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Strength of materials

Strength of materials
[COMMON TO III SEM MECHANICAL / I&P]

MME 2103 Strength of materials [2 1 0 3]


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
1.Stress, strain and deformation of solids: Rigid and Deformable bodies,
Strength, Stiffness and Stability Stresses; Tensile, Compressive and Shear
Deformation of simple and compound bars under axial load, Thermal stress,
Elastic constants, Strain energy and unit strain energy, Stress-strain diagrams
for ductile and brittle materials, Resilience, Toughness, Hardness.
[03]

2.Beams - Loads and Stresses: Types of beams: Supports and Loads, Shear
force and Bending Moment in beams, Cantilever, Simply supported and
Overhanging beams, Stresses in beams, Theory of simple bending, Stress
variation along the length and in the beam section, Effect of shape of beam
section on stress induced, Shear stresses in beams, Shear flow.
[10]

3.Torsion: Analysis of torsion of circular bars, Shear stress distribution, Bars


of Solid and hollow circular section, Stepped shaft, Twist and torsion stiffness,
Fixed & simply supported shafts.
[06]

4.Beam deflection: Elastic curve of Neutral axis of the beam under normal
loads, Evaluation of beam deflection and slope, Columns, End conditions,
Equivalent length of a column, Euler equation, Slenderness ratio, Rankine
formula for columns.
[08]

5.Analysis of stresses in two dimensions: Biaxial state of stresses, Thick &


Thin cylindrical shells and spherical shells, Deformation in thick and thin
cylindrical and spherical shells, Biaxial stresses at a point, Stresses on inclined
plane, Principal planes and stresses, Mohr’s circle for biaxial stresses, shear
stress. [09]

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal 1


Strength of materials

MME 2103 Strength of materials [2 1 0 3]

References:
1. Popov E.P, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1997.
2. Beer F. P. and Johnston R, Mechanics of Materials (3e), McGraw-Hill Book Co, 2002.
3. Nash W.A, Theory and problems in Strength of Materials, Schaum Outline Series,
McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York, 1995.
4. Kazimi S.M.A, Solid Mechanics, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co, New Delhi, 1981.
5. Ryder G.H, Strength of Materials (3e), Macmillan India Ltd., 2002.
6. Ray Hulse, Keith Sherwin and Jack Cain, Solid Mechanics, Palgrave ANE Books, 2004.
7. Singh D. K., Mechanics of Solids, Pearson Education, 2002.
8. Timoshenko S, Elements of Strength of Materials, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,
1997.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal 2


Strength of materials

1. Stress, strain and deformation of solids


Introduction:
Engineering science is usually subdivided into number of topics such as Solid Mechanics, Fluid
Mechanics, Heat Transfer and property Properties of materials. The solid mechanics as a
subject may be defined as a branch of applied mechanics that deals with behaviors of solid
bodies subjected to various types of loadings. This is usually subdivided into further two
streams i.e Mechanics of rigid bodies or simply Mechanics and Mechanics of deformable
solids. The mechanics of deformable solids which is branch of applied mechanics is known by
several names i.e. strength of materials, mechanics of materials etc.

Mechanics of rigid bodies:


The mechanics of rigid bodies is primarily concerned with the static and dynamic behavior
under external forces of engineering components and systems which are treated as infinitely
strong and undeformable. Primarily we deal here with the forces and motions associated with
particles and rigid bodies.

Mechanics of deformable solids or Mechanics of solids:


The mechanics of deformable solids is more concerned with the internal forces and associated
changes in the geometry of the components involved. Of particular importance are the
properties of the materials used, the strength of which will determine whether the
components fail by breaking in service, and the stiffness of which will determine whether the
amount of deformation they suffer is acceptable. Therefore, the subject of mechanics of
materials or strength of materials is central to the whole activity of engineering design.
Usually the objectives in analysis here will be the determination of the stresses, strains, and
deflections produced by loads. Theoretical analyses and experimental results have an equal
roles in this field.

Basic concepts:
As we know that in mechanics of deformable solids, externally applied forces acts on a body
and body suffers a deformation. From equilibrium point of view, this action should be
opposed or reacted by internal forces which are set up within the particles of material due to
cohesion.
Stress:
It is the resistance developed per unit area at any point in the object. The stresses are
assumed to be uniform over the cross-section. It is denoted by letter  or P.
Unit of stress is N/m2 or Pascal(Pa). it can also be expressed in terms of N/mm2, MPa, GPa or
KPa.

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Strength of materials

The bar subjected to axial forces generally undergo two types of stresses. They are normal
stress and shear stress.
Normal stress:
This stress is developed in a bar subjected to axial forces. It is equal to load per unit area. The
intensity of the resisting force normal to the section plane is called normal stress.
Normal stress can be of 2 types. They are tensile and compressive stress.

Tensile stress:
It is a stress which causes extension of the bar as shown in figure i). These stress are
developed due to the application of tensile forces.

Compressive stress:
These stress are developed in a bar subjected to compressive forces that causes shortening
of the bar as shown in figure ii)

Shear stress:
The intensity of the resisting force parallel to the sectional plane is called shearing stress. This
stress is developed when force is applied parallel to the cross-section of the bar.
The direct shear stress is equal to the shearing force per unit area.

Strain:
It is a phenomenon where a component or object undergoes changes in shape and size under
the action of forces. They are measured using instruments like extensometer, elastic strain
gauges etc. Strain is a unit less quantity.
The bar subjected to axial forces generally undergo two types of strain. They are linear and
lateral strain.

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Strength of materials

Linear strain:
The ratio of change in length to original length in a bar subjected to axial force is called linear
strain.
Lateral strain:
Ratio of change in lateral dimension to original lateral dimension is known as lateral strain.

Stress-strain relationship:
The stress-strain relationship of any material is obtained by conducting tension test in the
laboratories on standard specimen. Different materials behave differently and their behavior
in tension and compression differ slightly.

Behavior in tension for ductile material – mild steel:


Procedure:
Use a typical test specimen and fix it on the Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Fit the
extensometer to test specimen over the gauge length and gradually apply the load. Gauge

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal 5


Strength of materials

length is the length over which extension is measured. Figure iv) shows following salient
points observed on stress strain curve of mild steel specimen.
i) Limit of proportionality (A):
It is the limiting value of the stress up to which stress is proportional to strain.
ii) Elastic limit:
This is the limiting value of a stress up to which if the material is stressed and then
unloaded, strain disappears completely and original length is regained. This point is
slightly beyond the limit of proportionality.
iii) Upper yield point (B):
This is the point at which load starts reducing and the extension increases. This
phenomenon is called yielding of material.
iv) Lower yield point (C):
At this stage the stress remains same but strain increases for some time.
v) Ultimate stress (D):
This is the maximum stress the material can resist. At this stage cross-section area at a
particular section starts reducing fast. This is called neck formation. After this stage, load
resisted and hence the stress developed starts reducing.
vi) Breaking point (E):
The stress at which finally the specimen fails is called breaking stress.
vii) Permanent set (OF’)
If a specimen is loaded beyond elastic limit and then unloaded a permanent strain (OF’) is
left in the strain. This is called permanent set.

Behavior in tension for aluminum and high strength steel:

In these elastic materials there is no clear yield point. Here 0.2% permanent set is known as
0.2% proof stress and this point is treated as yield point for all practical purposes.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal 6


Strength of materials

Behavior in tension for brittle material – cast iron:

In the figure vi) behavior of cast iron is shown. The important features in this relationship
are,
 There is no yield point
 No neck formation
 Ultimate point and break point are same
 Strain at failure is very small

Behavior in compression:
The specimens used for compression test will be short in length. In case of ductile materials
no necking formation takes place. For brittle materials, ultimate stress is much higher in
compression than in tension. This is because flows and cracks in brittle material will weaken
the material in tension but not in compression.

Measurement of ductility of material:


Percentage of elongation and percentage of reduction in area are the two terms used to
measure the ductility of material.

Percentage of elongation:
It is defined as the ratio of the final extension at rupture to original length expresses as
percentage. It can be calculated as,
Length at rupture − Original Length
Percentage Elongation = [ ] 𝑥 100
Original Length
In case of ductile materials percentage elongation is 20 to 25.

Percentage reduction in area:


It is defined as the ratio of maximum changes in the cross sectional area to original cross
sectional area, expressed as percentage. It can be calculated as,
Percentage reduction in area
Original cross section area − Min. cross section area
=[ ] 𝑥 100
Original area
The percentage reduction in area for steel is 60 to 70.

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal 7


Strength of materials

Nominal stress and true stress:

Both nominal and true stress can be calculated as,


Load
Nominal stress =
Original cross sectional area

Load
True stress =
Actual cross sectional area

Behaviour of materials under repeated loadings:


When structural members (bridge decks) and mechanical components (shafts) are subjected
to fluctuation of stresses and reversal of stresses following behavior can be observed.

Fatigue:
When structural members are subjected to fluctuation of stresses repeatedly, it affects the
strength of material and this effect is called fatigue.

Endurance limit:
It is the maximum stress at which even a billion reversal of stress can not cause failure of the
material. This limit is shown in fig viii)

Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT, Manipal 8


Strength of materials

Factor of safety:
It is the ratio of ultimate stress to working stress. It is expressed as,

Ultimate stress
Factor of safety =
Working stress
Working stress:
It is the maximum stress to which any member is designed and it should be much less than
ultimate stress.
It can also be expressed as ratio of yield stress to permissible stress in some cases. Following
values of factor of safety are commonly taken in practice
Steel : 1.85
Concrete: 3.0
Timber : 4 to 6.

Hooke’s Law:
A structural member when subjected to loading, if stress () is proportional to strain () up to
elastic limit, then it is said to follow Hooke’s law. It can be expressed mathematically,

= E 
Where E is called modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus. Its unit is same as that of stress.
Value of E for mild steel is 2.1 x 105 N/mm2.

Elastic constants:
Three elastic constants used in the computation of stress and strains include modulus of
elasticity or Young’s modulus, modulus of rigidity or shear modulus and bulk modulus. All the
elastic constants have same units i.e. N/mm2 or N/m2.
i) Modulus of elasticity (E):
It is defined as the ratio of normal stress () to normal strain () with in the elastic limit in a
structural member under the action of axial forces.

E =

ii) Modulus of rigidity (G):
It is defined as the ratio of shear stress to shear strain with in the elastic limit in a structural
member under the action of forces.

G =

iii) Bulk Modulus (K):
It is defined as the ratio of identical pressure (P) acting in three mutually perpendicular
directions to corresponding volumetric strain (ev).
P
K =
ev

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Strength of materials

Volumetric strain (ev):


The ratio of change in volume to original volume when an object is subjected to stress is called
volumetric strain. In general, for any shape volumetric strain may be taken as sum of strains
in three mutually perpendicular directions.
dv
ev =
v
ev = ex + ey + ez
Poisson’s Ratio ():
The constant ratio between lateral strain and linear strain with in the elastic limit of a material
is called Poisson’s ratio.
lateral strain
Poisson′ s ratio =
Linear strain
The values of Poisson’s ratio can be taken in range of 0.25 – 0.33.
For steel:  = 0.3
For concrete:  = 0.15

Strain Energy:

When external forces are acting on a body, it gradually develops a resisting force. This is
nothing but work done by the resisting force which is stored as energy as shown in fig ix). This
energy which is stored in a body due to straining of the body is called strain energy.
It is given by the expression,
P2 V
Strain Energy =
2E
Where ‘P’ is the load acting on the body, ‘V’ is the volume of the body and ‘E’ is the Young’s
modulus.
Resilience:
It is the strain energy per unit volume.
P2
Resilience =
2E
Proof resilience:
The maximum strain energy which can be stored by a body without undergoing permanent
deformation is called proof resilience. Here ‘Py’ is the stress at elastic limit.
Py 2
Proof resilience =
2E
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Strength of Materials

Modulus of Resilence
The maximum energy that can be absorbed per unit volume without creating a permanent
distortion. It can be calculated by considering the area under the stress-strain curve in elastic
region.

Toughness:
It is the property of a material whereby it absorbs energy due to straining actions by undergoing
plastic deformation.

Stiffness

Ability of a material to resist deformation induced due to the load is known as stiffness.

Hardness:
It is the ability of the material to resist penetration from another material. A number called
hardness number is used to measure hardness of various materials. Sometimes hardness is
measured by size of indentation of steel balls under standard pressure using hardness testing
machine.

Stability
Ability to support a given load without experiencing a sudden change in its configuration

Thermal Stresses
Every material expands when temperature rises and contracts when temperature falls. It is
established experimentally that the change in length Δ is directly proportional to the length of
the member L and change in temperature t. Thus

The constant of proportionality α is called coefficient of thermal expansion and is defined as


change in unit length of material due to unit change in temperature

pg. 11
Strength of Materials

Extension/shortening of a simple bar

Simple Bars with cross sections varying in steps

Simple Taper bar with circular cross section

Change in length of the tapering circular bar

pg. 12
Strength of Materials

Compound Bar

Bars made up of two or more materials are called composite/compound bars. They may have
same length or different lengths
Consider a member with two materials. Let the load shared by material 1 be P1 and that by
material 2 be P2.

And extension of the bars of material 1 and 2 respectively

Extension of compound bar Δl = Δl1 = Δl2.

pg. 13