; it

has been a Royal Burgh since at least the twelfth century, and has been recognised as
the capital of Scotland since the fifteenth.

Edinburgh's face is her fortune, for it was this dramatic beauty which, in the first
instance, made the Scottish capital's name familiar throughout the modern world. But
there are other, less tangible factors involved, for Edinburgh is a city that delights the
mind as well as the eye. It is a city where the past lives comfortably with the present. It
is a gracious place, in the way that many other cities used to be.

Edinburgh is also a well endowed city, in the sense that there really is a great
deal to see and to do. Indeed the average holiday visitor can only dip into the great
variety of entertainment and reation that is available.

Add to this the fact that Edinburgh is easily accessible by rail, road, air and sea,
and it becomes obvious why the city has a special place in the affections of so many. It
is, indeed, the most popular tourist destination in Britain after London.

That Edinburgh is pure theatre is immediately demonstrated as the traveller

emerges from Waverley railway station: he looks along the valley of Princes Street
Gardens and gazes upon Edinburgh Castle, perched dramatically on its precipitous crag
of volcanic rock. To his left, huddled on a lofty ridge, is the Old Town; halfway along
the valley, among the trees, rise the classical columns of the National Gallery of
Scotland and the Royal Scottish Academy. On his right soars the Scott Monument, a
remarkable tribute to the Edinburgh writer Sir Walter Scott.

II. The Old Town

The first buildings in Edinburgh were hard by the Castle, for protection, but
gradually they spread down the ridge to the east of the fortress. This is the Old Town.

At one time, the Old Town was surrounded by the Flodden Wall. Fragments of
this protective wall may still be seen, notably in the Vennel off the Grassmarket, and
on the west side of the Pleasance near its junction with the Cowgate (bordering the
Department of Geography in the University of Edinburgh). While in this area it is
worth noting historic buildings such as the Old Royal High School and Old Surgeon's
Hall, which are located in the area known as High School Yards and Surgeon's Square.
This was the locality of the infamous bodysnatchers Burke and Hare.

In medieval times Edinburgh was very small. Visitors proceeding down the
High Street will see, at its junction with Jeffrey Street, brass markers in the roadway
denoting that this was the end of Edinburgh; beyond this point was Canongate, a
separate town (or burgh), outside Edinburgh and envied for its gardens and orchards.

On the south side of the Lawnmarket, near its junction with George IV Bridge,
is Brodie's Close. The close is named after Francis Brodie, a respectable craftsman, but
it is his son and business partner, William Brodie, whom everyone remembers. Brodie,
who lived in the eighteenth century, was an outwardly respectable member of the
Town Council. But he was also a gambler, a rake and, as was eventually revealed, a
burglar as well. His nefarious career came to a climax in an abortive armed raid upon
the Excise Office in the Royal Mile, and in 1788 William Brodie was publicly hanged
just a few yards down the road from Brodie's Close. The final irony, it is said, was that
the scaffold was an improved model he himself had invented.

Just off the Lawnmarket is Lady Stair's House, one of the city museums in this
area; it commemorates three great literary Scots - Sir Walter Scott, Robert Louis
Stevenson (both of whom were born in Edinburgh) and Robert Burns, the Ayrshire
poet, whose reputation was established by the literary admirers whom he found in

Before proceeding further down the Royal Mile, it is worth making a sortie
along George IV Bridge to the top of Candlemaker Row in order to pay tribute to
Greyfriars Bobby.

In 1858, this faithful terrier followed the funeral procession of his master, John
Gray, to nearby Greyfriars Churchyard and refused to leave afterwards. Bobby lived
for a further 14 years and never wandered very far from the church-yard. The Lord
Provost of Edinburgh undertook to pay for Bobby's licence, and the dog-collar, suitably

engraved, is still to be seen to this day in Huntly House Museum, in the Canongate.
The monument was erected not long after Bobby's death.

Candlemaker Row, by the way, is a convenient route by which to reach the

Grassmarket, an interesting historic square noted today for its antique shops, boutiques,
pubs and restaurants. Robert Burns and William Wordsworth were amongst those who
once found lodgings in the White Hart Inn on the north side of the Grassmarket. The
site of the Beehive has had hostelries upon it for at least 500 years.

In the High Street is St Giles' Cathedral with its open "crown" spire, a famous
landmark in the city. The present building belongs mainly to the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries, and its interior is superior to its restored exterior. As the High Kirk
of Edinburgh, it is both the local parish church and the place of worship employed on
national occasions. The Thistle Chapel is used by members of the Order of the Thistle,
the premier order of chivalry of Scotland, of which her Majesty the Queen is Sovereign
Member and attends the installation of new members. Besides St Giles is the Mercat
Cross of Edinburgh where the Royal Proclamations are made in Scotland's Capital and
where today the old tradition of meeting a guide for a walking tour continues.

The most picturesque house in the High Street section of the Royal Mile is John
Knox's House. Built towards the end of the fifteenth century, it is said to have been
occupied by John Knox, the famous Protestant reformer, during the period 1561-72.
Knox was the minister of St Giles', and delivered many a thundering sermon there in
the presence of, and much to the discomfiture of, the Roman Catholic Mary, Queen of
Scots. John Knox's House, which was saved from the demolition men many years ago
by the Protestant Society, has hand-painted ceilings. It is entered by forestairs, a once
common architectural feature in the Royal Mile, but of which there are now few sur-
viving examples. Near the door is one of the street wells which at one time were the
only source of water in the neighbourhood.

Almost directly across the street is the Museum of Childhood, a fascinating

place which was the first of its kind when founded by the City of Edinburgh more than
30 years ago. It is now one of the most popular attractions in Scotland.

In the Canongate, where most of Edinburgh's surviving medieval buildings are

concentrated, the visitor should take particular note of Chessel's Court (which
illustrates a successful restoration of the characteristic lands found throughout the
Royal mile); Huntly House Museum; the Canongate Tolbooth across the street; the
adjacent Canongate Church; and White Horse Close. This last named was once an
arrival and departure point for the London stage, and architecturally is a unique
survival of the seventeenth century. A hostelry known as the White Horse Inn was in
the building which stands at the rear of the long courtyard.

III. Ecclesiastical History

Edinburgh is naturally much bound up in its ecclesiastical history with the

country at large. In the earliest centuries of its existence, belonging as it did to the
Kingdom of Northumbria, Edinburgh was included in the Diocese of Lindisfarne, as
we find from the list of churches belonging to that see compiled by Simeon of Durham
in 854. The early connexion of the city with Lindisfarne is shown by the dedication to
St. Cuthbert of its oldest church, founded probably in the ninth century. St. Cuthbert's
church was presented to the newly established Abbey of Holyrood by King David; it
was the richest church in Edinburgh, and possessed several outlying chapels, such as
St. Ninian's, St. Roque's, and St. John Baptist's. When the diocesan system came to be
fully established in Scotland, under Malcolm and Margaret and their sons, Edinburgh
was included in the metropolitan Diocese of St. Andrews, and continued to be so until
the suppression of the ancient hierarchy in the sixteenth century. The archbishop's see,
as well as the episcopal residence, was of course in the primatial city of St. Andrews,
beyond the Firth of Forth; and there was no building known as a cathedral in
Edinburgh prior to 1634, when the new Anglican Diocese of Edinburgh was formed
out of the ancient archdeaconry of Lothian, and Forbes became the first occupant of the
see. The old collegiate church of St. Giles was at this time, and during the revival of
Episcopalianism in Scotland, used as the cathedral of the Protestant bishop. As regards
the Catholic Church, Edinburgh was the head-quarters of the vicars Apostolic of the
Eastern District of Scotland from the time of the foundation of that vicariate in 1828,
when the church now known as St. Mary's Catholic Cathedral had been in existence for
some fifteen years. It has no architectural interest, but a spacious chancel was added,
and other improvements carried out, in 1891. A cathedral for the Episcopalian body
(whose bishop resides in Edinburgh) was erected about 1878, at a cost of over
$500,000, from funds left by two charitable ladies. It is a Gothic building of much
dignity, and by far the finest ecclesiastical building, either ancient or modern, now
existing in Edinburgh. The Presbyterians have some handsome churches, but the grand
old church of St. Giles, now in their hands, has been hopelessly vulgarized by the
"restorer". A new church built by the Irvingites is adorned within by some fine mural

The seven Catholic churches which (besides the cathedral) supply the needs of
the Catholic population of Edinburgh are of no particular merit architecturally, the
most imporinteresting being the latest erected, St. Peter's, which is in the earliest
Byzantine style, and forms, with its presbytery, a little group of much originality and
charm. The Catholic Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh (the fourth who has
held that office in thirty years) resides in Edinburgh, and has his episcopal seat in St.
Mary's Cathedral. St. Andrews (to which the title of Edinburgh was added at the
restoration of the hierarchy in 1878) possesses a small Catholic church; but the
Catholic population of the primatial city is–except for summer visitors–only a handful.
In Edinburgh the Catholics are estimated to number about 20,000. In the reign of

Queen Anne (1702-14) a list sent in to the privy council of "Popish parents and their
children in various districts of Scotland" gives the number of Catholics in Edinburgh as
160, including the Duke and Duchess of Gordon with their family and household, and
several other noble families. The majority of the Catholics of Edinburgh to-day are of
the poorer classes, and of Irish origin; but the past decade or so has witnessed a
considerable number of conversions among the more well-to-do inhabitants of the city.
Since the great anti-Catholic tumults of 1779, when the chapels and houses belonging
to the insignificant Catholic body were burned by the rioters, the spirit of tolerance has
made progress in the Scottish capital as elsewhere in the kingdom. Catholics are
generally respected, and may and do rise to high positions of trust in the commercial,
legal, and municipal world.

Something remains to be said of the religious houses which have flourished in

Edinburgh in ancient and modern times. The principal and wealthiest monastery in
former days was the Abbey of Holyrood, founded by David I for Augustinian canons,
who were brought from St. Andrews. The Blackfriars or Dominican monastery was
founded by Alexander II in 1230, on a site now occupied by a hospital. The Greyfriars
or Franciscan church (of the Observant branch of the order) stood in the Grassmarket
until it was destroyed by fire in 1845. The Whitefriars of Carmelites did not settle in
Edinburgh until 1518. Their house of Greenside, near the Calton Hill, was transformed
at the Dissolution into a lepers' hospital. Beyond the Carmelite house, nearer Leith,
stood the preceptory of St. Anthony, the only house of that order in Scotland. The
collegiate churches in and about Edinburgh included those of St. Giles and St. Mary-in-
the-Fields (already mentioned), Trinity Church, Restalrig, Corstorphine, Creighton, and
Dalkeith. Trinity church, one of the most exquisite Gothic buildings in Scotland, was
destroyed in the nineteenth century by a deplorable act of vandalism, to make room for
new railway works. Neither the Benedictine nor Cistercian monks, who had numerous
houses in Scotland, were established in Edinburgh. The Cistercian or Bernardine nuns,
however, possessed the convent of St. Marie-in-the-wynd (or lane) near a hospital,
where the sisters tended the sick. The Dominican nuns had also a convent (called
Sciennes or Shenes, from St. Catherine of Siena) in the outskirts of the city. The
numerous hospitals in Catholic Edinburgh comprised St. Mary Magdalen's in the
Cowgate, founded in 1503 (the chapel remains, and is now used as a medical mission-
hall); St. Leonard's, at the foot of Salisbury Crags; St. Mary's, in Leith Wynd, for
twelve almsmen (converted into a workhouse by the Edinburgh magistrates in 1619);
St. Thomas's, near the water-gate, founded in 1541 by Abbot Crichton of Holyrood for
seven almsmen in red gowns; and Ballantyne's Hospital, founded by Robert Ballentyne
or Bellenden, Abbot of Holyrood. The two religious orders of men now working in
Edinburgh and its seaport of Leith are the Jesuits and the Oblates of Mary Immaculate.
The former serve one of the largest churches in the city, and the latter have a house at
Leith. There are eight convents of nuns, the oldest being St. Margaret's (Ursuline),
founded in 1835, the first since the Reformation. The nuns keep a high-class school
and attend several hospitals. St. Catherine's Convent of Mercy has a well-equipped
training-college for teachers as well as a ladies' school. The other convents are those of
the Sisters of Charity, Little Sisters of the Poor, Sisters of the Sacred Hearts, Poor

Clares, Order of Marie Réparatrice, Helpers of the Holy Souls, and Sisters of the
Immaculate Conception. The other Catholic institutions of the city include a children's
refuge, orphanages for boys and girls, home for working boys, home for destitute
children, dispensary, and home for penitents.

IV. Princes Street
There cannot be many cities in the world where the foremost shopping street has
an uninterrupted view of an historic, medieval castle due to retail outlets being built
along one side of the street. But that is Edinburgh's Princes Street. In the more
commercially minded city of Glasgow, there are some Philistines who think that
Princes Street is only half built...

Princes Street was part of the "New Town" of Edinburgh, which was built in the
latter half of the 18th century during the reign of the Hanoverian King George III.
Princes Street was named after King George's sons - but only after the King had
objected to its original name - St Giles Street, the patron saint of the city.

This description of Princes Street is divided into two sections - the south side of
the street which includes the gardens and castle and, on the second page, a quick tour
of the retail outlets on the north side of the street.

2. Princes Street Gardens

It is a surprise to many visitors to find that, tucked underneath Edinburgh Castle

and running the full length of the gardens is a railway line going into Waverley Station.
The Victorians, with their enthusiasm for railways, did not have to contend with City
Council planning regulations and conservation groups! Thankfully, however, they did
create a deep cutting so that it is not visible from the street but in the days of steam, the
trains puffing their way from the station could be heard and the smoke seen billowing
into the sky.

The railway companies often built luxurious hotels beside their main stations
and Waverley Station was no exception. Originally built as the North British Hotel, the
renamed Balmoral Hotel is seen on the right of the picture above. Leading off Princes
Street is the Waverley Bridge beside the station. Tour buses and buses to the airport
leave from here.

At the corner of Waverley Bridge and Princes Street and beside the station is the
Princes Mall. This is two and a half floors of small boutique shops and a food court
selling fast food. Most of this building has been constructed under ground. On the top,
is the main tourist information bureau where you can get advice about the city and
book accommodation in Edinburgh.

The 200 feet high Sir Walter Scott Monument dominates this end of Princes
Street. The stonework has blackened over the years and currently has a "piebald" effect

from recent repairs. There are 287 steps to the top but the views from there of the
Edinburgh skyline (if you can make it up all those stairs) are tremendous.

High above East Princes Street Gardens is the Bank of Scotland head office
(which is lit up at night - as the picture here shows). In order to ensure that nobody
built in front of them, the Bank bought the land in front, part of which has become East
Princes Street Gardens.

The first road off Princes Street on the south side is "The Mound". Originally,
the old city of Edinburgh ran down the "spine" of the Royal Mile from the castle to the
Palace of Holyroodhouse. There was a stagnant "Nor' Loch" below the castle which
was used as a receptacle for sewage. With the building of the "New Town" a street
called The Mound (see above) was built of waste material which linked the old and
new parts of the city. In the 19th century, the Royal Scottish Academy and the National
Gallery of Scotland, with their Grecian-style columns, were built at the junction of The
Mound and Princes Street. Near the top of The Mound are the twin spires of what was
once the Church of Scotland Assembly Hall - now the temporary home of the Scottish
Parliament. The picture above was taken from just in front of the Parliament building,
looking north.

On the other corner of The Mound is the famous Floral Clock. This is replanted
every year and the moving hands of the clock as well as its face are covered in plants,
mainly sempervivums. Above the clock stands a carrara marble statue of Allan
Ramsay. Across the gardens and clinging to the side of the rock beside the castle are
the houses of Ramsay Gardens.

Further along Princes Street is the striking equestrian memorial to the Royal
Scots Greys. Nearby, within the gardens themselves, is the Scottish American War
Memorial. Also in the gardens at this point is the Ross Bandstand. This is not used very
often, except during the Edinburgh Festival.

At the far end of the gardens, the water in the gilded Ross Fountain (pictured
here) did not flow for many years but a joint project involving Edinburgh City Council
and East of Scotland Water has got it going again - with the water being recycled as
required by current environmental regulations.

At the far end of the south side of Princes Street are two churches - St John's at
the corner of Lothian Road and St Cuthbert's (the large building in the foreground of
the picture above, which was taken from the ramparts of Edinburgh castle in winter
time, after a fall of snow).

Just as Princes Street began with a former railway hotel, it ends with another one. This
time it is the large, red sandstone structure of the Caledonian Hotel, visible on the left of the
picture here. This is a favourite stopping off place for Sean Connery and many other

V. Edinburgh castle

Edinburgh Castle is visited annually by approximately one million people - if

we except the Tower of London that is more people than visit any other ancient
monument in the United Kingdom. Every visitor - particularly those on a restricted
itinerary - should visit the Castle, not only because of the historical interest of this
remarkable fortress and former royal residence, but because it offers such splendid
panoramic views of the city. It is from these battlements, for example, that the traveller
imme-diately appreciates the dramatic topography of Edinburgh, situated between sea
and hills.

Within the confines of the Castle, there is much to see. It was the seat (and
regular refuge) of Scottish Kings, and the historical apartments include the Great Hall,
which now houses an interesting collection of weapons and armour.

The Royal apartments include a tiny room in which Mary, Queen of Scots gave
birth to the boy who was to become King James VI of Scotland and James 1 of
England upon the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603. The ancient Honours of Scotland -
the Crown, the Sceptre and the Sword of State - are on view in the Crown Room.
Nearby is the Scottish National War Memorial, a building designed and created shortly
after the First World War; many who enter find the experience a moving one.

Edinburgh Castle is also the home of the One O'Clock Gun. This is fired every
day except Sunday at precisely 1.00pm to provide everyone with an accurate check for
their clocks and watches. It will certainly startle you if you are anywhere near the
Castle at that moment!

The Castle Esplanade is the venue of the world-famous Edinburgh Military

Tattoo, the annual occasion on which, over a period of three weeks in August, the
Army presents a lively programme of music, marching and historical re-enactments
under floodlights before large and appreciative audiences.

No one is sure who first used the castle rock as a settlement, but it was long
before the Romans came sailing up the Forth and landing at Cramond.

The oldest building in all Edinburgh is to be found within the Castle precincts. It
is St. Margaret's Chapel, a tiny Norman building which has been standing there intact
for more than 900 years. It has survived all the sieges and bombardments to which the
fortress on the rock was subjected during that period. On several occasions the castle
was razed - but the demolishers invariably spared the chapel of the good St Margaret
because of its religious significance. Today, members of the castle garrison still have
the right to be married within the Chapel.

Before leaving the Esplanade, look in the north-east corner for a small iron wall-
fountain; it is popularly known as the Witches' Well, and it commemorates the grim
fact that, centuries ago, many women held to be guilty of witchcraft were put to death
at the stake on this spot.

To the north, between the Castle and the Firth of Forth, the spectator has his first
glimpse of Edinburgh's new town. To the east, below the Castle ramparts the visitor is
recommended to take a close look at the Old Town.

VI. The Zoo

The first zoo ever established in Scotland was The Royal Edinburgh Zoological
Gardens. It opened its gates to the public in 1839, and closed them again eighteen years
later, after running into difficulties. For over half a century the Scots still had to travel
south of the border to see the exotic creatures that had captured the imaginations of the
English. Eventually it was not a naturalist or an animal collector who provided
Scotland with a new zoo: it was a solicitor. He was Thomas Hailing Gillespie, a law
agent from Dumfries, who despite his profession had no great love for the law. Instead
he longed to establish a Zoological Park in Scotland’s capital city. The advice he
received was not encouraging. ‘You’ll never get animals to live in a climate like
Edinburgh’s’, he was told; and he might have believed it had he not, in 1908, read of
Carl Hagenback’s new zoo at Hamburg where tropical animals were happily thriving in
a winter climate more severe that any experienced in Scotland.

Gillespie determined that he would pursue his dream. He started by founding a

Zoological Society, and then by searching for a suitable site. In 1912 he found it. The
estate of Corstophine Hill House, close to the city centre, with a fine house and
pleasant gardens, was offered to the Society for the sum of £17,000. The money proved
difficult to raise, but on 4th February 1913 the Edinburgh City Council purchased the
site for the Society, and with a further £8,000 provided by members, Gillespie set about
building his zoo.

It took only fifteen weeks to prepare and stock the site - initially with borrowed
animals, and the new Zoological Park opened its gate to visitors on 15th July 1913.
Two of the principal enclosures on the new site were to set the style for what
was to become an exciting and innovative city zoo. These were the lion and bear
enclosures, fashioned after Hagenback’s open compounds. Both were quarried out of
the hillside housing the animals behind ditches against a natural backdrop of whinstone

Under Gillespie’s direction the new Edinburgh Zoo grew and flourished. New
buildings and enclosures were gradually added to the collection, and as adjoining land
became available, this too became part of the zoo. In 1927 a grant enabled the building
of the great Carnegie Aquarium, a new Ape House followed in 1929, and in 1933 the
Wolf Wood was planted. Twice bombed in the second war, the zoo survived very
lightly scathed, and in 1947, following a visit by King George VIth and Princess
Margaret, the King granted the Society the honour of becoming ‘The Royal Zoological
Society of Scotland’.

During its early years, Edinburgh Zoo soon established a reputation for sound
animal management. Its first sealion was born in 1934, the same year as the first of
numerous beavers. In 1936 it reared its first chimpanzee, and in 1938 its first litter of

wolves - a litter that three years later had to be destroyed for fear that bombing could
lead to their escape. The war years saw the 1 birth of Britain’s first baby orang utan at
Edinburgh. But despite these achievements, and others, the park made its most notable
mark with a group of animals that were to become almost synonymous with Edinburgh
Zoo - the penguins.

Edinburgh’s long association with penguins owes its origins to the involvement
of the Society’s first president, Lord Salvesen, a law lord related to the family who
owned the Leith whaling fleet of the South Georgia Whaling Company. Today a
relationship between a conservation zoo and whalers would surely be unthinkable, but
for the young zoo the whalers provided a rare supply of wildlife from the Southern
oceans—among them a seemingly endless quantity of penguins. The first six arrived in
1914, and were met without any great enthusiasm from Gillespic, who was far more
interested in the elephant seals that accompanied them. But as more penguins arrived
every year, so it became clear that these animals thrived in the mild Scottish climate.
Over eight hundred penguins were brought to the city by Salvesens over the years, for
Edinburgh and for other zoos, and at one time or another the zoo has had
representatives of almost every penguin species, including the first Adelie penguins
ever seen in Europe and the first New Zealand ‘fairy’ blue. In the 1950s a came an
incident now preserved in folklore. A keeper accidentally left open a gate to the
penguin pool, and was followed by a parade of penguins all around the zoo. It was the
start of Edinburgh’s now famous ‘Penguin Parade’, an event still enjoyed not only by
visitors every summer afternoon, but clearly also by the two thirds of the zoo’s 120 or
so penguins who choose to join in.

Today Edinburgh is very much a zoo in transition. The present director, Roger
Wheater, is steering the zoo firmly in a direction where species management is
paramount, and conservation has become the new objective. Within the zoo the number
of species is falling steadily as the emphasis moves towards keeping species in larger
numbers of each, and concentrating upon those that can be self-sustaining. A great deal
of redevelopment is taking place with old enclosures being renovated and new
enclosures created. There is a strong feeling that here at last is an urban zoo genuinely
trying to outgrow its legacy, in an attempt to become a vigorous and successful modem

Walking around Edinburgh Zoo can be hard work. The park rises steeply from
the Corstophine Road, widening in the middle, and it is a stiff climb from the main
entrance to the open paddocks and African Plains exhibit right at the top of the hill.
Probably the best plan is to zig-zag gently upwards, and for this the guide book is well
worth buying.

The old Carnegie Aquarium has now been closed. The salt water of the seawater
tanks had corroded away the very frames of the building, and repair was simply too
expensive. It has instead been converted into an impressive new entrance complex and
a shop, ‘Arkadia’, and it will soon also house a new ‘wildlife interpretive centre’.

Among the first animals to greet the visitor, from a huge aviary, are bald
Waldrapp This - Europe’s rarest and most endangered bird, now being kept at
Edinburgh in a co-operative project with Jersey Zoo. Climbing slowly you pass
sealions in a rocky pool, rheas and storks, and an important collection of pheasants,
well illustrated on the signs, including Edward’s Pheasant - a species decimated in the
Vietnam War, Reeve’s Pheasant, and the Cheer Pheasant - now the subject of a
reintroduction programme into its former range in Pakistan where it became extinct in
the 1970s.

Red pandas are popular, as always, housed in an enclosure with a tall fir where
they hide effectively among the branches. A pair of polar bears occupy one of the zoo’s
main rocky enclosures where, like the brown bears, they are viewed at ‘ visitor eye
level’. The polar bear enclosure is visually attractive, and the polar bears have recently
produced two cubs, Edinburgh Zoo’s well promoted ‘Wee Sweetie’, and another yet to
be seen by visitors in 1992.

The monkey house, opened in 1972, has successful groups of Diana monkeys,
spectacled langurs, and white-faced saki monkeys. It also holds the best collection of
guenons in Britain, including Allen’s swamp monkey. The monkey house uses natural
trees for the animals and both indoor and outdoor runs have been recently greatly
enriched with plenty of extra climbing facilities. New ape accommodation holds a new
group of lowland gorillas, the first ever seen in Scotland. All the gorillas are on
breeding loan at present, from Dublin, Bristol, Rotterdam, and Chicago. A new range
for marmosets houses breeding groups of Geoffroy’s marmosets, pygmy marmosets,
and Goeldi’s monkeys. A splendid and noisy group of siamang gibbons are kept in a
suitable long cage and have twice bred, and close by is a redeveloped chimpanzee
house holding a family group of chimps with a large well equipped play area and glass-
fronted indoor dens. The play area is viewed across a green barrier at tree height from
outside, and at ground level from inside. It looks across onto a children’s playground
so that chimpanzee and human can both watch each other at play.

The reptile house is a long hall with vivaria along both sides. It is an older style
house, but well maintained. The reptiles kept include many important species, several
the subject of inter-zoo management agreements. Beyond is the reptile breeding unit
where windows afford visitors the view of incubating eggs and newly hatched young.
Species propagated here include blue tongued skinks, rainbow boas and plumed

Small cats are housed in redeveloped ‘rock-dens’ behind glass. They include
leopard cats and margays. Large cats - the lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars - are held
in attractive compounds with a high background of rock; excellent for photographs, but
perhaps rather small for the animals themselves.

The zoo’s wolf wood still holds a small pack of Canadian timber wolves,
although these no longer breed here, there are giraffe in a recently enlarged enclosure,

pens for those rarely seen but delightful little antelopes - pudus and duikers - pygmy
hippos that have bred here, beavers, and a pair of white rhino which breed well,
unusually for this species which normally only breeds if kept in a herd.

Right at the top of the hill, with a panoramic view across the city, is one of the
best features of the zoo, making it well worth the climb. It is an African Plains exhibit
where zebra, red lechwe, and scimitar-horned oryx herd together. The latter two are
important captive stock of what are both endangered species, and oryx from Edinburgh
Zoo have already been sent back to Tunisia for reintroduction into the wild.

The zoo keeps a great many birds; waterfowl, cassowaries, which breed well,
golden eagles, plenty of parrots, Chilean flamingos which breed here, several owls, and
pelicans. But without a doubt it is the penguins that are still the highlight of the
collection. The zoo now concentrates upon four species: the tall, yellow- collared king
penguin, the striking rockhopper penguin with its startling red eyes and yellow plumes,
and the more familiar and entertaining gentoo penguin. King penguins were among the
first to be kept at Edinburgh, and when in 1919 the first chick was hatched its story was
reported in almost every newspaper in the land. Many false alarms, accidents, infertile
eggs, and premature deaths followed before the zoo really began to breed king
penguins regularly, although the hatching rate is still not high, and the colony is not yet
self perpetuating. The gentoos have a more impressive breeding record, nesting on
artificial stonefilled nests, and between twenty and thirty chicks are reared every year,
keeping the population of these birds at the zoo safely above ninety or more. The
rockhoppers too are breeding, although in small numbers, and the zoo has now
established them as a self sustaining group. Recently 25 macaroni penguins were added
to the zoo population. They were all hatched from eggs collected in South Georgia.
They join the rest of the zoo’s penguins in spectacular new £600,000 penguin
enclosure, due to be opened by the Princess Royal in April 1992. It will be, without a
doubt, the best penguin enclosure in Europe. It will house all of the zoo’s king
penguins, gentoo penguins, and macaroni penguins, providing them all with deep water
for swimming, and with extensive beaches, as well as with a creche pool for the chicks.
Two keepers have been trained as divers in order to look after the penguins effectively.
For visitors there will be expansive underwater viewing, and a 20 metre suspension
bridge over the whole area to allow ‘over water viewing’. More than half the money
for the new pool was raised from the public, members of the Zoological Society, and
local businesses. The hope of the zoo is that the new pool will better suit the king
penguins, reversing their decline.

If it is some time since you last visited Edinburgh Zoo, then expect some
changes. There is a new mood about this zoo, a positive and enthusiastic mood, and if
it continues then Edinburgh should continue to deserve its place among the most
respected of British collections.

VII. Economy

Fundamental to the well-being of Edinburgh's economy is the performance of its

service industry sector, which now accounts for about 80 per cent of employment in the
city (in public administration, education, medicine, finance, tourism, distribution, and
transport and communications). Manufacturing, although still significant, is in decline.
The city's principal economic strengths lie in financial services, tourism, electronics,
and information technology.

The importance of financial services has always been considerable in

Edinburgh. The substantial increase in funds under management by Scotland's financial
institutions over the past few years has strengthened the city's position as a major
finance centre (second only to London in Britain, and the fourth-largest fund-
management centre in the European Union). The leading financial institutions with
head offices in Edinburgh, such as Standard Life, are among the city's largest private-
sector employers.

Edinburgh is the single most important tourist destination in Scotland, and

Britain's most popular destination after London. The city attracts nearly 5 million
visitors a year, many of whom are from overseas, generating expenditure that supports
about 20,000 jobs in the city. A further influx of visitors is being encouraged by the
expansion of conference facilities. The construction of the Edinburgh International
Conference Centre (comprising a 1,200-seat main auditorium that is divisible into three
self-contained theatres) was completed in 1995.

Manufacturing industry is composed chiefly of electrical and electronics

engineering; paper, printing, and publishing; food and drink; and, to a lesser degree,
chemical manufactures. In addition to leading companies such as Hewlett-Packard and
GEC Marconi Avionics, there is a growing number of small firms in the electrical and
electronics field specializing in advanced technology. Edinburgh's three universities are
also at the forefront of the development of new technologies and their applications. The
printing and publishing sector was well established in the city by the 16th century,
while Scotch whisky constitutes one of the city's important exports.

Edinburgh's port facilities at Leith and Granton (the former being the
headquarters of the Forth Ports Authority) are a major service-point for vessels
associated with the North Sea petroleum industry, as well as handling bulk dry goods.
Leith is also a port of call for cruise ships.

Edinburgh International Airport benefited from substantial investment in

runway and terminal improvements in the 1990s, and handles over 7.5 million
passengers a year. It is about 13 km (8 mi) west of the city centre at Turnhouse. Plans
for a rapid transit link between the airport and the city centre are under parliamentary

Electrification of the Edinburgh-to-London railway link was completed in 1991.
From Waverley station, rail services are operated to all major centres throughout

On the western side of the city centre, adjacent to the Edinburgh International
Conference Centre, is the prestigious Exchange financial district, which opened in the
late 1990s and is currently undergoing further expansion and development.

VIII.Edinburgh`s education

1.Education and culture

Edinburgh has a long-standing reputation for educational excellence and is home

to three universities. The University of Edinburgh (founded in 1583 and one of
Scotland's medieval seats of learning) has faculties of arts, divinity, law, medicine,
music, science and engineering, social sciences, and veterinary medicine. Its medical
school enjoys a worldwide reputation. Heriot-Watt University was incorporated in
1966, but dates from 1821. It is noted for its science and engineering faculties, and has
a close working relationship with commerce. Napier University began life as Napier
College of Science and Technology in 1964, and is named after John Napier, the
Scottish mathematician. It gained university status in 1992.

The national art galleries and museums located in the city are the National
Gallery of Scotland, the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, the Scottish National
Gallery of Modern Art, the Royal Museum of Scotland, the National Museum of
Antiquities of Scotland, the Scottish United Services Museum, and the Scottish
Agricultural Museum. The Museum of Scotland, located next to the Royal Museum,
opened in 1998. The City Art Centre is Edinburgh's principal municipal art gallery and
houses the city's permanent fine-art collection. Other notable museums include Huntly
House (for local history), the Museum of Childhood, and The People's Story
(chronicling the lives of ordinary Edinburgh citizens from the 18th century).

Edinburgh is also the home of the National Library of Scotland, a copyright

deposit library and one of the largest libraries in Great Britain. In 1998 a mosque and
Islamic centre opened in Edinburgh's Old Town; it is a focus for Scotland's 10,000

The city stages several festivals each year, attracting thousands of visitors. The
most famous is the Edinburgh International Festival (featuring a wide range of arts),
held annually in August and September. It is the largest of its kind in the world, and
attracts visitors from all continents. Other popular annual festivals in the city include
the International Film and Television festivals, the International Jazz Festival, and the
Edinburgh International Science Festival (reflecting the city's commitment to the
sciences in general, and new technologies in particular). There is also a biennial book

The Edinburgh Festival Theatre opened in 1994 as a year-round venue for all
performing arts and entertainments; it is also the main arena for the Edinburgh
International Festival and the Edinburgh stage for Scottish Opera and Scottish Ballet.

Other arts performance venues in the city include the King's Theatre, Royal Lyceum
Theatre, Traverse Theatre, Playhouse, Usher Hall, and Queen's Hall.

Edinburghers who have achieved distinguished literary and artistic reputations

have included Allan Ramsay the Elder (poet), Allan Ramsay the Younger (portrait
painter), James Boswell (writer), Robert Fergusson (poet), Sir Walter Scott (writer),
David Octavius Hill (painter and photographer), Robert Louis Stevenson (writer), Sir
Arthur Conan Doyle (writer), and, more recently, the novelist Muriel Spark, and actor
Sean Connery.

2. University of Edinburgh

Located in the heart of Scotland's capital city, the University of Edinburgh,

with its ancient and modern buildings, is one of the most distinguished
research institutions in Europe. It's long and storied history as a seat of
learning, the lively student atmosphere and the elegance, and striking beauty of
the city, make this a favorite study abroad destination for students.

The University, with a population of over 20,000 students, offers an

extensive range of courses in the arts, humanities, social sciences, science
and engineering, languages, divinity studies, education, law, medicine and
veterinary medicine, and music. Its primary campus built, around George's
Square, with its views of Edinburgh castle and the great craggy rocks of
Arthur's seat, is composed of Georgian stone buildings in keeping with the
history of Edinburgh's Old Town. The city is a real student town and you can
move easily between your classes and life in the city within a matter of

An Arcadia program isn't just about enrolling you in an overseas

institution however. It's about all of the services that we provide. Before you go,
you can contact our program coordinator for advice on the application process,
choosing courses, or simply what you should pack. Once you arrive, our
resident director will lead an orientation program in Edinburgh that will introduce
you to the culture, history and politics of Scotland as well as prepare you for the
academic challenges of studying in a different educational system. During the
semester, you can expect to participate in excursions that are designed to allow
you to reflect on the learning that is taking place outside the classroom.

It's almost impossible to explain in words the educational and cultural

experience that study abroad can be, but you can be sure that Arcadia is there
to help you get the most out of that experience.