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Specialized hydrometers[edit]

Specialized hydrometers are frequently named for their use: a lactometer, for example, is a
hydrometer designed especially for use with dairy products. They are sometimes referred to by this
specific name, sometimes as hydrometers.



A lactometer is used to check purity of cow's milk. The specific gravity of milk does not give a
conclusive indication of its composition since milk contains a variety of substances that are either
heavier or lighter than water. Additional tests for fat content are necessary to determine overall
composition. The instrument is graduated into a hundred parts. Milk is poured in and allowed to
stand until the cream has formed, then the depth of the cream deposit in degrees determines the
quality of the milk. If the milk sample is pure, the lactometer floats; if it is adulterated or impure, the
lactometer sinks.[citation needed]


A alcoholometer testing beer immediately after brewing, before fermentation.

An alcoholmeter is a hydrometer that indicates the alcoholic strength of liquids which are essentially
a mixture of alcohol and water. It is also known as a proof and Tralles hydrometer (after Johann
Georg Tralles, but commonly misspelled as traille and tralle). It measures the density of the fluid.
Certain assumptions are made to estimate the amount of alcohol present in the fluid. Alcoholometers
have scales marked with volume percents of "potential alcohol", based on a pre-calculated specific
gravity. A higher "potential alcohol" reading on this scale is caused by a greater specific gravity,
assumed to be caused by the introduction of dissolved sugars. A reading is taken before and after
fermentation and approximate alcohol content is determined by subtracting the post fermentation
reading from the pre-fermentation reading.[5]

Not to be confused with saccharimeter.

A 20th century Saccharometer.

A saccharometer is a hydrometer used for determining the amount of sugar in a solution, invented
by Thomas Thomson.[6] It is used primarily by winemakersand brewers,[7] and it can also be used in
making sorbets and ice-creams.[8] The first brewers' saccharometer was constructed by Benjamin
Martin (with distillation in mind), and initially used for brewing by James Baverstock Sr in
1770.[9] Henry Thrale adopted its use and it was later popularized by John Richardson in 1784.[10]
It consists of a large weighted glass bulb with a thin stem rising from the top with calibrated
markings. The sugar level can be determined by reading the value where the surface of the liquid
crosses the scale. The higher the sugar content, the denser the solution, and thus the higher the
bulb will float.

A thermohydrometer is a hydrometer that has a thermometer enclosed in the float section. For
measuring the density of petroleum products, such as fuel oils, the specimen is usually heated in a
temperature jacket with a thermometer placed behind it since density is dependent on temperature.
Light oils are placed in cooling jackets, typically at 15 °C. Very light oils with many volatile
components are measured in a variable volume container using a floating piston sampling device to
minimize light end losses.[citation needed]

A urinometer is a medical hydrometer designed for urinalysis. As urine's specific gravity is dictated
by its ratio of solutes (wastes) to water, a urinometer makes it possible to quickly assess a patient's
overall level of hydration.

A barkometer is calibrated to test the strength of tanning liquors used in tanning leather.[11]

Battery hydrometer[edit]
Battery condition indicator to measure the charge of the battery (~1985).

The state of charge of a lead-acid battery can be estimated from the density of the sulfuric acid
solution used as electrolyte. A hydrometer calibrated to read specific gravity relative to water at
60 °F (16 °C) is a standard tool for servicing automobile batteries. Tables are used to correct the
reading to the standard temperature. Hydrometers are also used for maintenance of wet-cell nickel-
cadmium batteries to ensure the electrolyte is of the proper strength for the application; for this
battery chemistry the specific gravity of the electrolyte is not related to the state of charge of the
A battery hydrometer with thermometer (thermohydrometer) measures the temperature-
compensated specific gravity and electrolyte temperature.

Antifreeze tester[edit]

Device to measure the temperature to which the coolant protects the car from freezing.
Another automotive use of hydrometers is testing the quality of the antifreeze solution used for
engine cooling. The degree of freeze protection can be related to the density (and so concentration)
of the antifreeze; different types of antifreeze have different relations between measured density and
freezing point.

An acidometer (sometimes spelled acidimeter) is a hydrometer used to measure the specific gravity
of an acid.[12]

A salinometer is a hydrometer used to measure the salt content of the feed water to a marine steam

Use in soil analysis[edit]

A hydrometer analysis is the process by which fine-grained soils, silts and clays, are graded.
Hydrometer analysis is performed if the grain sizes are too small for sieve analysis. The basis for
this test is Stoke's Law for falling spheres in a viscous fluid in which the terminal velocity of fall
depends on the grain diameter and the densities of the grain in suspension and of the fluid. The
grain diameter thus can be calculated from a knowledge of the distance and time of fall. The
hydrometer also determines the specific gravity (or density) of the suspension, and this enables the
percentage of particles of a certain equivalent particle diameter to be calculated. [13]

Hydrometer is used to measure the humidity of a place


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A hydrometer or areometer is an instrument that measures the specific gravity (relative density) of
liquids—the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water.
A hydrometer is usually made of glass, and consists of a cylindrical stem and a bulb weighted with
mercury or lead shot to make it float upright. The liquid to test is poured into a tall container, often a
graduated cylinder, and the hydrometer is gently lowered into the liquid until it floats freely. The point
at which the surface of the liquid touches the stem of the hydrometer correlates to specific gravity.
Hydrometers usually contain a scale inside the stem, so that the person using it can read specific gravity.
A variety of scales exist for different contexts.

Hydrometers are calibrated for different uses, such as a lactometer for measuring the density
(creaminess) of milk, a saccharometer for measuring the density of sugar in a liquid, or an alcoholometer
for measuring higher levels of alcohol in spirits.

The hydrometer makes use of Archimedes' principle: a solid suspended in a fluid is buoyed by a force
equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the submerged part of the suspended solid. The lower the
density of the fluid, the deeper a hydrometer of a given weight sinks; the stem is calibrated to give a
numerical reading.

Read more on Brainly.in - https://brainly.in/question/1501650#readmore


Uses of a Hydrometer
By Allan Robinson; Updated April 24, 2017
A hydrometer is an instrument that measures the specific gravity of liquids. The specific
gravity of a liquid is the density of that liquid divided by the density of water (in the same
units). A hydrometer accomplishes this by measuring the amount of water it displaces.
Hydrometers are commonly used by winemakers to determine the sugar content of
wine, and they’re also used in soil analysis.

A hydrometer is typically a long, glass cylinder that’s weighted at the bottom to give it
stability in water. It also contains a scale for the specific gravity printed along its side.
The hydrometer is placed in a clear container of liquid, and the value at the surface of
the liquid provides the specific gravity for the liquid. For greater accuracy, this reading
must be corrected according to the temperature because the density of a liquid changes
with temperature.
Uses in Brewing and Winemaking
Use a special type of hydrometer known as a saccharometer and a thermometer to
check the sugar content of wine or beer. The amount of solute in a solution may be
determined by its specific gravity because the solute increases the density of the
solution. The precise sugar content of grape juice is of critical interest because this
directly determines the amount of alcohol that it might eventually contain. The alcohol
content of the finished product may also be determined by a specific type of hydrometer
called an alcoholometer or proof and traille hydrometer. These types of hydrometers are
typically calibrated to room temperature (20 degrees C), and in these cases, the
temperature correction factor will usually be small.

What is a Graduated Cylinder?

This cylinder is a measuring container, made up of glass or resistive plastic materials
with volume units marked on it, along its length. The markings are calibrated according
to actual volume measurements, by manufacturers. It is basically a volume
measurement vessel with a long and slender cylindrical body and is necessarily
transparent, to be able to use it for measurements. They have a stable base below,
which allows them to be kept on surfaces, without the need for a stand. These cylinders
are generally available in various volume capacities ranging from 5 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml,
100 ml, 250 ml, 500 ml to even more than a liter. Cylinders with varying degrees of
gradation are sold.
The markings on the cylinder are graded according to small volume increments and
marked with horizontal lines, painted on the surface. Most cylinders are made up of
borosilicate glass or polypropylene which can withstand high temperatures and stay
unaffected by the corrosive nature of chemicals, which are measured out in them.

Most of the chemicals used in a laboratory are liquid solutions and to ensure that they
are used in the right quantities or proportions, they need to be measured out. Function
of the cylinder is to measure liquid volumes accurately. They are extensively used in
chemistry and biology labs, where quantities of accurately measured liquids need to be
used. They are purposely designed to be long, with a shorter diameter compared to
beakers, to facilitate accurate measurements. Measurements made with your naked
eye, must be made carefully.

How to Read it?

As you will notice, when making liquid measurements with these cylinders, the water
surface gets distorted into a concave depression at the surface due to the effects of
surface tension. The adhesive forces between the fluid molecules and the walls of the
cylinder cause this distortion.
When you observe the fluid level in a cylinder at eye level, ideally, you would make a
measurement by matching the fluid level with the closest graded marking on the
cylinder. However, since the surface is distorted into a concave shape (known as a
'meniscus'), you need to choose the reading that matches with the bottom of the
meniscus. Although, the error in measurement cannot be entirely eliminated, you can
lessen it by taking this precaution.
A range of cylinders with different maximum measurement values are a necessary
purchase, when setting up a new lab. As mentioned before, it's essential that you
measure the volume of the liquid that's poured in, according to the line which coincides
with the bottom of the meniscus. This ensures that your readings are not distorted by
the effect of surface tension, which distorts the surface of the liquid.


Functions, Operation and Use of the Hydrometer:

The hydrometer is used
in plant vehicle electrics to
measure the density of
battery electrolyte compared
to that of water.
Battery electrolyte in a fully
charged battery is about
25% more dense than

We can use
the hydrometer to measure
the density of the
battery electrolyte compared
to that of water. This
reading is dependent on
the ambient temperature,
and the following figures are  Fully charged
for a temperature of 250C: battery: 1.28
 Half charged
 Fully charged battery: battery: 1.2
1.28  Discharged
 Half charged battery: battery: 1.1
 Discharged battery: 1.1
On the right we can see the
actual hydrometer. It is a
floating device. The denser the
liquid, the higher it will float,
and give a reading of the
liquid density on its graduated

The instrument is basically a

glass tube with lead shot at
one end and a graduated scale
at the other.

The instrument is used to

compare the density of
whatever liquid it is immersed
in to the density of water.
Water is said to have
a density of one, so
the electrolyte from a fully
charged battery would be 28%
more dense-1.28.
Using the hydrometer:
Always use safety glasses or a full face mask
when working with batteries and electrolyte. Make
use also of the acid proof gloves and aprons
provided. If you get battery acid on your skin or in
your eyes, flush immediately with copious
amounts of water. If pain and discomfort persist,
seek medical assistance. Check here for
emergency procedures.

Go to each cell in turn. Agitate

the electrolyte in the cell. Then take
the electrolyte into the instrument. If any of
the battery plate active material has broken
away, the electrolyte will be discoloured, so
make sure the electrolyte is clear.

Induce enough electrolyte into the instrument

to ensure the hydrometer is fully afloat. Be
careful not to induce too much electrolyte, as
it would cause the hydrometer to rise too
much and strike the top of the instrument,
giving you a false reading. Make sure
the hydrometer is fully and freely afloat.

Read off on the scale provided to see

the relative density of the elctrolyte.

Baume Hydrometers
The Baume scale is a pair of hydrometer scales developed by French
pharmacist Antoine Baumé in 1768 to measure density of various liquids.
The unit of the Baumé scale has been notated variously as degrees
Baume, Baumé, B°, Bé° and simply Baumé (the accent is not always
present). One scale measures the density of liquids heavier than water
and the other, liquids lighter than water. The Baumé of distilled water
would be 0.

Mercury thermometer (mercury-in-glass thermometer) for measurement of room temperature. Daniel
Fahrenheit's application of mercuryand a standardized temperature scalefor liquid-in-glass thermometers
ushered in a new era of accuracy and precision in thermometry.[1] From the early 1710s until the introduction of
electronic devices in the 1960s, mercury-in-glass thermometers were the world's most reliable and accurate
thermometers, accounting for their widespread use.[2]

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient. A thermometer

has two important elements: (1) a temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb of a mercury-in-glass
thermometer or the digital sensor in an infrared thermometer) in which some change occurs with a
change in temperature, and (2) some means of converting this change into a numerical value (e.g.
the visible scale that is marked on a mercury-in-glass thermometer or the digital readout on an
infrared model). Thermometers are widely used in industries
to monitor processes, in meteorology, in medicine, and in scientific research.
Some of the principles of the thermometer were known to Greek philosophers of two thousand years
ago. The modern thermometer gradually evolved from the thermoscope with the addition of a scale
in the early 17th century and standardisation through the 17th and 18th centuries.[3][4][5]

The triple beam balance is an instrument used to measure mass very precisely.[1] The device has
reading error of +/- 0.05 gram. The name refers to the three beams including the middle beam which
is the largest size, the front beam which is the medium size, and the far beam which is the smallest
size. The difference in size of the beams indicate the difference in weights and reading scale that
each beam carry. The reading scale can be enumerated that the middle beam reads in 100 gram
increments, the front beam can read from 0 to 10 grams, and the far beam can read in 10 gram
increments.[2] The triple beam balance can be used to measure mass directly from the objects, find
mass by difference for liquid, and measure out a substance.


API Gravity
API stands for the American Petroleum Institute, which is the major United States trade association for the oil and
natural gas industry. The API represents about 400 corporations in the petroleum industry and helps to set standards
for production, refinement, and distribution of petroleum products. They also advocate on behalf of the industry. One
of the most important standards that the API has set is the method used for measuring the density of petroleum. This
standard is called the API gravity.
Specific gravity is a ratio of the density of one substance to the density of a reference substance, usually water. The
API gravity is nothing more than the standard specific gravity used by the oil industry, which compares the density of
oil to that of water through a calculation designed to ensure consistency in measurement. Less dense oil or “light oil”
is preferable to more dense oil as it contains greater quantities of hydrocarbons that can be converted to gasoline.

Petroleum is less dense that water and in 1916, the U.S. government instituted the Baumé scale as the standard
measure for any liquid less dense than water. This, in most cases, applies to oil. The value used in this scale was
141.5 (see calculation below), but subsequent testing showed that, due to error, the actual value should be 140. The
government changed the scale to 140 to correct the issue, but the use of 141.5 had become so entrenched in the oil
industry that the API decided to create the API gravity scale using the old value of 141.5.

API gravity is calculated using the specific gravity of an oil, which is nothing more than the ratio of its density to that of
water (density of the oil/density of water). Specific gravity for API calculations is always determined at 60 degrees
Fahrenheit. API gravity is found as follows:

API gravity = (141.5/Specific Gravity) – 131.5

Though API values do not have units, they are often referred to as degrees. So the API gravity of West Texas
Intermediate is said to be 39.6 degrees. API gravity moves inversely to density, which means the denser an oil is, the
lower its API gravity will be. An API of 10 is equivalent to water, which means any oil with an API above 10 will float
on water while any with an API below 10 will sink.

The API gravity is used to classify oils as light, medium, heavy, or extra heavy. As the “weight” of an oil is the largest
determinant of its market value, API gravity is exceptionally important. The API values for each “weight” are as

 Light – API > 31.1

 Medium – API between 22.3 and 31.1
 Heavy – API < 22.3
 Extra Heavy – API < 10.0

These are only rough valuations as the exact demarcation in API gravity between light and heavy oil changes
depending on the region from which oil came. The fluctuation as to what constitutes light crude in a given region is
the result of commodity trading in oil.

Because density is a measure of weight per volume, API can be used to calculate how many barrels of crude can be
extracted from a metric ton of a given oil. A metric ton of West Texas Intermediate, with an API of 39.6, will produce
7.6 barrels (at 42 gallons each). The calculation is:

Barrels per metric ton = 1/[(141.5/(API + 131.5) x 0.159]


API Gravity
Definition - What does API Gravity mean?
API Gravity also known as The American Petroleum Institute Gravity, is the measure of
the density of a petroleum liquid in relation to the density of water. If the gravity is less
than 10, the petroleum liquid is heavier and thus it sinks and if the gravity is greater than
10, the liquid is lighter, so it floats on water. It is an inverse measure of the density of
the petroleum liquid related to that of water. This means that the lighter the petroleum
liquid the higher the API gravity and vice-versa. Less dense liquids or the light
petroleum liquids are preferable to more dense liquids because they contain greater
quantities of hydrocarbons which can be converted into gasoline.

Petropedia explains API Gravity

The American Petroleum Institute is a main United States trade association for natural
gas and oil industry. More than 400 corporations in the petroleum industry are
represented by the API which helps to set standards for the production, refinement and
distribution of petroleum products. The most important standard set by API is the
method which can be used for measuring or calculating the density of the petroleum
liquids. The standard is known as API Gravity. It is the ratio of the density of petroleum
liquids to that of water with the help of calculation, designed to ensure the consistent
results in measurement.
Generally, oil or other petroleum liquids with API gravity between 40 to 45 dominate with
highest prices and above 45 their molecular chains become shorter and thus less
valuable for refineries. Petroleum liquids with less than 10 API gravity are referred as
bitumen or extra heavy oil

API gravity
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The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light
a petroleum liquid is compared to water: if its API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on
water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks.
API gravity is thus an inverse measure of a petroleum liquid's density relative to that of water (also
known as specific gravity). It is used to compare densities of petroleum liquids. For example, if one
petroleum liquid is less dense than another, it has a greater API gravity. Although API gravity is
mathematically a dimensionless quantity (see the formula below), it is referred to as being in
'degrees'. API gravity is graduated in degrees on a hydrometer instrument. API gravity values of
most petroleum liquids fall between 10 and 70 degrees.


 1History of development
 2API gravity formulas
 3Using API gravity to calculate barrels of crude oil per metric ton
 4Measurement of API gravity from its specific gravity
 5Direct Measurement of API gravity (Hydrometer method)
 6Classifications or grades
 7References
 8External links

History of development[edit]
In 1916, the U.S. National Bureau of Standards accepted the Baumé scale, which had been
developed in France in 1768, as the U.S. standard for measuring the specific gravity of liquids less
dense than water. Investigation by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences found major errors
in salinity and temperature controls that had caused serious variations in published values.
Hydrometers in the U.S. had been manufactured and distributed widely with a modulus of 141.5
instead of the Baumé scale modulus of 140. The scale was so firmly established that, by 1921, the
remedy implemented by the American Petroleum Institute was to create the API gravity scale,
recognizing the scale that was actually being used.[1]

API gravity formulas[edit]

The formula to calculate API gravity from Specific Gravity (SG) is:

Conversely, the specific gravity of petroleum liquids can be derived from their API gravity value

Thus, a heavy oil with a specific gravity of 1.0 (i.e., with the same density as pure water at
60 °F) has an API gravity of:

Using API gravity to calculate barrels of crude oil per

metric ton[edit]
In the oil industry, quantities of crude oil are often measured in metric tons. One can
calculate the approximate number of barrels per metric ton for a given crude oil based
on its API gravity:

For example, a metric ton of West Texas Intermediate (39.6° API) has a volume of
about 7.6 barrels.

Measurement of API gravity from its specific

To derive the API gravity, the specific gravity (i.e., density relative to water) is first
measured using either the hydrometer, detailed in ASTM D1298 or with
the oscillating U-tubemethod detailed in ASTM D4052.
Density adjustments at different temperatures, corrections for soda-lime glass
expansion and contraction and meniscus corrections for opaque oils are detailed in
the Petroleum Measurement Tables, details of usage specified in ASTM D1250.
The specific gravity is defined by the formula below.

With the formula presented in the previous section, the API gravity can be
readily calculated. When converting oil density to specific gravity using the
above definition, it is important to use the correct density of water, according to
the standard conditions used when the measurement was made. The official
density of water at 60 °F according to the 2008 edition of ASTM D1250 is
999.016 kg/m3.[2] The 1980 value is 999.012 kg/m3.[3] In some cases the
standard conditions may be 15 °C (59 °F) and not 60 °F (15.56 °C), in which
case a different value for the water density would be appropriate (see standard
conditions for temperature and pressure).

Direct Measurement of API gravity (Hydrometer

There are advantages to field testing and on-board conversion of measured
volumes to volume correction. This method is detailed in ASTM D287.

Classifications or grades[edit]
Generally speaking, oil with an API gravity between 40 and 45° commands the
highest prices. Above 45°, the molecular chains become shorter and less
valuable to refineries.[4]
Crude oil is classified as light, medium, or heavy according to its measured API

 Light crude oil has an API gravity higher than 31.1° (i.e., less than
870 kg/m3)
 Medium oil has an API gravity between 22.3 and 31.1° (i.e., 870 to
920 kg/m3)
 Heavy crude oil has an API gravity below 22.3° (i.e., 920 to 1000 kg/m3)
 Extra heavy oil has an API gravity below 10.0° (i.e., greater than
1000 kg/m3)
However, not all parties use the same grading.[5] The United States Geological
Survey uses slightly different ranges.[6]
Crude oil with API gravity less than 10° is referred to as extra heavy
oil or bitumen. Bitumen derived from oil sands deposits in Alberta, Canada, has
an API gravity of around 8°. It can be diluted with lighter hydrocarbons to
produce diluted bitumen, which has an API gravity of less than 22.3°, or further
"upgraded" to an API gravity of 31 to 33° as synthetic crude.[7]
Baumé scale
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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this
article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. (October 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template

The Baumé scale is a pair of hydrometer scales developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé in
1768 to measure density of various liquids. The unit of the Baumé scale has been notated variously
as degrees Baumé, B°, Bé° and simply Baumé (the accent is not always present). One scale
measures the density of liquids heavier than water and the other, liquids lighter than water. The
Baumé of distilled water is 0. The API gravity scale is based on errors in early implementations of
the Baumé scale.


 1Conversions
 2Definitions
 3Other scales
 4Use
 5See also
 6References
 7Further reading

The relationship between specific gravity (s.g.) (relative density) and degrees Baumé is function of
the temperature. Different versions of the scale may use different reference temperatures. Different
conversions formulae can therefore be found in various handbooks.
As an example, a recent handbook[1] states the conversions between specific gravity and degrees
Baumé at a temperature of 60 °F (16 °C):

 For liquids more dense than water, given the degrees Baumé, the specific gravity

 For liquids more dense than water, given the specific gravity, the degrees Baumé


 For liquids less dense than water:

An older handbook[2] gives the following formulae (no reference temperature being mentioned):
 For liquids more dense than water:

 For liquids less dense than water:

Baumé degrees (heavy) originally represented the percent by mass of sodium chloride
in water at 60 °F (16 °C). Baumé degrees (light) was calibrated with 0°Bé (light) being
the density of 10% NaCl in water by mass and 10°Bé (light) set to the density of water.

Other scales[edit]
Because of vague instructions or errors in translation a large margin of error was
introduced when the scale was adopted. The API gravity scale is a result of adapting to
the subsequent errors from the Baumé scale. The Baumé scale is related to the
Balling, Brix, Plato and 'specific gravity times 1000' scales.

Before standardisation on specific gravity around the time of World War II the Baumé
scale was generally used in industrial chemistry and pharmacology for the measurement
of density of liquids. Today the Baumé scale is still used in various industries such as
brewing, sugar beet processing, ophthalmics, starch industry, winemaking and printed
circuit board (PCB) fabrication. It is also used for caustic in refining process.


Changes in gasoline and diesel prices mirror changes in crude oil prices. Those
changes are determined in the global crude oil market by the worldwide demand for and
supply of crude oil.
 Per-barrel costs for crude oil – the No. 1 factor in the cost of producing gasoline and
diesel – have risen due to a tighter global oil supply/demand balance and lower
inventories compared to last year.
 With a strong economy, U.S. petroleum demand has run at its highest levels since 2007
and was up by more than 750 thousand barrels per day in April, compared with one year
 As they do every year around Memorial Day, the start of the summer driving season,
Americans are traveling more, which could raise demand further.
 Although gasoline prices have increased recently, they’re still lower than where they
were four years ago, largely because of increased domestic oil production.
What Affects Gas Prices
By Editorial Dept - Jul 24, 2009, 7:48 AM CDT

Gas prices have changed significantly over the past year as a number of factors have affected the
price of crude oil which directly impacts the price at the pump. Many Americans complain of
high gas prices, however it is important to understand that pricing differs all over the world and
in both Canada and Europe gas is significantly more expensive than in the United States.
Understanding what affects gas prices can sometimes be a complex matter as there are numerous
factors that go-into determining the final price of gasoline.

Crude Oil Production and Gas Prices

Supply and demand are very relevant factors when looking at the price of any finite resource and
this particularly applies to gas. OPEC is the organization in control of a majority of the world’s
oil and thus plays a pivotal role in regulating the supply – and in many ways, the price of oil.

The United States uses around twenty percent of the world’s oil making it a major consumer. As
demand for oil continues to increase, OPEC must regulate production to ensure that there is
adequate supply. If demand for oil suddenly spikes or drops, OPEC must adapt and change
production rates – it is these fluctuations in supply and demand that cause changing gasoline
prices. Increased demand from developing countries like China and India also drives the price of
oil up as the middle-class continues to grow. In these countries, a growing middle-class means
more people using cars as well as more consumers which in-turn drives demand for shipments of
more products causing increased gasoline consumption.

Geopolitics and Gas Prices

While supply and demand are key factors in gasoline prices, geopolitical events can cause fear
over potential access to oil oftentimes causing the price of oil to increase. When Hurricane
Katrina struck the Southern United States many oil refineries had to be shut-down, causing an
immediate spike in gas prices as supply had suddenly been disrupted – but demand continued to
grow. Military conflicts in the Middle East caused concern over potential supply disruption
early-on in the Iraq war which increased oil prices due to supply fears. Political instability in
places like Nigeria and Venezuela also affects gas prices as these countries also play a role in the
global oil supply.

Gas Price Differences Across the United States

Gas prices vary substantially from state-to-state and this has a lot to do with demand as well. In
less populated regions of the U.S. it is not surprising to find cheaper gas. This is true within cities
as well – try driving from South Central Los Angeles to Beverly Hills and you will find gas
prices increase the closer you get to this prime location.

California has reformulated gasoline that meets stricter guidelines than those required by clean-
gas laws. This provision makes gas in California burn cleaner but can also mean a higher price at
the pump due to the additional processing required.

The Midwest saw gas prices far above the national average as they required ethanol-blended gas
before the rest of the country. Since this special blend of gas was not as readily available it was
quite possible that demand could exceed supply and thus pricing was higher in the middle of the
country. While this became a national standard in 2007 it is factors like this that can produce
varying gas prices from state to state.


Lower and Higher Heating Values of

You can use this calculator to obtain the heating value of a given mass or volume of hydrogen or
other fuels, or to calculate the mass or volume given a certain heating value. Choose whether you
want to convert to heating value or to mass/volume, and then choose the fuel type. Then enter the
value you want to convert and its units, and click Convert to initiate the conversion.

1. The lower heating value (also known as net calorific value) of a fuel is defined as the
amount of heat released by combusting a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) and
returning the temperature of the combustion products to 150°C, which assumes the latent
heat of vaporization of water in the reaction products is not recovered.
The higher heating value (also known gross calorific value or gross energy) of a fuel is
defined as the amount of heat released by a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is
combusted and the products have returned to a temperature of 25°C, which takes into
account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products.

2. Btu = British thermal units; scf = standard cubic feet.

3. The heating values for gaseous fuels in units of Btu/lb are calculated based on the heating values
in units of Btu/scf and the corresponding fuel density values. The heating values for liquid fuels
in units of Btu/lb are calculated based on heating values in unit of Btu/gal and the corresponding
fuels density values.
4. The heating values in units of MJ/kg, are converted from the heating values in units of Btu/lb.
5. For solid fuels, the heating values in units of Btu/lb are converted from the heating values in
units of Btu/ton.
6. Coal characteristics assumed by GREET for electric power production.
7. Coal characteristics assumed by GREET for hydrogen and Fischer-Tropsch diesel production.
8. The HHV figure for liquid hydrogen in Btu/gal is based on personal communication with Ye Wu
of Argonne National Laboratory.
9. https://h2tools.org/hyarc/calculator-tools/lower-and-higher-heating-values-

- the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!

Heat Value
The gross (high) and net (low) heating values
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The heat value is

 the amount of heat produced by combustion a unit quantity of a fuel

We differentiate between gross and net heating values:

Gross (or high, upper) Heating Value

The gross or high heating value is the amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a
unit quantity of fuel.

The gross heating value is obtained when

 all products of the combustion are cooled down to the temperature before the combustion
 the water vapor formed during combustion is condensed
In thermodynamics, the term standard heat of combustion corresponds to Gross heating value.
See Heat of combustion for examples of calculation of gross heating values from standard heat
of formation of substances.

Net (or lower) Heating Value

The net or lower heating value is obtained by

 subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the combustion
from the gross or higher heating value.
Common Units
Common units for heating value:

 1 Btu/lb = 2326.1 J/kg = 0.55556 kcal/kg

 1 J/kg = 0.00043 Btu/lb = 2.39x10-4 kcal/kg
 1 kcal/kg = 1.80 Btu/lb = 4187 J/kg
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There are basically two kinds of hydrometers on the market: floater and swing-needle. They are
very helpful, useful and inexpensive.

Specific gravity should be in the range of 1.021 to 1.024. It should be maintained within this


This is the most common in the earlier days of saltwater aquarium. It looks like a large floating

It has a scale inside a long-necked tube. The level at which the tube floats depends on how much
salt is in the water.

The scale is read where the water’ s surface meets the equipment.

The only difficult part is the water movement, making it hard to read the results accurately.

Dr. marine Glass saltwater Hydrometer Thermometer reef Soft Coral

SU - Misc.

MECO(TM) Aquarium Glass Hydrometer Fish Tank Water Temperature Thermometer Salt Marine
MECO Co.,LTD - Misc.

Saltwater Hydrometer Glass - Reef Soft Coral Salinity Marine Fish Shrimp Tank

Antism - Misc.


This kind is actually easier to read than the other one. This is a small plastic box with a needle in
it that pivots when the box is filled with aquarium water.

The needle will point to a scale, which will then tell you the specific gravity.

Swing-needles usually need to be calibrated to get accurate reading. So make sure that you
follow the manufacturer’ s specific instructions on how to use this equipment.

The needle can also sometimes stick. Tapping it will do the work.

This kind is also known as pointer or floating-needle.

Coralife Energy Savers ACLAF877 Deep Six Hydrometer

Coralife - Misc.

Sea Hydrometer Salinity Meter Specific Gravity Test for Aquarium Fish Tank Water Marine Sea

pranovo - Misc.

Instant Ocean SeaTest Hydrometer

Instant Ocean - Misc.

ISTA Saltwater Hydrometer - aquarium fish tank reef Soft Coral Marine Supplies

I808 ISTA 比重計 - Misc.

Another way to measure salt water or the salinity of seawater is with a refractometer.

Salinity Refractometer for Seawater and Marine Fishkeeping Aquarium 0-100 Ppt
with Automatic Temperature Compensation
 Measure salt water or salinity of water, ideal for aquariums and marine monitoring.
 Measures on 2 scales, Specific Gravity (D 20/20) and parts per thousand.
 Features automatic temperature compensation.
 Comes with hard case, dropper, screwdriver, user manual and cleaning cloth.
 The main part is made of chromium, it's very durable.


Hydrometer Types
The term hydrometeors encompasses water and ice particles suspended, or falling,
in the air as well as those formed at the surface, such as dew. A precipitation
particle is a type of hydrometeor. Different precipitation types are listed in the
accompanying table.

Hydrometeor Description

Drizzle Liquid water drops less than 0.5 millimeters (0.02 inches) in

Rain Drops with diameters greater than 0.5 millimeters (0.02 inches).
Also widely scatter drops of smaller size.

Freezing Drizzle Drizzle that freezes on contact with the ground

Freezing Rain Rain that freezes on contact with the ground.

Snow Precipitation in the form of ice crystals. They can be of various
sizes. Snowflakes are aggregates of ice crystals, often of the
dendritic form, and can reaches several inches in size.

Snow pellet White, opaque grains of ice with diameters between about 2-5
or graupel millimeters (0.1 to .2 inches). Can be spherical or conical. Snow
pellets are brittle.

Snow grain Small, white opaque grains of ice. Sizes are generally less than 1
millimeter (.0.4 inches). The ice equivalent of drizzle, they are
fairly flat or elongated..

Ice pellet Transparent or translucent pellets of ice that are spherical or

irregular in shape, but rarely conical. Diameters are less than 5
millimeters (0.2 inches). Ice pellets bounce when the hit ground.
Sleet is composed of ice pellets.

Hail Precipitation in the form of pieces of ice with diameters greater

than 5 millimeters (0.2 inches). Hailstones are either
transparent, or have concentric layers of transparent and opaque
ice. Observed during intense thunderstorms.


David Matzinger
Answered Sep 19 2016 · Author has 62 answers and 29.1k answer views
Probably the two best known uses for a hydrometer are measuring the charge of a lead acid
battery and the progress of fermentation in wine chemistry. In lead acid batteries, sulfuric
acid in the electrolyte (the current-carrying solution in the battery) is removed from
solution to form insoluble lead sulfate on the electrodes as the battery discharges. As the
electrolyte is depleted of this solute its specific gravity (the property measured by the
hydrometer) decreases. In wine-making (and other processes involving fermentation), as
sugars are converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the specific gravity of the liquid
decreases. The progress toward completion of fermentation is thus monitored by
measurement with a hydrometer.