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Clayton State University

Examination III

Principles of Chemistry (CHEM 1211)

Spring 2010

April 27, 2010

The following exam is worth 100 points


Each question is worth 10 points

Please…………………………..
Make sure there are seven pages in your exam copy
Use non-erasable PEN
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(signature is taken as a statement of honest and independent work)
State appropriate units with each numerical answer
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1
Question 1
(a) Calculate the standard enthalpy change (ΔHorxn) of the following reactions from their
standard enthalpies of formation:
(ΔHfo of C2H2(g) = 226.73 kJ/mol, ΔHfo of H2S(g) = -20.63 kJ/mol, ΔHfo of CO2(g) =
-393.51 kJ/mol, ΔHfo of H2O(l) = -285.83 kJ/mol, ΔHfo of SO2(g) = -296.83 kJ/mol)

(i) 2C2H2(g) + 5O2(g) → 4CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)

ΔHorxn = 4(-393.51) + 2(-285.83) – 2(226.73) = -2599.2 kJ

(ii) 2H2S(g) + 3O2(g) → 2H2O(l) + 2SO2(g)

ΔHorxn = 2(-285.83) + 2(-296.83) – 2(-20.63) = -1124.06 kJ

(b) How much heat (in kJ) is given off when 1.26 x 104 g of ammonia is produced
according to the equation below?
N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g) ΔHorxn = -92.6 kJ
Assume that the reaction takes place at standard state conditions.

1mol NH3  92.6 kJ


1.26 x 10 4 g NH3 x x   3.42 x 10 4 kJ
17.04 g NH3 2 mol NH3

Question 2
(a) Stoichiometry is based on the law of conservation of mass. On what law is
thermochemistry based? Law of conservation of energy

(b) Calculate the work done (in kJ) when 1.0 mol of water is frozen at 0 oC and 1.0 atm.
The volumes of 1.0 mol of water and ice at 0 oC are 0.0180 L and 0.0196 L, respectively.

w = -PΔV = - (1.0 atm)(0.0196 L – 0.0180 L) = - 0.0016 L∙atm

(c) A sheet of gold weighing 10.0 g and at a temperature of 18.0 oC is placed flat on a
sheet of iron weighing 20.0 g and at a temperature of 55.6 oC. What is the final
temperature of the combined metals? Assume that no heat is lost to the surroundings (the
specific heat capacities of gold and iron are 0.129 J/g·K and 0.449 J/g·K, respectively).

- (10.0)(0.129)(Tf – 18.0) = (20.0)(0.449)(Tf – 55.6)

Tf = 50.9 oC

2
Question 3
(a) Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction
2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al2O3(s) ΔHorxn = ?
given that
3
2Al(s)  O 2 (g)  Al 2 O 3 (s) ΔHorxn = -1601 kJ
2
3
2Fe(s)  O 2 (g)  Fe 2 O 3 (s) ΔHorxn = -821 kJ
2

Al is needed on reactant side, first equation remains as is

3
2Al(s)  O 2 (g)  Al 2 O 3 (s) ΔHorxn = -1601 kJ
2

Fe is needed on product side, reverse second equation

3
Fe 2 O 3 (s)  2Fe(s)  O 2 (g) ΔHorxn = +821 kJ
2

Combine equations

2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) → 2Fe(s) + Al2O3(s) ΔHorxn = - 780 kJ

(b) A piece of silver of mass 362 g has a heat capacity of 85.7 J/oC. What is the specific
heat of silver in cal/oC?

85.7 J 1 1cal
o
x x  0.0566 cal/ o C
C 362 g 4.184 J

3
Question 4
(a) The atmospheric pressure at the summit of Mt. McKinley is 606 mm Hg on a certain
day. What is the pressure in psi, atm, and kPa?

1atm 14.7 psi


606 mm Hg x  0.797 atm 0.797 atm x  11.7 psi
760 mm Hg 1atm

101.325 kPa
0.797 atm x  80.8 kPa
1atm

(b) A gas-filled balloon having a volume of 2.50 L at 1.2 atm and 25 oC is allowed to rise
to the stratosphere (about 30 km above the surface of the earth), where the temperature
and pressure are -23 oC and 3.00 x 10-3 atm, respectively. Calculate the final volume of
the balloon.

T1 = 25 oC = 298 K, P1 = 1.2 atm, V1 = 2.50 L,


T2 = -23 oC = 250 K, P2 = 3.00 x 10-3 atm, V2 = ?

P1V1 P2 V2 P1V1T2 1.2 atm 2.50 L250 K 


 V2    840 L
T1 T2 T1P2 298 K 3.00 x 10 -3 atm 
Question 5
(a) Calculate the volume occupied by 0.678 g of N2 gas at STP.

1 mol
mol N 2  0.678 g x  0.0242 mol N 2
28.02 g

PV = nRT

nRT 0.0242 mol 0.08206 L atm/mol K 273 K 


V   0.542 L
P 1.00 atm

(b) A volume of 4.9 L of H2 gas measured at STP is reacted with an excess of Cl2 gas.
Calculate the mass (in grams) of HCl produced. The reaction equation is:
H2(g) + Cl2(g) → 2HCl(g)

n
PV

1.00 atm 4.9 L   0.22 mol H 2
RT 0.08206 L atm/mol K 273 K 

2 mol HCl 36.46 g HCl


g HCl  0.22 mol H 2 x x  16 g HCl
1 mol H 2 1 mol HCl

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Question 6
(a) A mixture of gases contains CH4, C2H6, and C3H8. If the total pressure is 1.50 atm and
the numbers of moles of the gases present are 0.31 mol for CH4, 0.25 mol for C2H6, and
0.29 mol for C3H8, calculate the partial pressures of the gases.

Total moles = 0.31 + 0.25 + 0.29 = 0.85 mol


Let P1, P2 and P3 equal partial pressures for CH4, C2H6, and C3H8, respectively

0.31 0.25
P1  x 1.50 atm  0.55 atm P2  x 1.50 atm  0.44 atm
0.85 0.85

0.29
P3  x 1.50 atm  0.51 atm
0.85

(b) A compound of empirical formula C2H5 effused through a porous barrier in 1.62 min.
It took an equal volume of xenon 2.43 min to effuse under the same conditions of
temperature and pressure. What is the molecular formula of the compound?

t1 M1

t2 M2
2 2
t   1.62 min 
M 1   1  x M 2    x 131.3  58.3 g/mol
 t2   2.43 min 
Empirical formula molar mass = 2(12.01) + 5(1.01) = 29.07 g/mol
Multiple = 58.3/29.07 = 2
Molecular formula = C4H10

Question 7
(a) What is the frequency of light of wavelength 456 nm?
c 3.00 x 10 8 m/s
ν   6.58 x 1014 Hz
λ -9
456 x 10 m

(b) What is the wavelength (in nm) of radiation of frequency 2.20 x 109 Hz?
c 3.00 x 10 8 m/s 10 9 nm
λ   0.136 m x  1.36 x 10 8 nm
ν 9
2.20 x 10 1/s 1m

(c) Write the complete electron configuration and draw the orbital diagram for the most
stable ion formed by Sr.

Sr2+
Ga: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6

5
Question 8
(a) The ground state electron configuration of a neutral atom is 1s22s22p2. Write a
complete set of quantum numbers for each of the electrons. How many valence and core
electrons are present in the atom?

n = 1, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = +1/2 n = 1, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = -1/2
n = 2, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = +1/2 n = 2, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = -1/2
n = 2, l = 1, ml = -1, ms = +1/2 n = 2, l = 1, ml = 0, ms = +1/2

b) Which of the following sets of quantum numbers are invalid? Explain your reasoning.

n = 3, l = 2, ml = +1, ms = +1 invalid, ms = +1 does not exist

n = 4, l = 3, ml = -4, ms = +1/2 invalid, ml = -4 does not exist in l = 3

Question 9
(a) For each of the following pairs of orbitals, indicate which has lower energy

1s and 3s 1s

2p and 5s 2p

5d and 4f 4f

(b) How does the size change when an atom is converted to

(i) an anion? larger

(ii) a cation? smaller

(c) On the basis of their positions in the periodic table, select the atom with the largest
atomic radius in each of the following sets.

(i) Mg, Ba, and Sr Ba

(ii) C, F, and Li Li

(iii) As, Bi, and N Bi

6
Question 10
(i) Sketch the outline of the periodic table and show the general group and period trends
in the first ionization energy of the elements.

increasing

decreasing

(ii) Two atoms have the electron configurations 1s22s22p6 and 1s22s22p63s1. The first
ionization energy of one is 2080 kJ/mol, and that of the other is 496 kJ/mol. Pair up each
ionization energy with one of the given electron configurations. Justify your choice.

496 kJ/mol for 1s22s22p63s1


2080 kJ/mol for 1s22s22p6
Higher principal quantum number (shells) implies lower IE
Complete octet in 1s22s22p6 implies higher IE

(iii) Arrange the following species in isoelectronic pairs: Ne, Zn, O+, N, As3+ and N3-.

Ne & N3- Zn & As3+ O+ & N

(iv) State which member of the following elements has the smallest electron affinity
(least negative value): Mg, S, Al, P

Mg

Bonus
(i) An electron in the hydrogen atom can return to the ground state in two different ways:
(a) via a direct transition in which a photon of wavelength λ1 is emitted and (b) via an
intermediate excited state reached by the emission of a photon of wavelength λ2. This
intermediate excited state then decays to the ground state by emitting another photon of
wavelength λ3. Derive an equation that relates λ1, λ2, and λ3.

λ1 = λ2 + λ3

(ii) You pick up a 6-pack of soft drinks from the floor, but it slips from your hand and
smashes into your foot. What forms of energy are involved; at what stages of the process?

Pick up: kinetic and potential energies


Slips: kinetic and potential energies
Smashes: sound energy and may be heat energy