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Pre-stressed concrete

Basis of pre-stressed concrete

By: Mr. THAI RITTYVIRAK 2018


1./ Basic principles:
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Conception of pre-stress
1.3 Loss of force in tendon
1.4 degree of pre-stressing
2./ Properties of materials:
2.1 Strength of concrete
2.2 Module elasticity of concrete
2.3 Creep of concrete
2.4 Shrinkage of concrete
2.5 Steel relaxation
2.6 Corrosion of steel
3./ Limit state design
3.1 Service limit state(SLS)
3.2 Ultimate limit state(ULS)
1./ Basic principles:
1.1 Introduction
The idea of pre-stressing or pre-loading is not new, But this method is
most developed by Dr. Eugene Freyssinet (1928).

Barrel staves compressed with steel hoops Dr. Eugene Freyssinet.


1.1 Introduction
In practice, there are a lot of system of pre-stressed concrete.
1.1 Introduction
We can apply this system to a lot of structures.
1.2 Conception of pre-stress
In pre-stressed concrete, we try to evite the tension in surface of the
concrete.

Stress in mid span


1.2 Conception of pre-stress
In pre-stressed concrete, we try to evite the tension in surface of the
concrete.

Stress in mid span


Material in use :
For one tendon will content at least
- One live end or dead end
- Duct
- Strand
1.3 Loss of force in tendon
There are 2 terms of loss in tendon :
+ Short term loss
- Friction loss
- Wedge draw in loss
- Elastic shortening of concrete

+ Long term loss


- Creep
- Shrinkage
- Relaxation of tendon
Friction loss

Installation of tendon in reality will make two type of friction


Tendon will touch the horizontal and vertical size of the duct.

Installation of tendon in reality will make two type of friction


Tendon will touch the horizontal and vertical size of the duct.

ΔP(x)=Po,max (1-e-μ(α+k.x) )

σp0 =σp0,max .e-μ(α+k.x)


Friction loss

σp0,max : Stress at point of stressing( Live Anchorage)


σp0, (x) : Stress at some point a long the strands.
Le coefficient of wobble K : (0.005<K<0.01)
Wedge draw in loss

δs E p A p
x=
P
Loss by elastic shortening

Normally, there are several tendons in a slab PT.


Elastic shortening of concrete slab occurred while the
tendons are stressing one by one. In contrast, this phenomenal will
not happen in case all the tendon are stressing in one time
Long term loss by creep, shrinkage and relaxation of strands

Just like RC slab, PT slab concrete is effected by the environment.


And for this term of loss, we can assume it environs 20%.

p,csr 

pr  cs .E p   e .. cgo  cpi 
A p,tot  e2 
1 . e .  1  2  . 1  . 
Ac  i 

Long term loss by creep, shrinkage and relaxation of strands

Just like RC slab, PT slab concrete is effected by the environment.


And for this term of loss, we can assume it environs 20%.
SLS: Allowable stress
SLS: Deflection
ULS: Bending moment
Comportment of concrete and pre-stress steel for calculate in ULS.

Concrete Pre-stressed streel


ULS: Bending moment
For the design of cross sections, either a parabola-rectangle
combination or bilinear stress-strain relationship can be used. The
maximum stress permitted is fcd, where
f ck The maximum stress permitted
f cd =α cc
γc
αcc =1.0 Coefficient of long term effect of compressive strength (0.8~1.0)

γ𝑐 =1.5
Safety factor of materials (Concrete )
ULS: Bending moment
For the design of cross sections, either a parabola-rectangle
combination or bilinear stress-strain relationship can be used. But we
must careful with the stress- strain relationship
ULS: Bending moment parabola-rectangle
ULS: Bending moment Bi- linear stress-strain
ULS: Bending moment Pre-stress steel

The value of Can be found by the formula:

Bonded system

Un-bonded system
ULS: Bending moment Method to calculate Bending moment

The philosophy in PT slab is not much different to RC structure:


- Resistance moment > Moment solicitation with coefficient of safety

And we can follow three difference methods:


-Pre-stress force consider to action
-Pre-stress force consider to resistance
-Partly of Pre-stress force is action and another part is resistance( Recommended
for Manuel)
Method 1 ( PT consider to action)
Method 1 ( PT consider to action)

Hypothesis:
- Zone of compression consider in Parabola-rectangular.
- Pre-stress
- Passive steel (Steel supplementary)
- Stress block R (0.8.x)
- We suppose
Equation equilibrium:
Method 1 ( PT consider to action)

Equation verify strain:


Method 1 ( PT consider to action)

 It is easy to design by software, but by hand calculation we need


to check steps by steps:
-First we check with number of tendons we just supposed.
If not we will calculate quantity of supplementary steel.

-Or we check with quantity of pre-stress and passive steel.


If not we will calculate quantity of supplementary steel.
Method 1 ( PT consider to action)

In summary:
1 problem: (Check with As=0)
2 problem: (Check with As>0)
3 problem: (Find As?)
Method 1 ( PT consider to action)
1 problem: (Check with As=0)
We take d=dp

Bonded
Un-bonded
Method 1 ( PT consider to action)
2 problem: (Check with As>0)
We take d=dp

Bonded
Un-bonded
Method 1 ( PT consider to action)
3 problem: (Find As??)
We take d=ds
Method 1 ( PT consider to action)
All the 3 problems, after calculation we must verify the strain in
passive and pre-stress steel:
Punching shear:
Why are there any punching shear ????
Punching shear:
Sometimes the thickness of slab is enough for punching
shear, but sometimes it requires additional steel in the columns areas
to resist that phenomenal.

And the concept in calculation is quite simple that:

<
Punching shear:
There are several column under a slab. So does they work in
the same reaction? No
So this also lead to difference of punching shear.

Coefficient of majoration Coefficient of continuity


Punching shear:
In flat slab, there are two points is very critical to punching shear.
1. Near face of column
2. At 2d from the face of column.
Punching shear:
In flat slab, there are two points is very critical to punching shear.
1. Near face of column
2. At 2d from the face of column.
Punching shear:
For column in the picture At face of column

d : effective depth of slab

At 2d from face of column


Punching shear:

p : force of pre-stress in 1m of section


h: Slab thickness
Calculation of vertical steel
Punching shear:
1.2 Conception of pre-stress
1.3 Loss of force in tendon
1.4 degree of pre-stressing
2./ Properties of materials:
2.1 Strength of concrete
2.2 Module elasticity of concrete
2.3 Creep of concrete
2.4 Shrinkage of concrete
2.5 Steel relaxation
2.6 Corrosion of steel
3./ Limit state design
3.1 Service limit state(SLS)
3.2 Ultimate limit state(ULS)