Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

Chapters 12, 13

Leadership, Power, & Influence II

Prof. Christy Zhou Koval


Spring 2017
Reminders
 Group project final report due on April 19 at
the beginning of class
 Only hard copies will be accepted
 Late assignment will be penalized 5 point per every 12-hour
period after due time
 10 pages long (not including title page, abstract,
appendices, or references)
 Assignments that exceed page limits will be penalized 5
points per page.
 Double spaced, A4 size paper, font 12, 1 inch margin
Reminders
 Group project final report due on April 19 at
the beginning of class
 Briefly summarize your research topic.
 Make predictions or competing predictions about your research
questions with clear support from the research literature.
 Integrate the literature and provide a conclusion about the issue
you have examined.
 Discuss practical implications for managers and/or employees and
other lessons we might draw from your project.
Reminders
 Group presentations
 15 minutes PowerPoint presentation
 3 minutes Q&A
 We have a tight schedule so we will strictly adhere
to the timeline
Reminders
 Group presentations
 Show up to class to support your classmates!
 Will take attendance as part of participation grade
 Vote for best presentation of the day at end of
each presentation class
Class Participation (14%)
Learning Objectives
 Basic concepts of influence

 Hard vs. soft influencing tactics

 Outcomes of influence
Influencing others
 Influence is any behavior that attempts to
alter someone’s attitudes or behavior

 Process through which people achieve


organizational objectives

 Operates up, down, and across the organizational


hierarchy
Warm up
 Real life analysis of Donald Trump’s
influencing tactics:

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9LR6EA9
1zLo
Learning Objectives
 Basic concepts of influence

 Hard vs. soft influencing tactics

 Outcomes of influence
Learning Objectives
 Hard vs. soft influencing tactics

 How much freedom an influence tactic leaves the person to


decide whether to yield or to resist the influence attempt

 Hard tactics leave individuals less freedom than soft tactics


 Might put more strain on social relationship if the action

is not warranted
Influencing others
Influence Tactics
Silent authority
Pressure
Upward appeal Hard influence tactics
Coalition building
Exchange
Persuasion
Ingratiation
Impression management
Inspirational appeal Soft influence tactics
Consultation
Influencing others
Influence Tactics
Silent authority
Pressure
Upward appeal Consequences
Coalition building Resistance
Compliance
Exchange Commitment
Persuasion
Ingratiation
Impression management
Inspirational appeal
Consultation
Hard influence tactics
 Silent authority
 A silent authority is a person or group, such as an
owner or upper management, that influences
others with his mere presence.

 The appeal is based on legitimate or position


power

 E.g., Teacher’s command


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJsH8JYsfgQ
Hard influence tactics
 Pressure
 Push someone to do what you want or else something
undesirable will occur

 Often includes threats and frequent interactions until the


target agrees

 Most effective when used in a crisis situation

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LO1akPILH4&spfreloa
d=5
Hard influence tactics
 Upward appeal

 Appealing to higher authority

 Formal alliance to perception of alliance with


higher status person

 E.g., “I am sure that the professor will agree with


me…”
Hard influence tactics
 Coalition building

 Persuading by seeking the assistance of others or


by noting the support of others
 Pools resources and power
 Legitimizes the issue
 E.g., unions, multi-party negotiations, petition
Influencing others
Influence Tactics
Silent authority
Pressure
Upward appeal Consequences
Coalition building Resistance
Compliance
Exchange Commitment
Persuasion
Ingratiation
Impression management
Inspirational appeal
Consultation
Soft influence tactics
 Exchange
 Seeks influence through making explicit or implicit a
promise that others will receive rewards or tangible
benefits if they comply with a request

 Negotiation is integral to this strategy

 Implicit reciprocity (start at 1:30):


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFdCzN7RYbw

 Explicit reciprocity:
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlxSEJUozu0
Soft influence tactics
 Rational persuasion

 Using logic and facts to gain acceptance

 Based on expert power

 E.g., doctor, lawyer


Soft influence tactics
 Ingratiation
 Seeks to get others to like you and hence comply with your requests
 Other-enhancement (flattery)

 Opinion conformity (agreement)

 Helping

 The key to successful ingratiation is that the person does not realize
that you are doing this; otherwise it may backfire

 Most effective when it is honest, infrequent, and well intended

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFdCzN7RYbw (starts at 7:45)


Soft influence tactics

 Impression management
 Actively shaping our public images
 Way we dress, padding resume

 Hitler’s speech:
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DFNUdCtMXWE
Soft influence tactics
 Inspirational appeal:
 Focuses on values, emotions, and beliefs to gain
support for a request or course of action

 Effective when they are authentic, personal, and


enthusiastic

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KZtF_gT3Sgg
Soft influence tactics
 Consultation:
 When you know what you want to do, but ask for others’
input on how to do it

 Works because when someone provides input, they become


more committed to the course of action

 Can backfire if the target of influence realizes that you’re


pursuing an agenda rather than a sincere conversation
Learning Objectives
 Basic concepts of influence

 Hard vs. soft influencing tactics

 Outcomes of influence
Consequences of influence tactics
 Resistance: the person you are trying to influence avoids,
ignores, or resists your effort at influence.

 Compliance: the person you are trying to influence accepts your


influence attempt, but unenthusiastically.
 Does not change their attitude.

 Commitment: The person you are trying to influence agrees


with your influence effort and makes an enthusiastic, voluntary
effort to do what you asked.
 Response comes not because the person has to but because he/she wants
to.
Consequences of influence tactics
Hard Influence Soft Influence
Tactics Tactics

Ingratiation
Exchange
Silent authority
Persuasion
Pressure
Upward appeal Impression management

Coalition building Inspirational appeal


Consultation

Resistance Compliance Commitment


An Inspirational Appeal to End
our Class Together…
 Steve Job‘s Stanford Commencement Address
(start at 8:06):

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UF8uR6Z
6KLc