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Grammar Guide

Inglés 2
Índice

Índice ........................................................................................................................................... 2
Present continuous...................................................................................................................... 3
Contractions ................................................................................................................................ 4
Future 1 – going to ...................................................................................................................... 7
Future 2 – will .............................................................................................................................. 8
The past simple............................................................................................................................ 9
Regular and irregular verbs ....................................................................................................... 11
Use of can .................................................................................................................................. 15
Much or many ........................................................................................................................... 19
Some and any ............................................................................................................................ 21
Modal verbs of obligation ......................................................................................................... 24
Adverbs of manner .................................................................................................................... 26
Key/Respuestas ......................................................................................................................... 29
Referencias bibliográficas .......................................................................................................... 33

Para mayor ayuda, puedes usar el diccionario Cambridge online:


http://dictionary.cambridge.org

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Present continuous
The Present Continuous is used in several ways to refer to: actions happening at the moment
of speaking, in the future, temporary actions, and trends. However, and for the purposes of
this course, we will concentrate on “actions happening at the moment of speaking”. / El
presente continuo se utiliza de distintas formas para referirse a: acciones que están
sucediendo en el momento, para el futuro, acciones temporales, y tendencias. No obstante, y
para los propósitos de este nivel, nos concentramos en el uso más común, es decir, “acciones
que están sucediendo en el momento”.

El tiempo Presente Continuo (también llamado Progresivo) se forma con el presente del
verbo SER (TO BE, ¿recuerdas?) más el gerundio...ANDO /...ENDO (...-ing en inglés), del verbo
que se desea conjugar. Este tiempo verbal indica una acción en desarrollo (que está
ocurriendo ahora, en el mismo momento en que se la nombra). Por ello, a menudo las
oraciones en Presente Continuo llevan justamente el adverbio “now”, “currently” o “at the
moment”.

La estructura de abajo te ayudará a comprenderlo mejor.

Subject + am/is/are + verb + -ing

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


I am studying I am not studying Am I studying?
You are studying You are not Are you studying?
studying
He is studying He is not studying Is he studying?
She is studying She is not studying Is she studying?
It is studying It is not studying Is it studying?
We are studying We are not Are we studying?
studying
You are studying You are not Are you studying?
studying
They are studying They are not Are they studying?
studying

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Contractions
We often use short forms in affirmative sentence in the Present Progressive / Usualmente
usamos la versión corta en las oraciones afirmativas del presente progresivo.

I’m, He’s, She’s, We’re, You’re, They’re


Affirmative subject + am/is/are + verbo + -ing
I am studying in New York - Yo estoy estudiando en New York.
I'm studying in New York - Yo estoy estudiando en New York.
He is studying in New York - El está estudiando en New York.
He's studying in New York - El está estudiando en New York.
We are studying in New York - Nosotros estamos estudiando en New York.
We're studying in New York - Nosotros estamos estudiando en New York.
Negative subject + am/is/are + not + verbo + -ing
I am not studying in New York - Yo no estoy estudiando en New York.
I'm not studying in New York - Yo no estoy estudiando en New York.
He is not studying in New York - El no está estudiando en New York
He's not studying in New York -El no está estudiando en New York.
We are not studying in New York - Nosotros no estamos estudiando en New York.
We're not studying in New York - Nosotros no estamos estudiando en New York.
Interrogative Am/Is/Are + subject + verbo + -ing?
Am I studying in New York? - ¿Estoy estudiando en New York?
Is he studying in New York? - ¿Está él estudiando en New York?
Are we studying in New York? - ¿Estamos nosotros estudiando en New York?

Spelling rules / Reglas para escribir los verbos


● A single, silent -e at the end of the word is dropped before –ing / Se reemplaza la –e final
por –ing.
Example: come - coming
I am coming home. You are coming home. He is coming home.

● But: -ee at the end of the word is not changed / Pero “-ee” al final de una palabra no se
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cambia.
Example: agree – agreeing

● The final consonant after a short, stressed vowel is doubled before -ing / La consonante
final después de una vocal corta acentuada es repetida antes de –ing.
Example: sit – sitting

● I am sitting on the sofa. You are sitting on the sofa. He is sitting on the sofa.
● The letter “L” as final consonant after a vowel is always doubled before ing / La letra “L
“como consonante final después de una vocal siempre es repetida antes de –ing.
Example: travel – travelling

● I am travelling around. / You are travelling around. / He is travelling around.


NOTE: This applies only for British English; in American English there is usually only one L /
Esto se aplica solo para inglés británico; en inglés Americano normalmente se usa una sola
“L”.

● An -ie at the end of a word becomes -y before ing / Un “-ie” al final de una palabra se
reemplazar por -y antes de –ing.
Example: lie – lying

● I am lying in bed. / You are lying in bed. / He is lying in bed.

Exercises
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the present continuous / Complete el espacio con la
forma correcta del presente continuo.

1. Alexander _____________ a film. (watch)


2. We ___________________ a computer game. ( play)
3. The man_______________ on the grass in the park (sit)
4. The dog________________ at the cat. (bark)
5. Look! Steve's mother________________ a cup of coffee. (make)
6. The teacher______________________ the door. (not close)
7. You______________________ the exercise correctly. (not answer)
8. We_______________________ a good time. (not have)

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9. She_______________________ the piano very well. (not play)

Write the correct question / Escriba la pregunta de manera correcta.

10. They/try/to help/?


______________________________________________________________________

11. The policeman/ run into/ the bank/?


______________________________________________________________________

12. you/ do/ the washing-up/?


______________________________________________________________________

13. your grandmother/ look/ at the birds/?


_____________________________________________________________________

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Future 1 – going to
To talk about future plans we use going to / Para hablar sobre planes a futuro utilizamos
going to.

[am/is/are + going to + verb]


Recuerde que am/is/are se conjuga según el pronombre (I/he/she/you/we/they/it).

Examples:

• I am going to meet Jane tonight / I’m going to meet Jane tonight (meet)

• She is not going to meet Jane tonight / She’s not going to meet Jane tonight (not/meet)

• Are you going to meet Jane tonight? (you/meet?)

Exercises. Complete the sentences using going to and the verbs given. Complete las
oraciones usando going to y los verbos dados.

1. She _____________ at home this evening. (stay)


2. They ___________________ the new Tarantino movie tonight. (watch)
3. Amanda _______________ this long weekend. (study)
4. I ________________ lunch with my brother. (have)
5. Billy ________________ a trip to India next month. (not/make)
6. The teacher ______________________ a test tomorrow. (not/do)
7. I ______________________ too much at the party. (not/eat)
8. I _________________ football after class. (not/play)
9. _______________________ the movie on Saturday? (you/see)
10. _______________________ to the conference with you? (he/go)

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Future 2 – will
To talk about future actions we use will / Para hablar sobre acciones a futuro utilizamos will.

[Will + verb]

Examples:

• I will see you later / I’ll see you later. (See)

• She will not see you later / She won’t see you later. (Not/see)

• Will I see you later? (I/see)

Exercises. Complete the sentences using will and the verbs given. Complete las oraciones
usando will y los verbos dados.

1. I __________________ John the good news. (tell)


2. She __________________ there at around 9 pm. (be)
3. He _______________ you at the airport at 10am. (meet)
4. They ________________ this photograph. (love)
5. Ben ________________ the report on time. (not/finish)
6. The game ______________________ at 5.30 pm. (not/start)
7. We ______________________ to work. (not/walk)
8. _________________ you at the meeting? (we/see)
9. ____________________ there? (she/be)
10. Where __________________ you? (David/meet)

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The past simple
We use the past simple to talk about finished actions from the past. / El pasado simple se
utiliza para referirse a acciones en el pasado que han sido finalizadas.

Examples:

● I was in New York in 2005


● Emma passed her exam last year.
● We went to the theatre on Friday.
● Elvis Presley died in 1977.
● I knew what the problem was.
A: When did you buy this car?
B: About three years ago.

The simple past tense of the verb to be / El pasado simple del verbo “to be”.

• Its form.

• And its use.

The affirmative form. / Forma afirmativa

I, he, she, it was.


You, we, they were.

Examples:

• I was in London in 1999.

• Pam was in London in 1999, too.

• We were together.

• She was my girlfriend.

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The interrogative form. / Forma interrogativa:

Was I, he, she, it?


Were you, we, they?

Examples:

● Were you in London last year?


• Was Pam with you?

• Were you together?

The negative form. / Forma negativa:

I, you, he, she was not/wasn't


You, we, they were not/weren't.

Examples:

• I wasn't in Paris in 1999.

• Pam wasn't in Paris in 1999.

• We weren't in Paris.

Remember/ Importante:

1. Wasn’t is the short form of was not. You can say either: /Wasn’t es la forma abreviada de
was not.

• I was not in Paris, or

• I wasn't in Paris.

2. Weren’t is the short form of were not. You can say either:

• We were not in Paris, or

• We weren't in Paris.

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Regular and irregular verbs
Positive forms / Forma positiva

A regular past form ends in “ed”/ Las formas regulares terminan en “ed”

• It happened very quickly.

• The van crashed into the cat.

• I posted the letter yesterday.

• We once owned a caravan.

Some verbs have an irregular past form / Algunos verbos tienen una forma irregular.

• The car came out of a side road.

• Vicky rang earlier.

• I won the game.

• I had breakfast at six.

• The train left on time.

• We took some photos.

The past simple works the same in all persons except in the past tense of be as mentioned
above / La forma del pasado simple es igual para todas las personas excepto con pasado del
verbo “to be ” como se mencionó anteriormente.

Negatives and questions / Negaciones e interrogaciones

We use “did” in negatives and questions. / Utilizamos “did” en las negaciones y las preguntas
exceptuando las que son con el verbo “to be”.

Negative

• I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not stop


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• did I/you/he/she/it/we/they stop?

• OR didn't stop

• The car did not stop.

• The driver didn't look to his right.

Question

A: What did you tell the police?


B: Nothing.
A: Did you ring home?
B: Yes, I did.

We do not use a past form such as “stopped” or “rang” in negatives and questions. / No se
utiliza la forma en pasado de verbos tales como “stopped” o “rang”.

The car didn't stopped. The car didn’t stop.


Did you rang? Did you ring?

We also use “was” and “were” in negatives and questions with the verb to be / También se
utiliza “was y “were” en las negaciones e interrogaciones con el verbo to be.

Negative Question
I/he/she/it was not OR wasn't was I/he/she/it?
you/we/they were not OR weren't were you/we/they?

Examples:

● I wasn't very well last week.


• The gates weren't open.

• Where was your friend last night?

 Was your steak nice?

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Exercises
Put the verb "to be" into the simple past / Agrega el verbo “to be” en pasado simple.

1. I _________________ in Canada last summer holiday.

2. My sister ______________ with me.

3. We ______________ in Montreal.

4. She _______________ very happy.

5. I _______________ happy, too.

Put the verb "to be" into the present simple or the past simple / Agregar el verbo “to be” en
presente simple o pasado simple.

1. I______________ an engineer.
2. Last year I _____________ a student in Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
3. I ______________ in love with a beautiful girl at that time. We ____________ friends.
4. Now, I live in New York and I ______________ married to her.

Positive forms / Forma afirmativa


Complete the newspaper story about a fire. Put in the past simple forms of the verbs /
Completa la noticia acerca del incendio. Agregue la forma del pasado simple del verbo.

Two people (1) _________________ (die) in a fire in Ellis Street, Oldport yesterday morning.
They (2) _________________ (be) Herbert and Molly Paynter, a couple in their seventies. The
fire (3) __________________ (start) at 3.20 am. A neighbour, Mr. Aziz, (4)
____________________ (see) the flames and (5) ___________________ (call) the fire
brigade. He also (6) __________________ (try) to get into the house and rescue his
neighbours, but the heat (7) ___________________ (be) too great. The fire brigade (8)
_________________ (arrive) in five minutes. Twenty firefighters (9) _________________
(fight) the fire and finally (10) ________________ (bring) it under control. Two
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firefighters (11) _________________ (enter) the burning building but (12)
___________________ (find) the couple dead.

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Use of can
We use can to express ability, requests, permission and possibility /El verbo modal can
puede ser usado para expresar habilidad, peticiones, permiso, y posibilidad:

Ability / Habilidades o capacidades Inability / Incapacidades


Example: Example:
● Roxanna can ride a bike. ● He can’t ride a horse.
● He can speak Japanese. ● I can’t type very fast.
● I can play table tennis. ● We can’t lift 100 kilos.
● We can cook. ● Jan can’t run fast.
● They can eat with chopsticks. ● Alicia can’t drive a car.
● Paul and Ingrid can ski.

Important: another way of writing the negative form of can is ‘cannot’. Nota: Otra
manera de escribirlo es cannot.

POSITIVE STATEMENT NEGATIVE STATEMENT


I can speak English I can't speak English

He can run very fast You can't run very fast


He can sit in the garden He can't sit in the garden
She can come with us She can't come with us
It can jump to the other side It can't jump to the other side
We can make delicious cakes We can't make delicious cakes
You can pass the exam You can't pass the exam
They can draw Pictures They can't draw pictures

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Also can is used for / Can también puede ser usado para:

Requests / Solicitudes.
Example:
● Can you help me?
● Can you tell me the way to the museum?
● Can you come here a minute please?

Permissions / Permisos.
Example:
● Can I use your cell phone?
● Can I take a day off?
● Can I smoke here? Can I go out?

Typical responses / Respuesta típica.


Certainly. Yes, certainly. Of course. Of course you can. Sure (informal) … etc.

Possibility / Posibilidad.
Example:
● The florist can deliver the bouquet early.
● My friend can visit me this week.

Note: can is not normally used to describe future possibility in the positive form.
INCORRECT: It can rain tomorrow. /Can generalmente no se ocupa para hablar de una
posibilidad futura. INCORRECTO: It can rain tomorrow.

Inappropriateness / Can puede ser usado cuando se considera que una acción es
inapropiada.
Example:
● You can’t wear that dress! It is indecent.
● You can’t smoke in this building. It is illegal.
● You can’t ask for information here. This is not information desk.

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For questions, this is the word order / Este es el orden para formular preguntas

Questions without question words Short Answer


Can you Speak English? Yes, I can.

Can you climb a tree? No, I can't.


cannot.
Can he play rugby? Yes, he can.
Can Mandy read poems? Yes, she can.

Can they sing nice songs? No, they can't.


cannot.

Questions with question words Answer


What can we ride? We can ride skateboards.
Where can Frank play the trumpet? Frank can play the trumpet in his room.
When can she see her friends? She can see her friends after school.

Exercises

Choose can or can’t according to the situation / Escoja can o can’t de acuerdo a la
situación.

1. I know the answer; I ______________________ answer the question now.


2. She is good at playing the piano; she __________________ play the piano very well.
3. This test is very difficult; I ____________________ answer any questions.
4. Maria can speak English but she __________________ speak French.
5. You _______________________ sleep today because you are very nervous.

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Form questions with the given words and phrases / Formule preguntas con las palabras o
frases que aparecen en el ejercicio.

1. this text/ you/ can't/ read/?


_____________________________________________________________________
2. have/ I/ the milk,/ can/ please/?
____________________________________________________________________
3. in the garden/ help/Nico/can't/?
____________________________________________________________________
4. the birds/ they/ can/ hear/?
____________________________________________________________________
5. he/ understand/ Spanish/ can't/?
____________________________________________________________________
6. this car/ do/ 250 km/h/ can/?
_____________________________________________________________________
7. can/ the girls/dance/?
_____________________________________________________________________
8. parrots/ can/ fly/?
_____________________________________________________________________
9. this form/ fill in/ you/ can’t/?
_____________________________________________________________________
9. the boys/ can/ fast/run/?
_____________________________________________________________________

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Much or many
When do we use much and when do we use many? / ¿Cuándo utilizamos much o many?

We use much with uncountable nouns in singular and many with countable nouns in
plural / Usamos much con sustantivos incontables en singular y many con sustantivos
contables en plural.

We often use much/many in questions and negations / Generalmente utilizamos


much/many en preguntas y negociaciones.

We normally use a lot of/lots of in affirmative sentences / Normalmente utilizamos a lot


of/lots of en oraciones afirmativas.

Examples:
● much milk
● much money
● much time
● much water
● many glasses of milk
● many dollars
● many hours
● many bottles of water

Examples:
● How much money do you have? - I don't have much left.
● How many dollars do you have? - I don't have many left.

In informal English these questions are often answered with a lot of/lots of. There is not
much difference between the two phrases / En Inglés informal estas preguntas con
frecuencia son contestadas con a lot of/lots of, ya que no hay gran diferencia entre estas
dos frases.

Note: We use much or many after as, so and too. It is wrong to use a lot of/lots with
these words. (We have so a lot of homework to do.) / Nota: utilizamos much o many
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después de as, so y too. Sería incorrecto utilizar a lot of/lots of con estas palabras.

Examples:
● We have so much homework to do.
● We have too much homework to do.

Exercises
Put how much or how many to complete the questions. Beware of countable and
uncountable nouns. Escriba how much o how many para completar las preguntas. Fíjese
en los sustantivos contables e incontables.

1. How __________________ stars are there in the sky?


2. How ___________________ people live on islands?
3. How ___________________ birds are there?
4. How ___________________ water is in the ocean?
5. How ___________________ money is in a bank?
6. How ___________________ countries are there in the world?
7. How ___________________ bread is eaten per day?
8. How ___________________ bones are there in the human body?
9. How ___________________ sand is in the deserts?
10. How ___________________ information is on the Internet?

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Some and any
The words some and any are used for countable and uncountable nouns. In general, we
could say that some means a few / a little and any means none in negative sentences or
a few/a little in questions / Las palabras some y any son utilizadas para sustantivos
contables e incontables. En general podríamos afirmar que some significa algunos o un
poco (a few /a little) en oraciones afirmativas, y any significa “nada” en negaciones “y un
poco” o “unos pocos” (contable o incontable) en preguntas.

Positive Sentences / Oraciones afirmativas


In positive sentences, we usually use some / En oraciones afirmativas generalmente
utilizamos some. Example:
● I have bought some bread.
● I have bought some apples.

Negative Sentences/Oraciones negativas


In negative sentences, we use any and it must be used with not / En oraciones negativas
utilizamos any y debe usarse con not.
Example:
● I have not bought any bread.
● I have not eaten any apples.

Questions/ Preguntas
In questions, we usually use any/ Para las interrogaciones usualmente utilizamos any
Example:
● Have you bought any bread?
● Have you eaten any apples?

Compound Words with some and any/ Palabras compuestas con some y any.
Some and any can also be part of compound words such as / Some y any también
pueden ser parte de una palabra compuesta, tales como:

● something / anything
● someone / anyone
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● somewhere / anywhere

Note: that some and any have to be used with a noun while compound words with some
and any can stand on their own / Cabe destacar que some and any tienen que ser
utilizados con un sustantivo mientras que las palabras compuestas con some y any
funcionar de forma independiente.

Example:
● I have bought some bread.
● I have bought something.

However, some and any do not need stand directly before the noun. Sometimes, the
noun appears somewhere before some or any and is not repeated. So if you are not sure
whether to use some or something for example, check if there is a noun in the sentence
that you can place after some / Sin embargo, some y any no necesariamente deben
situarse directamente en frente del sustantivo. En algunas ocasiones el sustantivo se
sitúa en algún lugar antes de some o any y no se repite. Por lo tanto, si no está seguro de
usar some o something, por ejemplo, revise si existe algún sustantivo que pueda situarse
después de some.

Example:
● I do not have to buy bread. Rachel has already bought some [bread].

Exceptions / Excepciones
Positive sentences with any / Oraciones afirmativas con any.

We usually use some in positive clauses. But after never, without, hardly, we use any /
Usualmente utilizamos some en oraciones positivas. Pero después de never, without,
hardly, utilizamos any.

Example:
● We never go anywhere.
● She did her homework without any help.
● There’s hardly anyone here.

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Exercises
Fill in the correct word (some or any). Agregue la palabra correcta (some o any)

1. Sue went to the cinema with _________________ of her friends!


2. Jane doesn't have _________________ friends.
3. Have you got ____________________ brothers or sisters?
4. Here is _______________________ food for the cat.
5. I think you should put ____________________ flowers on the table.
6. Could you check if there are ___________________ calls on the answering
machine?
7. I don't want _________________________ presents for my birthday.
8. Did they have ______________________ news for you?
9. I'm hungry - I'll have _____________________ sandwiches.
10. There aren't ________________________ apples left.

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Modal verbs of obligation
Have to, should, must.

We can use / Podemos utilizar:


Have to + infinitive
Must + infinitive
Should + infinitive
To express obligation (something you have to do).

Present Positive Negative

have to / Strong obligation (possibly No obligation. Sin obligación.


don't have to from outside) / Obligación
estricta (posiblemente I don't have to work on Sundays.
externa).
You don't have to eat anything
Children have to go to you don't like.
school.
(sometimes 'have got to')

must / mustn't Strong obligation (possibly based Negative obligation


on the speaker's opinion) / Obligación negativa
Obligación estricta (posiblemente
basada en la opinión del emisor).
You mustn't smoke here.
I must study today.

should / mild obligation or advice mild negative obligation or


shouldn't sugerencia, consejo u advice
obligación leve. negación sugerencia, consejo u
obligación leve.
You should save some money.
You shouldn't smoke so much.

Be careful about the difference between mustn't and don't have to!
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¡Atención con el significado de mustn’t (no debes) y don’t have to (no necesitas)!
Mustn't means it's not allowed, or it's a bad idea / Mustn’t significa que no está
permitido o que es una mala idea.
Example: You mustn't eat so much chocolate, you'll be sick.

Don't have to means you don't need to do something, but it's fine if you want to do it /
Don't have to significa que no necesitas hacer algo pero está bien si deseas hacerlo.
Example: I don't have to get up early at the weekend (of course, if I want to get up early,
that's fine, but I can stay in bed if I want).

Exercises
Put in -mustn't- 'don't have to - doesn't have to- should-shouldn’t/ Complete las
oraciones con -mustn't- 'don't have to - doesn't have to- should-shouldn’t.

1. We have a lot of work tomorrow. You ________________ be late.


2. You______________________ tell anyone what I just told you. It's a secret.
3. The museum is free. You _________________ to pay to get in.
4. Children _________________ tell lies. It's very naughty.
5. John's a millionaire. He ______________________ go to work.
6. I __________________ do my washing because my mother does it for me.
7. We ___________________ rush. We've got plenty of time.
8. You ____________________ smoke inside the school.
9. You ______________________ help in the house.
10. We ___________________ miss the train, because it's the last one tonight.
11. My mum thinks I __________________ spend so much money on clothes.
12. "Twilight" is a really great book. You ________________ read it soon.
13. The teacher said to me, "You ________________ get up earlier because you are
late again!"
14. You ___________________ do your English homework!
15. You __________________ drive a car. You are only thirteen!

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Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placed after the
main verb or after the object / Los adverbios de modo nos dicen como algo sucede.
Usualmente se colocan después del verbo principal o después del objeto.

Examples:
● He swims well, (after the main verb)
● He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly.
● She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively.
● James coughed loudly to attract her attention.
● He plays the flute beautifully. (after the object)
● He ate the chocolate cake greedily.

Be careful! / ¡Atención!
The adverb should not be put between the verb and the object / El adverbio no debe ser
colocado entre el verbo y el objeto:
Examples:
● He ate greedily the chocolate cake [incorrect]
● He ate the chocolate cake greedily [correct]

Rule / Regla
If there is a preposition before the object, e.g. at, towards, we can place the adverb
either before the preposition or after the object / Si hay una preposición antes del objeto
ej. at, towards, podemos colocar el adverbio antes de la preposición o después del
objeto.

Examples:
● The child ran happily towards his mother.
● The child ran towards his mother happily.

Rule / Regla
Sometimes an adverb of manner is placed before a verb + object to add emphasis / A
veces un adverbio de modo es colocado antes de un verbo + el objeto para agregar
énfasis:
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Examples:
He gently woke the sleeping woman.

Note: some writers put an adverb of manner at the beginning of the sentence to catch
our attention and make us curious / Algunos autores colocan los adverbios de modo al
principio de la oración para llamar la atención o causar curiosidad.

Slowly she picked up the knife.

Rule / Regla
However, adverbs should always come AFTER intransitive verbs (=verbs which have no
object) /Sin embargo, los adverbios deberían ir siempre después de los verbos
intransitivos (los que no tienen objeto).
Examples:
● The town grew quickly.
● He waited patiently.

Also, these common adverbs are almost always placed AFTER the verb / También estos
adverbios casi siempre están situados DESPUÉS del verbo.
● well
● badly
● hard
● fast

Rule / Regla
The position of the adverb is important when there is more than one verb in a sentence.
If the adverb is placed after a clause, then it modifies the whole action described by the
clause.
La posición del adverbio es importante cuando hay más de un verbo en la oración. Si el
adverbio es colocado después de la cláusula, éste modifica toda la acción descrita por la
cláusula.
Example:
● She quickly agreed to re-type the letter (= her agreement was quick)
● She agreed to re-type the letter quickly (= the re-typing was quick)
● He quietly asked me to leave the house (= his request was quiet)
● He asked me to leave the house quietly (= the leaving was quiet)

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Exercises

Put the adverb of manner in the correct place / Coloque el adverbio de modo en el lugar
correcto.

1. When my teacher talks, it's difficult to understand him. (quickly)


_______________________________________________________
2. I study for a test. (hardly)
______________________________________________________
3. The policeman shouted at the thief. (loudly)
_____________________________________________________
4. Please try to behave when you meet my family. (normally)
____________________________________________________
5. She did in her tennis match last week. She won. (well)
____________________________________________________
6. Please close the door when you enter my room. (gently)
____________________________________________________
7. I'm sitting, so I don't want to move. (Comfortably)
____________________________________________________
8. My husband sings when he's in the shower. Even the neighbors can hear him.
(Enthusiastically)
________________________________________________________________________
9. She laughs at my jokes. (Happily)
_______________________________________
10. Sometimes I need my teacher to talk more so I can hear her better. (Slowly)
__________________________________________________________________

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Key/Respuestas

Present Continuous
1. Alexander is watching a film.
2. We are playing a computer game.
3. The man is sitting on the grass.
4. The dog is barking at the cat.
5. Look! Steve's mother is making a cup of coffee.
6. The teacher is not (isn’t) closing the door.
7. You are not (aren’t) answering the exercise correctly.
8. We are not having a good time.
9. She is not playing the piano very well.
10. Are they trying to help?
11. Is the policeman running into the bank?
12. Are you doing the washing-up?
13. Is your grandmother looking at birds?

Future 1 - going to
1. She’s going to stay home this evening. / She is going to stay …..
2. They’re going to watch the new Tarantino movie tonight. / They are going to
watch….
3. Amanda’s going to study this long weekend. / Amanda is going to study …..
4. I’m going to have lunch with my brother. / I am going to have ….
5. Billy’s not going to make a trip to India next month. / Billy is not going to …. /Billy
isn’t going to…
6. The teacher’s not going to do a test tomorrow. / The teacher is not going to…/ the
teacher isn’t going to…
7. I’m not going to eat too much at the party. / I am not going to eat…
8. I’m not going to play football after class. / I am not going to …
9. Are you going to see the movie on Saturday?
10. Is he going to go to the conference with you?

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Future 2 – will
1. I’ll tell John the good news. / I will tell…
2. She’ll be there at around 9pm. / She will be there….
3. He’ll meet you at the airport at 10am. / He will meet you…
4. They’ll love this photograph. / They will love this…
5. Ben won’t finish the report on time. / Ben will not finish….
6. The game won’t start at 5.30pm. / The game will not start…
7. We won’t walk to work. / We will not walk to work.
8. Will we see you at the meeting?
9. Will she be there?
10. Where will David meet you?

The past simple


1. I was in Canada last summer holiday.
2. My sister was with me.
3. We were in Montreal.
4. She was very happy.
5. I was happy, too.

1. I am /'m an engineer.
2. Last year I was a student in Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
3. I was in love with a beautiful girl at that time. We were friends
4. Now, I live in New York and I am /'m married to her.

1. Died
2. were
3. started
4. saw
5. called
6. tried
7. was
8. Arrived
9. Fought
10. Brought
11. Entered
12. Found
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Use of can
1. I know the answer; I can answer the question now.
2. She is good at the piano; she can play the piano very well.
3. This test is very difficult; I can’t (cannot) answer any question.
4. Maria can speak English but she can’t (cannot) speak French.
5. You can’t (cannot) sleep today because you are very nervous.

1. Can't you read this text?


2. Can I have the milk, please?
3. Can't Nico help in the garden?
4. Can they hear the birds?
5. Can't he understand Spanish?
6. Can this car do 250 km/h?
7. Can the girls dance?
8. Can parrots fly?
9. Can't you fill in this form?
10. Can the boys run fast?

Much or many
1. How many stars are there in the sky?
2. How many people live on islands?
3. How many birds are there?
4. How much water is in the ocean?
5. How much money is in a bank?
6. How many countries are there in the world?
7. How much bread is eaten per day?
8. How many bones are there in the human body?
9. How much sand is in the deserts?
10. How much information is on the internet?

Some and any


1. Sue went to the cinema with some of her friends!
2. Jane doesn't have any friends.
3. Have you got any brothers or sisters?
4. Here is some food for the cat.

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5. I think you should put some flowers on the table.
6. Could you check if there are any calls on the answering machine?
7. I don't want any presents for my birthday.
8. Did they have any news for you?
9. I'm hungry - I'll have some sandwiches.
10. There aren't any apples left.

Modal verbs of obligation


1. We have a lot of work tomorrow. You mustn't be late.
2. You mustn’t tell anyone what I just told you. It's a secret.
3. The museum is free. You don't have to pay to get in.
4. Children mustn't tell lies. It's very naughty.
5. John's a millionaire. He doesn't have to go to work.
6. I don't have to do my washing because my mother does it for me.
7. We don't have to rush. We've got plenty of time.
8. You mustn't smoke inside the school.
9. You must help in the house.
10. We mustn't miss the train, because it's the last one tonight.
11. My mum thinks I shouldn’t spend so much money on clothes.
12. "Twilight" is a really great book. You should read it soon.
13. The teacher said to me, "You should get up earlier because you are late again!"
14. You must do your English homework!
15. You mustn’t drive the car. You are only thirteen!

Adverbs of manner
1. When my teacher talks quickly, it's difficult to understand him.(quickly)
2. I study hardly for a test.( hardly)
3. The policeman shouted loudly at the thief.(loudly)
4. Please try to behave normally when you meet my family. (normally)
5. She did well in her tennis match last week. She won.(well)
6. Please close the door gently when you enter my room. (gently)
7. I'm sitting comfortably so I don't want to move.(comfortably)
8. My husband sings enthusiastically when he's in the shower. Even the neighbors can
hear him.(enthusiastically)
9. She laughs happily at my jokes. (happily)
10. Sometimes I need my teacher to talk more slowly so I can hear her better.( slowly)
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Referencias bibliográficas

Adaptado de Education First. Recuperado de http://www.ef.com/english-

resources/english-grammar/simple-present-tense en abril de 2017.

Adaptado de ejercicio de ingles.com Recuperado de

http://www.ejerciciodeingles.com/expresiones-cantidad-ingles-some-any en

abril de 2017.

Adaptado de Learn English Language. Recuperado de

http://www.englishlanguage.com/blog/aprenda-ingles/gramatica/preguntas-

informativas en abril de 2017.

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