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Explanation of Understressing Affecting the Fatigue Strength

H. Okubo, and S. Kitaoka

Citation: Journal of Applied Physics 39, 2966 (1968); doi: 10.1063/1.1656706


View online: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1656706
View Table of Contents: http://aip.scitation.org/toc/jap/39/6
Published by the American Institute of Physics
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.16

'5
.12

'9.
,
~ .08

11
1lo
u .04
m
0.
4000 6666
Wavelength (A)

Dark Resistivity - Po (,Q - em)


FIG .6. Spectral dependence of the photoconductivity of samples
with 10.n·cm dark resistivity.
FIG. 4. Peak value of photoconductivity vs dark resistivity for
three light intensities, II <I! <13.
Some of the information obtained on this series of samples is
illustrated by Figs. 4--6. Figure 4 shows the variation in maximum
spatially uniform excitation. Since change in electrical resistivity conductivity vs initial or "dark" resistivity for this series of
was observed to be of several orders of magnitude (minimum samples, measured at three levels of light intensity. A pronounced
resistivities under pulse conditions for these samples were 7n·cm peaking occurs for samples with initial resistivity in the range of
to loa n'cm), two separate test circuits were employed, each loan·cm. To illustrate the degree of validity of the approximations
more sensiti ve to one extreme of sample resistance. Figure 2 shows leading to Eq. 5, we have plotted instantaneous conductivity vs
schematics of the two arrangements. In the circuit of Fig. 2(a), instantaneous optical energy from single-pulse data on a rep-
RC is chosen very large compared to light-pulse duration so as resentative set of the samples (see Fig. 5). The linear relation
to provide a constant field across the sample of about 10 V Icm. required to meet the approximations of Eq. 5 is well sa.tisfied
In this case, the output signal V is related to sample resistance up to times which correspond to large energy values. Fma:ly,
r by Fig. 6 shows the spectral dependence of CdS photoconductlOn.
r=R[(VbIV-l)], (6) These measurements were made on the more sensitive samples
which becomes insensitive to the sample resistance r for r< R. by inserting narrow bandpass filters covering the 4000 1 to 6600 1
In the circuit of Fig. 2 (b) , a simple unbalanced bridge is employed range between the xenon lamp and sample. The data have been
with the Ol!tput signal V related to sample resistance by corrected to account for the spectral variation of the light source.
Note that appreciable photoresponse is obtained for photon
r=[K(K+l)IRL (K+l)2VRJ/[(2V-IR) (K +l)J, (7) energies considerably less than the bandgap in CdS (~5200. 1)
so a substantial impurity contribution to the photocurrent eXISts.
where I is the constant input current (16 rnA) and K is a constant We have obtained conductivity increases as large as eight orders
ratio of bridge resistances chosen for sensitivity in a given range. of magnitude in bar-shaped samples of single-crystal CdS upon
Figure 3 displays a sample set of oscilloscope traces showing the application of a high-intensity light pulse. The changes occur in
photocurrent responses (output signal V) to the light pulse of 2 to 3 ILsec, a time characteristic of the light source. Si!1ce no
Fig. 1 as measured by these two circuits. indication of saturation was observed, faster and more mtense
light pulses may produce even more spectacular changes in
.14 electrical conduction properties. We find that such sensitized
CdS is most responsive for a value of dark resistivity near 109 n· cm
in that such samples yielded the largest value of pulse
• 12
conductivity.
* This research was supported by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
1 R. H. Bube, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3309 (1963).
• 10 2 Samples supplied by Clevite Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio .
,
B
..
9.
.08

-, Explanation of Understressing Affecting the


Fatigue Strength
f
]
.06

H. OKUBO AND S. KITAOKA


" .04 Department of Applied Mechanics, The University, Nagoya, Japan
(Received 2 January 1968)

As is known the fatigue strength of a metal is improved by

~
.02
PO=3'IXI01l understressing ~nd the cause has been attributed to the diffusion
10
4.65 x 10
p
0
:::
11
of foreign atoms to the tips of fatigue cracks.
Po == 1.84 x 10 The authors however, wish to propose another explanation of
20 Ir1stant:~eous OPti:~Energy _BO/Idt 100 120 the phenomen~ which strengthen a metal by understressing.
(arbitrary scale) Experimental results for steels indicate t?at two ,kinds of fat~e
FIG. 5. Instantaneous conductivity vs instantaneous optical cracks are produced generally by cyclic stressmg; the one IS
energy for various values of dark resistivity po. progressive and the other stationary. The strain distribution at
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(a) (b)

(e) (el)

FIG. 1. Grain growth at the tip of a progressive crack, produced in carbon steel of grain size 0.06 mm. torsion. Arrow lines show the direction of the
specimen. (a) O.S XlO' Hz; (b) 1.0 Xl0 6 Hz; (e) 1.8 X10 6 Hz; (d) s.o Xl0' Hz.

- - p rogress1ve crac k the tips of cracks has been measured by the electroplating method,
1.8 and a marked difference in strain distribution between those two
---- Stationary crack kinds of cracks was revealed. 1 In the technique, the strain at the
marked locations of a specimen can be measured by observing
........ the appearance of grown grains in deposit copper, caused by
.... ........ cyclic stressing, as shown in Fig. 1.
1.6
.... ,, , , ---- ---- f----
In progressive cracks, the strain concentrates more intensely
to:
."
«I \ , ,,,, in extremely limited area at the tips of cracks. However, the
contrary is true in stationary cracks. As an illustration, the
I;
....til \
\
\
\ , microscopic strain distribution in the direction of a crack, re-
1.4 presented in the ratio to the nominal shearing strain, is shown in
\
\\, ~,
,,
b.O \
\ Fig. 2. This apparently shows that the tip radii of cracks are much
to:
."
I;
\
\ ,, smaller, in general, in progressive cracks than in stationary cracks.
«I
OJ
.r:: 1.2
\
\
, Every crack produced in a specimen by cyclic stressing below
the endurance limit of the material, is naturally a stationary
til

~.\ ,,....
........ crack. These cracks with minute tip radii initially appear in
.... persistent slip bands even at the number of cycles of 106• The
' ....
.... .......
...... .... cycles of failure at a higher stressing for the specimen containing
initial microcracks, submitted to the understressing up to 10 6 Hz,
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 are the same for new specimens. This is quite the same for speci-
mens submitted up to 107 Hz when the stress amplitude is
Distance from crack tip, (mm) sufficiently small so as no microcrack can be produced.
FIG. 2. Strain distributions around the tips of fatigue cracks and torsion. The tip radii of the initial cracks, as well as their widths, are
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gradually enlarged by subsequent stressing up to 107 Hz, and the 1.6


notch effect due to the microcracks appeared at every weak
location of the specimen, is relieved by the favorable change in 1.5
the shape of cracks, resulting in the improvement of the fatigue
to.
strength of the specimen. The casue of producing stationary cracks <>
is, of course, the microscopic high heterogeneity in stress in IlL
v
metals, and it is asserted that the effect of understressing on
fatigue strength is mainly attributed to the stationary cracks.
1 H. Okubo et al •• Trans. Japan Soc. Mech. Engrs. 33,495 (1967). Wavelength !Gas addition rat.
D 0.'1\1
,iJ • 1.26 x 10- 1 cm31sec
f-- o 0.8~
<> O. 7~
to. 0.6~
I. I

0
Refractive Index of Carbon Dioxide Cryodeposit* 10 100
Chamber pr.ssur., torr
K. E. TEMPELMEYER AND D. W. MILLS, JR.
FIG. 2. Measured refraction index for C02 cryodeposits at
ARO, Inc., Arnold Air Force Statio", Te1Inessee various pressure levels and wavelengths.
(Received 18 December 1967; in final form 29 January 1968)

Usually the chamber was pumped to a pressure of about 1X1Q-6


Bragg refraction phenomena are often used to determine the Torr, and then backfilled with helium to some desired pressure.
refractive index and/or thickness of thin films (Refs. 1 and 2, for For a given test, the angle of incidence of the light beam {Ji
example). This note reports some recent Bragg interference was set at the desired position. The detector arm was then rotated
to the angle of specular reflection {Jr. Next, the chamber pressure
was adjusted to the desired value, the chamber valved off from
the pumping system, and the cryosurface cooled with liquid
nitrogen. Carbon dioxide was then bled into the chamber at a
constant rate, and the variation of the intensity of the reflected
~
light was monitored continuously at the specular angle of re-
""§,... flection. Rays which are (1) reflected from the CO2 cryodeposit
~ a. ~. 0.7
surface and (2) reflected from the polished copper substrate are
~ alternately in and out of phase as the film thickness grows. A
.i detector set at the specular angle of reflection then experiences a
]' varying signal such as shown in Fig. 1.
If the cryosurface was absolutely clean before the C02 was
""" introduced into the chamber, the first extremum would be a
~ minimum. It would. occur when the optical path lengths of rays
15
'5 reflected from the cryodeposit surface and the substrate surface
] b. ~. 0.8 differed by X/2. However, there was usually a small amount of
0
60 residual Co. and H 20 in the chamber which formed a very thin
~
~ film on the cryoscurface when it was cooled prior to the intentional
40 addition of CO2. Thus, the first recorded extrema were sometimes
maxima [Fig. 1 (b), for example]. If the chamber had been
carefully baked and pumped for long periods before data were
taken, the first extremum was always a minimum. This has little
effect in the determination of refractive index since only the
Time, sec intervals between adjacent maxima or minima are of interest. It
c. ~. 0.9 would affect an absolute determination of the thickness of the
cryodeposit from the number of maxima or minima that have
FIG. 1. Bragg refraction patterns for C02 cryodeposits with occurred at any given time after t=O.
various wavelengths of incident radiation.

1.46
measurements from which the refractive index of Co. cryode-
p • 8 x 10-5 torr
posits formed on a 77°K surface has been determined.
A 7.6X 10.2 cm polished copper cryosurface with an rms surface "-
1.42
roughness of less than 0.01 Po was located near the center of a c· Ref. 3!
.2
small vacuum chamber. Its rear and side surfaces, as well as the to
~
interior of the chamber, were coated with flat black paint. A t 1.38
xenon lamp, collimated by means of a condensing lens system,
I
15
provided the light beam. It was introduced into the chamber
through a quartz window and a collimating tube. Interference- ~ 1.34
ESlimated accuracy

type filters were inserted between the condensing lens system


and the quartz window to obtain a quasimonochromatic beam
having nominal wavelengths of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 Po. The 1.30L--;:";----;;7---;::':;;----:f-:-------,,L,::---:-"
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1
incident beam could be oriented at any desired angle with respect
Wavelength, ~, ~
to the cryosurface. The vacuum chamber was also equipped with
a rotatable arm upon which a silicon solar cell was mounted. FIG. 3. Variation of refractive index for CO, cryodeposits with wavelength.