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The Most Revolutionary Year of

the Twentieth Century Part 3

This is the finale of the 1968 historical series. During this time, we witnessed a crescendo of
transformative occurrences. After the evil assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, divisions existed among
the Democratic Party's pro-war and anti-war wings. The Vietnam War resulted in the loss of tons of
human lives unnecessarily. The reactionary movement soon unified under the anti-Communist and
race-baiter Richard Nixon. Ideological battles spread among the Left and the Right in the Democratic
National convention, the 1968 Olympics, and the election of 1968 in general. Hubert Humphrey waited
later in his campaign to split from LBJ regarding his Vietnam War policy. The victory of Nixon, as a
result of the 1968 election, represented the right-wing backlash against progressive progress reaching into
new heights. Likewise, heroes continued to fight against injustices from holding protests and working in
organizations. The end of the year saw space travel accelerated with American astronauts orbiting the
Moon for the first time. 1968 ended as one of the revolutionary time periods in human history.
*An Uncertain Future in America
*Richard Nixon and the Rise of
*The Democratic National Convention in
*The End of the 1968 Presidential Election
and Social Movements
*An Inspirational Protest (in Mexico City) and
the End of 1968
*Appendix A: The Music of that Era

This demonstration was held on Aug. 10, 1968 in Chicago

as the city prepared to host the Democratic National
Convention. (David Wilson / Flickr)
An Uncertain Future in America
The cause for human justice continued after the deaths of Dr. Martin Luther
King Jr. and Robert Francis Kennedy. Activists marched and protested while
having anxiety about the future of American society. Cultural changes and an
unjust war persisted.

New Left leader Tom Hayden support among the party’s

E arly June of 1968 saw the saw Kennedy’s coffin in St.
Patrick Cathedral in New York
establishment. He won the New
York primary on June 18, 1968.
passing away of the charismatic City. Hayden said the following He was gaining ground in
political leader Robert F. words about RFK’s coffin that competition against Humphrey.
Kennedy. Many people, especially was: “…all that remained of last Long before late August,
the youth, felt disillusioned night’s hopes for the poor. Humphrey gained enough votes to
afterward. A war was waging Nothing left of that hope now, win the Democratic nomination.
onward, people were confused gone in a coffin while crews The progressive movement was
about which direction to go, and hammered away and police divided. Many people did not
the right-wing movement persisted awaited the crowd. I started to cry want to vote. Some in the New
relentlessly against civil rights hard.” Left started to leave mainstream
(plus the other social changes the politics altogether to be part of a
legitimately transpired during the At the location, Edward Kennedy third-party movement or
decade of the 1960’s). If Robert gave a very eloquent eulogy that independent political circles.
Kennedy had lived, he might have talked about the dreams of Robert Others lived in communes as the
won the Democratic nomination Kennedy to end suffering among hippies did, and some followed
and the Presidency. The socialist those who suffered and to end the the path of guerrilla resistance
Michael Harrington once said that Vietnam War in general. After the against the American government
Robert Kennedy was “the man Robert Kennedy assassination, (which would be the origins of the
who actually could have change Eugene McCarthy’s campaign later Weatherman Underground
the course of American history.” faltered. McCarthy continued to movement). Nonwhite minorities
Two different political figures of fight onward, but he did not have questioned society itself when
Chicago mayor Richard Daley and
American leaders were shot down headquarters from which the Poor Using tear gas and wearing masks
and murdered unjustly. McCarthy People’s Campaign could lobby and body armor, police arrested
wanted his supporters to continue Congress to pass an Economic Bill 288 people, including Abernathy.
to fight into Chicago which was of Rights. Later that night, the mayor
where the Democratic National declared a curfew and deployed
Convention would exist by August Hubert Humphrey gave kind
5-8, 1968. words on the project by saying,
that the Poor People’s campaign
The Poor People's Campaign of was, “going to produce results”
1968 ended on the date of June and that “I think we can learn a
24, 1968. The police in lot here.” Ralph Abernathy was a
Washington, D.C. used force to leader of the campaign after Dr.
stop the Resurrection City Martin Luther King Jr. passed
settlement. Resurrection City had away. President Johnson was This shelter had the lyrics from the two
about 3,000 people in the capital hostile, as was the bulk of songs of “You Can’t Keep Us Down” and
of America. It had food, other Congress. One Democratic “In Resurrection City. “ It is no secret that
amenities, a daycare center, city senator from Arkansas, John the FBI wanted to disrupt this movement
hall, a mess hall, and a barbershop. McClellan, went as far as to say via Operation POCAM, which was
disgracefully executed by the FBI. The
Architect John Wiebenson the city was “a premeditated act
FOIA found that the FBI wanted to also
designed the city’s shanty of contempt for and rebellion split the Poor People’s Campaign and a
buildings to be sturdy but non- against the sovereignty of group of Quakers. The FBI had informants
complex so the many unskilled government.” The population of in their GIP plan or the Ghetto Informant
volunteers could quickly make the city fell to about 500 as the Program. Head Start, free or reduced
homes for thousands. The most June 24 expiration date for the lunches for children, and other programs
significant event in the campaign protest’s permit approached. came as a result of this movement.
Marian Wright Edelman inspired the Poor
around Resurrection City came on Abernathy, however, remained
People’s Campaign too.
June 19, when 150,000 people committed to the project and said
gathered to rally in support of Resurrection City would stay the National Guard to enforce
Poor People’s Campaign and hear regardless of a permit. martial law. The Poor Peoples
speeches from the movement’s Campaign wanted to use people
leaders. The city sat on the iconic from across racial lines in ending
lawn of the Washington mall poverty, racism, and economic
where it served as a “counter When June 24 arrived, the local inequality. Today, after 50 years,
capital.” When Dr. Martin Luther authorities in the District of we are still fighting the same fight.
King, Jr. conceived of the project, Columbia deployed 1,000 police
he envisioned Resurrection City as to tear down Resurrection City.
Richard Nixon and the Rise of Counterrevolution
Ambition drove Nixon to be a man who went from experiencing numerous political
defeats to winning the Presidency by 1968. Conservatives and other opponents of the
counterculture wanted America to embrace a far right conservative ethos in
opposition to the progressives’ goals.

Act of 1964 on federalism grounds. Richard Nixon

I t is important later remade himself to appeal to conservatives in the
North and the South to run for President again by
to note that 1968. Nixon stumped for Republican candidates
back then, back in 1966 to cause the Republican resurgence in
many liberal Congress of that year. That was the first
and moderate Congressional expression of the white backlash after
Republicans the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In the 1968
were still influential (today, it is a different story with Presidential campaign, he defeated Nelson
more than 90% of the Republican establishment Rockefeller. Nixon competed against Michigan
being conservative). By this time, Nixon made a huge governor and former American Motors President
political comeback. John F. Kennedy defeated him George Romney. George Romney was a moderate
during the 1960 election. He lost the run for politician, but his son Mitt Romney is a more
California’s governor in 1962 to the progressive conservative political leader. George Romney did the
leader Pat Brown. He supported Barry Goldwater brave thing of saying that diplomats and military
when Goldwater refused to support the Civil Rights officers, who briefed him, brainwashed on the
Vietnam War. That was very taboo to speak like that Southern Strategy for him to win. Nixon deceived
back in the 1960's, especially as he was running for many northern and southern white Americans in
the GOP candidacy of President. Therefore, George believing that more rights for black people (and
Romney’s campaign ended very quickly. As the people of color) would mean fewer human rights for
convention existed in Miami, Florida, Nixon faced them. Even some urban northern whites were
off against Nelson Rockefeller and the conservative manipulated by Nixon and his cronies to believe in
Ronald Reagan. racial scapegoating instead of the capitalist elites
causing their problems in the first place. Former
Alabama Governor Wallace also used the same
southern strategy rhetoric to gain votes in the South,
the Midwest, and parts of the North. On June 26,
1968, the Bonin Islands were returned to Japan after
23 years of occupation by the United States Navy.

Ronald Reagan was the man who was once liberal

and then he even opposed Medicare once upon a
time (which is highly extremist). Nixon was slick and
used the rhetoric of “law and order” to gain the
delegates to win the nomination. The problem with
the “law and order” rhetoric is that it ignored the
By July 1, 1968, the Central Intelligence Agency’s
rights of minorities to be free from police oppression
Phoenix Program developed. This program came
and law and order was used by the oligarchy to
after the Tet Offensive. Operation Phoenix was
suppress human civil liberties instead of protecting
brutal, and it was an explicit CIA assassination
them. This Nixon was not the new Nixon. This same
program. The U.S. Army and the CIA worked
Nixon used concepts of traditional values to gain
together in enacting the evil Phoenix Program too. It
votes. He or Richard Nixon hated the Black Panthers
led to the deaths of at least 26,000 people with some
and the anti-war activists too. Nixon blamed the
estimates exceeding 40,000. The mission of the
Johnson-Humphrey administration for problems in
Phoenix Program, according to the CIA, was “a set
America. He attacked Great Society programs and
of programs that sought to attack and destroy the
abhorred federal government social programs in the
political infrastructure of the Viet Cong.” However,
billions of dollars (that can help minorities and the
in reality, it was a systematic policy of terrorism
poor). Nixon believed in the token black capitalism
carried out against the civilian population of South
model in that funds for black businesses alone would
Vietnam. South Vietnamese soldiers did most of the
eliminate poverty in the black community. That is
dirty work, but CIA and Army officials oversaw and
ludicrous since poverty must end by an active federal
participated in various forms of torture and
government involvement along with independent
assassinations. The main purpose of the program was
economic endeavors. Nixon wanted to end mandated
to collect intelligence on suspected members of the
school busing. Nixon divided Americans by talking
Viet Cong then “neutralize” them, which could mean
about the forgotten Americans and using the
imprisonment and torture, or assassination, or both.
People were forced to put a bag on their head with KGB. To this very day, very few Americans know
the holes cut out to point at suspected about the evils actions of Operation Phoenix.
"Communists." According to the account of
Lieutenant Vincent Okamoto, after a house was The semiconductor company Intel was formed on
selected, “that night Phoenix would come back, July 18. From July 23-28, 1968, the black
knock on the door, and say, ‘April Fool, nationalists led by Fred Evans engaged in a fierce
motherf____r.’ Whoever answered the door would gunfight with the police in the Glenville shootout of
get wasted. As far as they were concerned whoever Cleveland, Ohio. The Republican National
answered was a Communist, including family Convention took place in Miami Beach, Florida. The
members. Sometimes they’d come back to camp with RNC nominated Richard Nixon for U.S. President
ears to prove that they killed people.” Many of the and Spiro Agnew for Vice President. On August 21,
victims were dragged off for them to experience 1968, the Medal of Honor was posthumously
torture. Many Vietnamese people suffered beatings, awarded to James Anderson, Jr. He is the first black
rape, electrocution, dog attacks, and in some cases U.S. Marine to be awarded the Medal of Honor.
were thrown alive out of helicopters. The methods of
the US government under the Phoenix Program
rivaled the methods of the Nazi Gestapo and Stalin’s
Boyer /

The Democratic National Convention in Chicago

A police riot caused innocent people, including bystanders,
bystanders, to be assaulted by
the Chicago police and the whole world watching the expressions of cruelty and
brutality. Social activists wanted the Democrats to pays an anti-
anti-war resolution
for their platform, but the DNC refused to do so. These events shape our w world
even in late 2018.

the Festival of Life). The Yippies MOBE's main aim was to get the
F rom August 22-30, 1968, the wanted a politicized hippie
ideological view to spread. They
largest turnouts at its functions.
David Dellinger, MOBE
police clashed with anti-war wanted to use street theater, and chairman, believed that "The
protesters in Chicago, Illinois, other actions to criticize United tendency to intensify militancy
outside the 1968 Democratic States culture plus have change. without organizing wide political
National Convention, which Another major group involved in support [was] self-defeating. But
nominates Hubert Humphrey for the protests at the DNC was the so [was] the tendency to draw
U.S. President, and Edmund National Mobilization Committee away from militancy into milder
Muskie for Vice President. It had to End the War in Vietnam (or and more conventional forms of
a long history. The Yippies MOBE). The MOBE group was protest." On January 2, 1968,
heavily organized the march. The made up of many groups that African American civil rights
Youth International Party was opposed the American activist and comedian Dick
part of the protest movement too. participation in the Vietnam War. Gregory said that he would
Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, and MOBE was run by a small organize protests and marches in
other of their friends (like Nancy executive board that set up a Chicago before and during the
Krassner Paul Krassner, and Anita general framework for mass Democratic National Convention.
Hoffman) talked in Hoffman’s demonstrations. They sent out He wanted Chicago to pass a
apartment. This event took place invitations to the over 500 groups stronger fair housing ordinance
on New Year’s Eve in 1967. They on its mailing lists, and they and use other actions to deal with
talked about the Summer of Love coordinated activities between the civil rights issues in Chicago.
and the Pentagon demonstration groups. MOBE recognized and Gregory chose not to lead
in 1967. They wanted a musical supported various tactics from demonstrations by April 15,
festival in Chicago in 1968 (called marching to civil disobedience. 1968.
year-old teenage Sioux Native Dave Dellinger. The Yippies
On April 27, 1968, an anti-war American from South Dakota. He joined them too. The Yippies
march in Chicago had about wanted to go to Chicago for the were part of the hippie movement
8,000 people. When the march Festival of Life. A memorial, led by Abbie Hoffman and Jerry
ended, the Chicago police ordered which was organized by the Rubin. They opposed the
the crowd to disperse. Later, the Yippie, existed in the form of a Democrats. They wanted to
cops assaulted people with clubs. march later in the day. There was promote a “Festival of Life” while
The unofficial Sparling report once an all-white Georgia they accused the Democrats of
criticized the police and the Daley delegation. On that day, the advancing the “Festival of Death.”
administration. For Chicago, Democratic Party made a The Yippies joked about sending
MOBE originally planned for two compromise to split the delegate LSD into the Chicago water
large-scale marches and an end of votes between a group of delegates system. They were satirical and
convention rally at Soldier Field. headed by Gov. Lester Maddox used a pig to nominate as Pigasus
The goal has initially been a (who was a known segregationist) for President. Chicago Mayor
massive show of force outside the and another group headed by Richard Daley was an old-school
International Amphitheater. State Representative Julian Bond. political boss. He did not like the
MOBE also planned to have On August 23, 1968, the Yippies young protesters. Daley did not
workshops and movement centers nominated their presidential want permits for the
distributed in 10 parks contender of Pigasus, the pig. 7 demonstrators to sleep in city
throughout the city, many in Yippies and the pig experienced parks. He wanted Chicago police
predominantly black areas, to arrest. They were at the Civic officers to work 12-hour shifts.
allow demonstrators and Center Plaza at the Loop or Daley He had 6,000 Army troops, 5,000
participating groups to follow Center. Illinois National National Guardsmen, and
their particular focuses. Then Guardsmen and individual thousands of state and county
Chicago mayor Richard J. Daley Chicago platoons practiced riot police. Hundreds of FBI and
wanted so-called “law and order” control drills. Secret Service agents were there in
to be maintained during the Chicago to work undercover.
demonstrations. The Yippies McCarthy volunteers and other
applied for a permit to protest on anti-war activists decided to go
July 15, 1968. The MOBE group into Chicago to oppose
applied for permits (on July 29, Humphrey. They believed that
1968) to march around the since the Republicans were never
International Amphitheater at the going to create an anti-war
DNC. All permits are denied, platform, they wanted the
except one allowing the use of the Democrats to hear their antiwar
Grant Park bandshell for a rally demands. Some of the protesters
[In 1968 the bandshell was opposed the two-party system as
located at the far south end of undemocratic and representative
By August 25, 1968, Daley
Grant Park, near the Field of imperialism plus war. The
unleashed his brutal cops to
Museum]. Chicago protest had many factions
assault the protesters. Law
united by the National
enforcement beat up bystanders
Convention week came. By August Mobilization Committee to End
and journalists too. The cops used
22, 1968, on Thursday, Dean the War in Vietnam (or MOBE).
tear gas, mace, and clubs. Many
Johnson was shot and killed by New Left people led the
demonstrators were arrested and
the police. The police said that he movement like Tom Hayden,
bleeding from the violence.
pulled a gun. Johnson was a 17- Rennie Davis, and veteran pacifist
Camera operators suffered assault
too. Cops yelled out “Kill!” Rather. Another CBS brutality of the police. Later,
“Commie!” and “Pu__y!” at the correspondent Walter Cronkite Hubert Humphrey accepted his
protesters. One priest had a called the assaulters thugs. The nomination in the midst of the
fractured skull. Terroristic cops Senator from Connecticut Democratic Party being divided
beat Hayden, Davis, Rubin, and Abraham Ribicoff said from the and self-destructing before folks’
Hoffman. Hugh Hefner was podium to criticize Daley for his eyes. The events in Chicago
clubbed. French writer Jean Genet Gestapo tactics. Daley was shown motivated the anti-war protesters
suffered teargas. He called the by the camera being angry. People to continue, but ironically it
cops “mad dogs.” The police also believed that Daley said in stirred up the conservatives to
ran into the 15th floor of the response to Ribicoff the following fight against the progressive
Hilton Hotel where the McCarthy words, “F__ you, you Jew, son of policies that the liberals
headquarters stationed. They a b___! you lousy mother-f___, established. Many conservative
subsequently clubbed the go home.” The crowd of Americans saw the protesters in a
volunteers of the campaign there. protesters yelled Peace Now, and negative light, and they flocked to
On the convention for, Daley’s the Whole World is Watching. Richard Nixon.
guards punched CBS reporter Dan People around the world saw the

The Leaders of the New Left

The New Left was a
progressive movement
that rejected
Stalinism, it wanted
decentralization, it
opposed the Vietnam
War, and it believed in
civil rights. They
loved student
activism. They had
strengths and
weaknesses plus
Herbert Marcuse Mario Savio (1942- Bettina Aptheker
remained a key part of
world history. (1898-1979) 1996) (1944- present)

Tom Hayden (1939- Carl Oglesby (1935- Kim Moody (1940- C. Wright Mills (1916-
2016) 2011) present) 1962)
(Photo by Lisl Steiner/Getty Images)

Eugene McCarthy started his Hubert Humphrey spent his life Richard Nixon won the 1968
1968 Presidential campaign in to advocate for social justice. election and saw both the end
1967 on an anti-Vietnam of the 1960’s including the
platform. beginning of a new era during
the 1970’s.

The End of the 1968 Presidential Election and

Social Movements
Delegates speak their minds during the Hubert Humphrey and his Vice
1968 Democratic National Convention. Presidential candidate Muskie run in
opposition to Nixon’s Southern Strategy.

Ball of Confusion, 1968

September 7, 1968, about 150 women (members of

A fter the 1968 Democratic National Convention the New York Radical Women organization) arrived
in Atlantic City, New Jersey. They came to protest
in Chicago, the world changed. The Presidential against the Miss America Pageant. They view it as
campaigns of Nixon/Agnew and Humphrey/Muskie exploitative against women. Activist and author
would continue. Hubert Humphrey had burdens of Robin Morgan led it. This protest was one of the
being seen as the war candidate despite having a first massive demonstrations of Second Wave
progressive record on domestic issues. Nixon wanted Feminism. First Wave Feminism was from the Susan
to project a new image of himself, but he was still the B. Anthony days until the early 1960’s. Second Wave
same reactionary against the social activism of the Feminism is from the early-1960’s (with NOW and
progressives. By September 6, 1968, Swaziland Betty Friedan writing her famous book entitled, “The
became independent. Swaziland is in Africa. On Feminine Mystique”) until the 1980’s. Third Wave
Feminism is from the 1980’s to 2012. Fourth wave By September 30, 1968, Hubert Humphrey had a
feminism is from 2012 to the present. The media speech and announced that he would, “stop the
covered the Second Wave Feminism and this protest. bombing of North Vietnam as an acceptable risk for
peace.” This placed distance between him and LBJ.
By September 7, 1968, the Banana Splits Adventure His poll numbers started to increase. McCarthy soon
Hour begins airing on NBC. It would go on to 2 supported him as most Americans by late 1968
seasons, ending on December 13 a Year Later in the opposed the Vietnam War. Labor leaders supported
middle of season 2. Army Maj. Gen. Keith L. Ware, Humphrey too. Even the Supremes gave a speech in
World War II Medal of Honor recipient, was killed favor of Hubert Humphrey as he was a liberal on
when his helicopter was shot down in Vietnam on civil rights and other domestic issues. Wallace and
September 13, 1968. He received the Distinguished his running mate Curtis Le May (who committed
Service Cross posthumously. On the same day, war crimes in WWII involving firebombing Tokyo
Albania officially withdraws from the Warsaw Pact and promoting using a bombing campaign in North
upon the Soviet Union-led Warsaw Pact invasion of Vietnam) lost ground. Operation Sealords occurred
Czechoslovakia, had already ceased to participate on October 8, 1968, in dealing with the Vietnam
actively in Pact activity since 1962. On September War. The United States and South Vietnamese
20, 1968, Hawaii Five-O debuts on CBS, and forces launch a new operation in the Mekong Delta.
eventually becomes the longest-running crime show This operation caused a massive break up of North
in television history, until Law & Order Vietnamese communication and supply systems. The
overtook it in 2003. The Tet Offensive ended on Detroit Tigers won the 1968 World Series on
September 23, 1968. 60 Minutes debuted on CBS October 11, 1968. They defeated the St. Louis
on September 24, 1968. Cardinals 4 games to 3.

On October 2, 1968, there was the Tlatelolco the UK or be part of the larger area of Ireland in
massacre: A student demonstration ends in a independence. More than 3,500 people suffered
bloodbath at La Plaza de las Tres Culturas in murder in the conflict, of which 52% were civilians,
Tlatelolco, Mexico City, Mexico, ten days before the 32% were members of the British security forces, and
inauguration of the 1968 Summer Olympics. About 16% were members of paramilitary groups). On
300-400 people experienced murder. By October 5, October 7, 1968, at the height of protests against the
1968, Police baton civil rights demonstrators in Vietnam War, José Feliciano performed "The Star-
Derry, Northern Ireland, marking the beginning of Spangled Banner" at Tiger Stadium in Detroit during
The Troubles (which took place in Northern Ireland Game 5 pre-game ceremonies of the 1968 World
and the fight to either make Northern Ireland be in Series between the Tigers and the St. Louis
Cardinals. His personalized, slow, Latin jazz orbit and testing the lunar module docking
performance was innovative. He opened the door for maneuver. October 12 was the time when Equatorial
later interpretations of the national anthem. As part Guinea received its independence from Spain. By
of the Apollo program, NASA launched Apollo 7 on October 14, 1968, the United States Department of
October 11. It was the first human-crewed Apollo Defense announced that the United States Army and
mission (the astronauts involved were Wally Schirra, United States Marines would send about 24,000
Donn Eisele, and Walter Cunningham). Mission troops back to Vietnam for involuntary second tours.
goals include the first live television broadcast from
An Inspirational Protest (in Mexico
O n October 16, 1968,
City) and the End of 1968
something inspirational
happened. It was when in
Mexico City, track athletes
Tommie Smith and John
Carlos (who are two black
Americans competing in
the Olympic 200-meter
run) raised their arms in a
black power salute after
winning the race with
respectively the gold and
bronze medals for the first
and third place. Ironically,
the 2nd place was an
Australian athlete named
Peter Norman who agreed
with the salute. On the
morning of October 16,
1968, US athlete Tommie
Smith had a world-record
time of 19.83 seconds.
Australia's Peter Norman
finished with a time of
20.06 seconds, and the
US's John Carlos had a
time of 20.10 seconds. One of the greatest athletes of The victors in this image of the 100m
The two US athletes all time is the very great, (during the 1968 Summer Olympics) are
received their medals beautiful Sister Wyomia Tyus. Wyomia Tyus winning gold from America,
She won gold medals in the Barbara Ann Ferrell-Edmonson winning
shoeless but wearing black 100m and the 4 X 100 m relay silver from America, and Irena Szewinska
socks, to represent black race of the 1968 Summer winning bronze from Poland. 1968 saw
poverty. Smith wore a Olympics. She was was a atheltic excellence in a great way.
founding member of the
black scarf around his Women's Sports Foundation.
neck to represent black
pride, Carlos had his tracksuit top thrown off the side of the boats in OPHR, had urged black athletes
unzipped to show solidarity with the Middle Passage." All three to boycott the games; reportedly,
all blue-collar workers in the US athletes wore Olympic Project for the actions of Smith and Carlos
and wore a necklace of beads Human Rights (OPHR) badges on October 16, 1968, were
which he described "were for after Norman, a critic of inspired by Edwards's arguments.
those individuals that were Australia's former White Australia When The Star-Spangled Banner
lynched, or killed and that no-one Policy, expressed empathy with played, Smith and Carlos delivered
said a prayer for, that were hung their ideals. Sociologist Harry the salute with heads bowed, a
and tarred." It was for those Edwards, the founder of the gesture which became front-page
news around the world. As they the Games. Brundage Ladyland. Jimi Hendrix was a
left the podium, the crowd booed hypocritically supported racist great guitar player who was ahead
them. Nazi salutes during the 1936 of his time regarding his musical
Olympics. In contrast, Tommie expression. Citing progress in the
Smith and John Carlos wanted to Paris peace talks, U.S. President
advance freedom and justice. Lyndon B. Johnson announced to
Smith later said, "If I win, I am the nation that he has ordered a
American, not a black American. complete cessation of "all air,
However, if I did something bad, naval, and artillery bombardment
then they would say I am a Negro. Both Tommie Smith and John of North Vietnam" effective
We are black, and we are proud of Carlos were praised by the black November 1. Hubert Humphrey
being black. Black America will community and progressive publicly calls for an ending of the
understand what we did communities worldwide. Back bombing. His polls increase, and
tonight."Tommie Smith stated in home, both Smith and Carlos he almost defeated Richard
later years that "We were were subject to abuse, and they Nixon. On November 5, 1968,
concerned about the lack of black and their families received death Republican challenger Richard M.
assistant coaches. About how threats. The athletes experienced Nixon defeated the Democratic
Muhammad Ali got stripped of hatred by the far right and candidate Hubert Humphrey.
his title. About the lack of access suffered unjust punishments until Nixon had 43.4 percent of the
to good housing and our kids not recently for their heroic act of vote while Humphrey had 42.7
being able to attend the top opposing racial oppression. When percent of the vote. Also,
colleges." International Olympic Norman died in 2006, Smith and American Independent Party
Committee (IOC) president Avery Carlos were pallbearers at his candidate George C. Wallace lost
Brundage deemed it to be a funeral. Smith and Carlos received the election too with 14 percent
national political statement unfit an Arthur Ashe Courage Award at of the vote and winning five states
for the apolitical, international the 2008 ESPY Awards honoring of the Deep South. Nixon did not
forum the Olympic Games were their action. Former U.S. First win a significant large city. Nixon
intended to be. In response to Lady Jacqueline Kennedy married won well in the upper South,
their actions, he suspended Smith Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Midwest, and West. Humphrey
and Carlos from the US team and Onassis on the Greek island of won in Texas, Washington State,
banned from the Olympic Village. Skorpios on October 20, 1968. Washington, D.C., and
When the US Olympic The Gun Control Act of 1968 throughout most of the
Committee refused, Brundage transpired on October 22, 1968. Northeast.
threatened to ban the entire US
track team. This threat led to the By October 25, The Jimi Hendrix
expulsion of the two athletes from Experience released Electric
The aftermath of the 1968 the Ho Chi Minh Trail, through JFK International Airport, New
election caused the growth of Laos into South Vietnam. By the York to Havana, Cuba. On
conservativism in America. It end of the operation, 3 million November 26, 1968, United
shifted many from embracing tons of bombs are dropped on States Air Force First Lieutenant
New Deal-style liberalism into a Laos, slowing but not severely and Bell UH-1F helicopter pilot
more right-wing agenda. Tons of disrupting trail operations. Yale James P. Fleming rescues an Army
voters, who supported Nixon, University first admitted women Special Forces unit pinned down
expressed a backlash against civil on November 14, 1968. by Viet Cong fire, earning a
rights, the counterculture, the anti- Medal of Honor for his bravery.
war movement, and progressive On November 17, 1968, there Elvis Presley returned to the
social programs. Liberalism had to was the Heidi game. This time concert atmosphere via the NBC
fight back. Conservatives was when NBC cuts off the final special, "If I Can Dream" on
slandered the Great Society, but it 1:05 minutes of the Oakland December 3, 1968. During an
continued forth as we the Raiders–New York Jets football airing of Rudolph the Red-Nosed
beneficiaries of it today in 2018. game to broadcast the pre- Reindeer, NBC Renews the
Numerous voters left the scheduled Heidi. Fans are unable Banana Splits Adventure Hour for
Democratic Party and became to see Oakland (which had been a second season on December 6.
Republicans overnight. trailing 32–29) score two late By December 9, 1968, Douglas
Progressives would not be utterly touchdowns to win 43–32; as a Engelbart publicly demonstrates
defeated, but they continuously result, thousands of outraged his pioneering hypertext system,
plus heroically fought for equality football fans flooded the NBC NLS, in San Francisco. The film
and social justice afterward as switchboards to protest. The Oliver!, based on the hit London
well. Farmington Mine Disaster of and Broadway musical, opens in
Farmington, West Virginia killed the U.S. after being released first
On that day, Luis A. Ferre was 78 men on November 20, 1968. in England. It goes on to win the
elected Governor of Puerto Rico. The Beatles release their self-titled Academy Award for Best Picture.
On November 11, 1968, The album popularly known as the
Vietnam War had Operation White Album on November 22, The Rolling Stones Rock and
Commando Hunt. It was initiated 1968. By November 24, four men Roll Circus existed on this date,
to interdict men and supplies on hijack Pan Am Flight 281 from but not released until 1996. This
event occurred on December 11. release of the USS Pueblo crew first humans to see the far side of
On December 20, 1968, the existed on December 23, 1968, the Moon and planet Earth as a
Zodiac Killer was believed to have after spending 11 months in whole. The crew also reads from
shot Betty Lou Jensen and David captivity by the North Koreans. Genesis. The end of 1968 caused
Faraday on Lake Herman Road, By December 24, 1968, many monumental changes in
Benicia, San Francisco Bay, something historic happens. U.S. human history as 1968 was one of
California. David Eisenhower spacecraft Apollo 8 enters orbit the most revolutionary years in
married Julie Nixon, the daughter around the Moon. Astronauts world history.
of U.S. President-elect Richard Frank Borman, Jim Lovell, and
Nixon on December 22. The William A. Anders become the
Appendix A: The Music of that Era
On September 7, 1968, Led Zeppelin performed for the first time, billed as The New Yardbirds (the
Yardbirds had disbanded two months earlier, and guitarist Jimmy Page subsequently formed this new group).
Diana Ross & the Supremes replace The Beatles' hugely successful "Hey Jude" at number-one in the U.S.
with "Love Child"; this would be the last of five turnovers at number-one between the two most successful
music acts in America during the 1960s. The Supremes’ Love Child song talked about the experiences of
single mothers and their children in a positive way. The song shined a light on an important part of the black
experience. On November 22, 1968, The Beatles released "The White Album." Also released is The Kinks
Are the Village Green Preservation Society by The Kinks. By November 26, 1968, Cream plays their farewell
concert at the Royal Albert Hall. It will be the last time Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce, and Ginger Baker play
together until their 1993 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. On December 9, 1968, TCB aired
on NBC starring Diana Ross & the Supremes and The Temptations, becoming the first variety special in
America to feature an exclusively African American cast. TCB is a 1968 television special produced by
Motown Productions and George Schlatter–Ed Friendly Productions of Laugh-In fame.

By Timothy