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PART I

RULES AND INSTRUCTION

A. PRACTICE RULES IN BASIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

Laboratory is the place of training and working that force of a high responsible for it
users. There are rules below that necessary to know and obey, for the students or praktikan:

• Come on time, latest at 5 minutes before the practice is start. The late tolerance is 15
minutes. There is no practice for the students that has been late after 30 minutes.

• Sign in the attendance list that has prepared on the table when the students arrive and
leave from the laboratory. If the students cannot follow the practice because of sickness
and the other case, they must give the doctor’s letter to the lecturer / assistant / co.
assistant and they must collect the experimental report by themselves from the data of
their group. The rules of absence is had arranged in the lecture’s contract completely.

• Before practice, every group has given with the practice equipments according to each
experiment, all of the member’s group must check the amount and condition of their
equipments. The borrowed equipments must in clean condition. If this equipments is
broken or damaged, it must be the responsibility of a group in order to replace it
equipments by the same equipments and be accompanied by the invoice form. If at
the limiting time that has been determined, the student still does not replace the
equipment, so there is no permission to join in Final Test in this Semester and
automatically, the score of Final Test is zero.

• Make a estimation report that substituent with the form that has determined and has
signed by the assistant or lecturer after the experiment is done.

• Wear the practice/lab coat when doing experiment.

• Do carefully, far away from the dangerous treatment, such as in doing combustion, take
or pour the dangerous substances.

• Come back the equipments in the place before.

• Take care the laboratory and practice calmly and systematically.

• The residual of insoluble substances and papers , must be throwing into the prepared
place, don’t throw into the washing box. If the substance is strong acid or strong base,
water faucet in the sink must be opened for few times.
• Don’t bring the bag and others in the experimental table, except practice instruction
book, journal book and writing tools.

• Praktikan must to wear practice coat, closed shoes, and if the hair is long, bonds it.

• When practice, don’t be capricious, and use cellular phone or doing the others
unrelated.

B. GENERAL INSTRUCTION OF BASIC CHEMISTRY


EXPERIMENT

When do the experiment in laboratory, students or praktikan must pay attention


for many instruction bellow :

1. Read and learn practical instruction that related with your experiment .
2. Do according to time planning that has arranged by your self, so you can do the
experiment on time.
3. After knowing and learning the experiment carefully, borrow the equipments that
used for practice in laboratory assistant with the equipment bill, then arrange the
equipments in your table.
4. Do the experiment according to the practical instruction and record all the result of
experiment in report book and report it to lecturer / assistant.
5. Do calmly and carefully. Safety and happiness in practice will increase as you follow
all of the instructions. Misunderstanding instruction can be asked to assistant /
lecturer of experiment.
6. After doing experiment, come back the equipments in clean condition with the
equipment bill.
7. Leave the laboratory after you finished the experiment and the table must be in
clean condition.

C. SPECIAL INSTRUCTION OF BASIC CHEMISTRY


EXPERIMENT

According to the substances that used in experiment, it is necessary to pay attention


for many information bellow :

1. If acid or other substance which has corrosive properties is splatter, so hurry up to


clean the part that contain dirtiness with tissue, then watered with flow water.
2. Do not touch the chemical substances except it had instructed.
3. When observe or react a substance, never arrow it at your face or body. When
smelling, never smells directly but smelled it by winded with hand near from the
mouth of the tube and smells carefully.
4. Be careful for the fire, switch off the unused burner.
5. Report every accident, although small accident to assistant or lecturer of
experiment.
6. Read carefully the label in the reagent bottle before take it filling.
7. Take the s according to the instruction. Never come back the substance or reagent
that had taken into the bottle before.
PART II
INTRODUCTION OF EQUIPMENTS AND IT’S USES
IN THE BASIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

A. OBJECTIVE: Students/praktikan be able to know a few simple equipments and its uses
in the basic chemistry laboratory

B. INTRODUCTION:
Activity recognition equipments is an important once performed as a laboratory
for basic knowledge for students to perform laboratory work properly and to avoid or
reduce the things that are not desirable, for example an error of principle in using the
equipments so that the results become inaccurate. In table 1 are presented some simple
equipments used in basic chemistry laboratory.

Table 1. List of Laboratory Equipment and its Uses


No Name and picture of equipments Uses
1 - Places to dissolve substances
- Places to heat the solution
- Place to do the mixing substances
- Place evaporating solution/ water
Beaker glass
2
- Places to perform the reaction
- Perform mixing substances
- Heat up the chemicals

Conical flask
3.  For solution distillation (separating
liquid mixture based on boiling point)

Round bottom flask with three-


necked
No Name and picture of equipments Uses
5 - Place of distilled water, to add distilled
water in the making of solution
- To clean the beaker glass/ other containers
of solution/ substances which reacted

Bottle washers/ spray bottle


6 - Places to dissolves substances whose
concentration is measured accurately/
precisely.
- Dilute solution accurately

Measuring Flask
7 - Place to react the substances on small
quantity

Test tube
8 - To measure the volume of solution/ liquid/
water is roughly.

Graduated Cyllinder
9 - To measure/ delivery solutions drop wise
carefully in the titration process.

Burette
No Name and picture of equipments Uses
10 - Shed a reagent/ substance
- Add solution

Pipette
11 - For cooling substance in the process of
distillation, which is connected with other
equipment: distillation flask tube
connector.

Liebig Condenser
12 - Filtering solution
- Transform liquid/ solid samples into the
measuring flask

Glass funnel
13 - Burn/ heating the substance directly on the
fire
- Compose a substance on the gravimetric
method

Porcelain crucible
14 - evaporated the solution

Evaporation cup
No Name and picture of equipments Uses
15 - Smooth the substances that are still rough a
fine powder

Mortar and pestle


16 - Place a substance at the time of weighing
- Cover the beaker during the heating
process

Watch glass
17  Measure temperature of solution

Thermometer

18  As heat source from natural gas for


chemistry laboratory

Bunsen Burner

19  As heat source of spirit

Spirit Burner
No Name and picture of equipments Uses
20  Weighing substance roughly

Coarse Weights

21  Weighing precision substance (0,001)

Digital Analytical Weights

22  Placing test tube

Test Tube Rack

23  Cooling substance after out of oven


 Releasing water vapor of substance
vacuum way that connected by vacuum
pomp

Vacuum Desiccators
Desiccators

24.  Proper

Stative
No Name and picture of equipments Uses
25.  Buret Holder

Clam

26.  For claming at propper

Holder/boss head

27  For bacteria culture growth

Petri dish

328  Holding and moving crucible

Porcelain Crucible Holder/tang

29  Holding to hold hot test tube

Test Tube Holder

30  Propping when directly heating with fire


 Propping funnel when filtrating solution
at beaker glass

Porcelain Triangle
No Name and picture of equipments Uses
31  Heating equipment

Wire Gauze

32  Propping wire gauze at heating process


with spirit burner or Bunsen burner

Triangle

33  Propping something above Bunsen


burner, connected by statif

Iron Ring

434  Stirring dissolved solution

Spatula

35  Taking solid substance

Substance spoon

PART III

A. EXPERIMENT 1
1. TITLE : DISTILLATION
2. PURPOSE : 1. Separating and purifying the liquid
2. Determining boiling point of the liquid
3. BASIC THEORY:
Distillation is a widely used method for separating mixtures based on differences in the
conditions required to change the phase of components of the mixture. To separate a
mixture of liquids, the liquid can be heated to force components, which have different
boiling points, into the gas phase. The gas is then condensed back into liquid form and
collected. Although the term is most commonly applied to liquids, the reverse process
can be used to separate gases by liquefying components using changes in temperature
and/or pressure. Distillation is used for many commercial processes, such as production
of gasoline, distilled water, xylene, alcohol, paraffin, kerosene, and many other liquids.
Distillation is used to purify a compound by separating it from a non-volatile or less-
volatile material. When different compounds in a mixture have different boiling points,
they separate into individual components when the mixture is carefully distilled.

Distillation for Compound Identification: Boiling Point Determination

Distillation is used to purify a compound by separating it from a non-volatile or less-


volatile material. Because different compounds often have different boiling points, the
components often separate from a mixture when the mixture is distilled.

The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid phase of a
compound equals the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid. The external
pressure is usually the atmospheric pressure. For instance, consider a liquid heated in
an open flask. The vapor pressure of the liquid will increase as the temperature of the
liquid increases, and when the vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure, the
liquid will boil. Different compounds boil at different temperatures because each has a
different, characteristic vapor pressure: compounds with higher vapor pressures will
boil at lower temperatures.

Boiling points are usually measured by recording the boiling point (or range) on a
thermometer while performing a distillation. This method is used whenever there is
enough of the compound to perform a distillation. The distillation method of boiling
point determination measures the temperature of the vapors above the liquid. Since
these vapors are in equilibrium with the boiling liquid, they are the same temperature
as the boiling liquid. The vapor temperature rather than the pot temperature is
measured because if you put a thermometer actually in the boiling liquid mixture, the
temperature reading would likely be higher than that of the vapors. This is because the
liquid can be superheated or contaminated with other substances, and therefore its
temperature is not an accurate measurement of the boiling temperature.

4. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT :
a) Equipments and Materials

• Equipment :

Distillation flask : 1piece


Beaker glass 400 mL : 1piece
Beaker glass 100 mL : 1piece
Liquefier : 1piece
Thermometer : 1piece
Boiling stones : 2pieces
Pipette drops : 1piece
Wire gauze : 1piece
Bunsen : 1piece
Tripod : 1piece
Funnel : 1piece
Spatula : 1piece

• Materials : NaCl 1 gram; AgNO3 0,1 M; Aquades

b) Procedure

1. Prepare the distillation set


2. Entering boiling stones into distillation flask by keel over the distillation flask
3. Setting the distillation set
4. Prepare beaker glass 400 mL, pour 100 mL H2O and 1 gram NaCl. Mix them until
become homogeneous mixture.
5. Pour the solution into distillation flask using funnel
6. Running the water in the liquefier
7. Setting the Bunsen and put under distillation flask
8. Boiling the distillation flask until the temperature increase and constant
9. Use beaker glass 100mL to get the distillate (25 mL) then the process is stopped
10. Preparing 3 test tube
11. Pouring 5mL NaCl solution (solution before distillation) in test tube 1
12. Pouring 5mL distillate in test tube 2
13. Pouring 5mL aquades in test tube 3
14. Dropping 3drops AgNO3 0,1M for each test tube
15. Comparing the purity between NaCl solution (solution before distillation),
distillate, and aquades and analyze.

5. TASK AND ACTIVITY

a. Draw the distillation set complete with the name of apparatus in the blank space
bellow:
b. Write down the procedures by using flow cart !
1)……………………………………………………………………….

1gr NaCl + 100mL H2O


Some of boiling stones

NaCl (aq)

Entered to beaker glass (dissolved)

Distillation flask

1. Run water through the Liquefier


2. Boiled distillation flask until the
temperature increase and constant

2) …………………………………………………………………………..

Solution before Aquades 5mL


Distillate 5mL
distillation
(NaCl(aq)) 5mL

Test Tube 1 Test Tube 2 Test Tube 3

EXPERIMENT
RESULT
Dropped AgNO3 0,1M
and compared

c. Data of Experiment Result

Result of experiment
No. Experiment Prosedure
Before After

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. DATA ANALYSIS

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7. DISCUSSION

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8. CONCLUSION

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9. ANSWER THIS QUESTION


Question :

Why the water flow into the liquefier with different direction in the distillate flow?

Answer :

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REFERENCES

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B. Cfg
C. Hb
D. bh