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AZIONAMENTI ELETTRICI (ELECTRIC DRIVES)

GENERAL INFORMATIONS

LM in INGEGNERIA ELETTROTECNICA a. a. 2012/2013
LM in INGEGNERIA ELETTROTECNICA
a. a. 2012/2013

OUTLINE OF THE COURSE

Introduction and Transducers

DC Drives

PM Machines

(1 CFU) (2 CFU) (2 CFU)

– DC Brushless drives

– Arbitrary Reference Frame Theory

– AC Brushless drives

Induction Machines

– Dynamic Modelling

– Scalar Control

– Vector Control

(3 CFU)

Labs and exercises

(1 CFU)

– Scalar Control – Vector Control (3 CFU) • Labs and exercises (1 CFU) Azionamenti Elettrici

Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1

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– Scalar Control – Vector Control (3 CFU) • Labs and exercises (1 CFU) Azionamenti Elettrici

TEXTBOOKS

Notes from the lessons (to be taken directly by the students)

References

– P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, S. D. Sudhoff - “ANALYSYS OF ELECTRIC MACHINERY” - Ed. IEEE Press

– P. Pillay et alii - “PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF PERMANENT MAGNET AC MOTOR DRIVES” - IEEE Industry Applications Society Tutorial Course, 1991

– D. W. Novotny, T. A. Lipo - “VECTOR CONTROL AND DYNAMICS OF AC DRIVES” - Ed. Oxford Science Publications

CONTROL AND DYNAMICS OF AC DRIVES” - Ed. Oxford Science Publications Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1

Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1

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CONTROL AND DYNAMICS OF AC DRIVES” - Ed. Oxford Science Publications Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1

EXAM

The exam will consist in a colloquium on the topics covered by during the lessons

EXPLANATIONS

Students are welcome to come and ask for explanations any time they need it.

Students are welcome to come and ask for explanations any time they need it. Azionamenti Elettrici

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Students are welcome to come and ask for explanations any time they need it. Azionamenti Elettrici

AZIONAMENTI ELETTRICI (ELECTRIC DRIVES)

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION LM in INGEGNERIA ELETTROTECNICA a. a. 2012/2013
INTRODUCTION
LM in INGEGNERIA ELETTROTECNICA
a. a. 2012/2013

ELECTRIC DRIVE

ELECTRIC DRIVE: a system that allows to obtain a controlled electromechanical energy conversion process

that allows to obtain a controlled electromechanical energy conversion process Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina
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COMPONENTS OF AN ELECTRIC DRIVE

Electric Machine

Power Electronics Converter

Transducers

Control Logic & Hardware

Others:

– Mechanical coupling

– Filters

– Etc.

Logic & Hardware • Others: – Mechanical coupling – Filters – Etc. Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson

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Logic & Hardware • Others: – Mechanical coupling – Filters – Etc. Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson

APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRIC DRIVES

Machining

– Turning

– Surface milling

– Drilling

Robotics

Electric propulsion

– Trains

– Cars

– Airplanes, ships

Electric propulsion – Trains – Cars – Airplanes, ships • Information Technology • Home appliances •
Electric propulsion – Trains – Cars – Airplanes, ships • Information Technology • Home appliances •
Electric propulsion – Trains – Cars – Airplanes, ships • Information Technology • Home appliances •

Information Technology

Home appliances

ships • Information Technology • Home appliances • Lifts, cranes, etc Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1

Lifts, cranes, etc

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Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1
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SPECIFICATIONS OF ELECTRIC DRIVES

Mechanical requirements

– Torque, speed, position

– Motion profiles

– Static and dynamic performances (steady state error, regulation bandwidth)

Environmental requirements

– Drive protection against enviromental agents (IP grading)

– Risks related to explosion, aggressive enviroments

– Safety (Electric protection and grounding, EMC)

– Grid connection

Life cycle

– Installation, operation, dismissing costs

Grid connection • Life cycle – Installation, operation, dismissing costs Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina

Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1

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Grid connection • Life cycle – Installation, operation, dismissing costs Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina

AZIONAMENTI ELETTRICI (ELECTRIC DRIVES)

TRANSDUCERS

TRANSDUCERS LM in INGEGNERIA ELETTROTECNICA a. a. 2012/2013
TRANSDUCERS
LM in INGEGNERIA ELETTROTECNICA
a. a. 2012/2013

DEFINITIONS

TRANSDUCER: a device that allows to convert a physical quantity into another physical quantity (generally, an electrical quantity), which is suitable for measurement

SENSOR: a device that informs us that a physical quantity has reached a specified value

The transducer introduces a proportionality between physical quantities that allows continuous measurement, while a sensor does not provide any information until the physical quantity has reached a specified value

Physical quantities measured in an electric drive:

– Electrical, mechanical, thermal variables

measured in an electric drive: – Electrical, mechanical, thermal variables Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina

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measured in an electric drive: – Electrical, mechanical, thermal variables Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina

PERFORMANCES OF A TRANSDUCER

PERFORMANCES OF A TRANSDUCER • Accuracy : measures how faithfully the output reproduces the input. It

Accuracy: measures how faithfully the output reproduces the input. It is usually expressed in %.

Dead band: measures the maximum input variation that is not reflected in the output.

Drift: measures the variation in the output that is not caused by a variation in the input.

Aging: measures the effect of time on the output.

Linearity: measures how constant is the ratio between input and output. It is usually expressed in %.

Repetitivity: measures the closeness among different measurements, maintaining the same input and conditions.

Resolution: measures the minimum change in the input that is reflected in the output.

Sensitivity: measures the ratio between the change in the output and the corresponding change in the input (gain)

Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines - Lesson 1

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output and the corresponding change in the input (gain) Dynamic Analysis and Control of AC Machines

ERROR OF A TRANSDUCER

Random error: measurement error that can affect with the

same probability both in increase and decrease the measured

value.

Affects PRECISION

Systematic error: deviation between the measured and the

actual value.

Affects ACCURACY

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QUANTIZATION EFFECT

Is the effect introduced by an A/D conversion, necessary to express a measurement in digital format.

It affects the sensitivity.

It is determined by the No. of bit of the A/D converter

Example:

– 8 bit: 1/256 of full scale

– 10 bit: 1/1024 of full scale

– 12 bit: 1/4096 of full scale

full scale – 10 bit: 1/1024 of full scale – 12 bit: 1/4096 of full scale
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SAMPLING EFFECT (ALIASING)

Is the effect introduced by the sampling of an analog signal, in order to perform the A/D conversion.

In order to avoid aliasing, the sampling frequency needs to be at least twice the maximum frequency of the input signal. (Shannon Theorem)

at least twice the maximum frequency of the input signal. (Shannon Theorem) Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson
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DYMAMIC PERFORMANCES

They measure how the input frequency determines a variation in the output.

Can be determined by the Bode diagrams

Usually, in datasheets, only the bandwidth (BW) is reported.

diagrams • Usually, in datasheets, only the bandwidth (BW) is reported. Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1
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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: ABSOLUTE ENCODER

Disk with splits. Photodiodes and phototransistors at both ends, to compose a digital number

N bit, N annuli, N photodiodes/transistors, 2N sectors

Resolution: 2N (integer numbers between 0 and 2N-1)

2N sectors • Resolution: 2N (integer numbers between 0 and 2N-1) Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1
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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: ABSOLUTE ENCODER

• Gray code, instead of natural binary code, used to avoid position errors. • With
• Gray code, instead of
natural binary code, used to
avoid position errors.
• With Gray code, only one
bit changes from one
position to another
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POSITION TRANSDUCERS:

INCREMENTAL ENCODER

POSITION TRANSDUCERS: INCREMENTAL ENCODER • Three signals (A, B, Z) • A: n impulses per revolution

Three signals (A, B, Z)

A: n impulses per revolution (usually 2N)

B: same as A, but in quadrature

Z

(or NM): one pulse per

revolution. Used to establish an absolute position

The (digital) position

information is created inside

a counter

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS:

INCREMENTAL ENCODER

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS:

INCREMENTAL ENCODER

POSITION TRANSDUCERS: INCREMENTAL ENCODER • There is a small delay (position error) introduced by this commutation

There is a small delay (position error) introduced by this commutation logic.

It can be limited with more complex logic

However, it is reset at the next Z pulse

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ABSOLUTE Vs. INCREMENTAL ACCURACY

Absolute accuracy affects the accuracy of position measurement

Incremental accuracy affects the accuracy of speed estimation from a position sensor

the accuracy of speed estimation from a position sensor High absolute accuracy Low incremental accuracy Low

High absolute accuracy Low incremental accuracy

Low absolute accuracy High incremental accuracy

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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER

POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina 23
POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina 23
POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina 23
POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina 23
Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina 23
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POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER

A sinusoidal excitation (few kHz) is provided to the rotor.

The two quadrature stator windings flux linkages vary with rotor position

V in = A sin(t)

V out1 = A K 1 sin() sin (t)

V out2 = A K 2 cos() sin (t)

V out1 / V out2 = tan()

Hyp: K 1 = K 2 .

The tangent function is very tricky to be treated as a digital information, since it goes to infinity. Whenever it is possible, it is better to avoid it!

it goes to infinity. Whenever it is possible, it is better to avoid it! Azionamenti Elettrici

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it goes to infinity. Whenever it is possible, it is better to avoid it! Azionamenti Elettrici

POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER

Let be the variable that stores the position information

Cross-product with cos() and sin()

V 1 = A K sin() cos() sin (t)

V 2 = A K cos() sin() sin (t)

DV = V 1 - V 2 = A K sin (t) [sin() cos() - cos() sin()] = A K sin (t) [sin()]

If we assume that initially  then sin() ()

Now, we can construct a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) to determine the variable that stores the position information and it is locked to follow the original angle .

position information and it is locked to follow the original angle  . Azionamenti Elettrici -

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position information and it is locked to follow the original angle  . Azionamenti Elettrici -

POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER

POSITION TRANSDUCERS: RESOLVER Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina 26
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POSITION TRANSDUCERS:

SINUSOIDAL ENCODER

POSITION TRANSDUCERS: SINUSOIDAL ENCODER • An incremental encoder easily allows a resolution of 2 1 0

An incremental encoder easily allows a resolution of 2 10

A resolver allows 2 12

A sinusoidal encoder can reach a resolution of 2 10 + 2 12 = 2 22

2 22 = 4194304

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SPEED TRANSDUCERS: TACHO

SPEED TRANSDUCERS: TACHO • No load: V = E g = K g n • No

No load: V = E g = K g n

No load voltage is proportional to speed

If we measure the voltage:

V = (K g n) R A / (R A + R L )

It is essentially a DC generator with PM excitation

Speed is measured as an analog signal

Not used any more in digital drives

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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION

INCREMENTAL RATIO

T

T: Observation window

: Measured position variation

: Calculated speed

It is a measure of the average speed

Resolution problems at very low speeds

Increasing the observation window increases resolution but decreases the bandwidth of the measured signal

Example:

Encoder 1024 ppr, T=1ms Minimum measurable speed:

1 pulse / 1 ms = (2/1024) / 1 ms = 6.13 rad/s = 58.6 rpm

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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION

SPEED OBSERVER – Open loop

(T L )^

(T)^ ) ^ ) ^ (1/J) ^
(T)^
) ^
) ^
(1/J) ^
OBSERVER – Open loop (T L )^ (T)^ ) ^ ) ^ (1/J) ^ ( (
( (
(
(

Derives from the mechanical model

It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION

SPEED OBSERVER – Closed loop

SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION SPEED OBSERVER – Closed loop • Derives from the mechanical model •

Derives from the mechanical model

It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION

SPEED OBSERVER – Closed loop with load estimation

POSITION SPEED OBSERVER – Closed loop with load estimation • Derives from the mechanical model •

Derives from the mechanical model

It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

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DERIVING SPEED FROM DIGITAL POSITION

SPEED OBSERVER – Digital implementation

DIGITAL POSITION SPEED OBSERVER – Digital implementation • Derives from the mechanical model • It is

Derives from the mechanical model

It is the best way to measure speed because it has at the same time good accuracy, resolution and bandwidth

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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: SHUNT

CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: SHUNT v sh = R sh i • Simple and low cost • Parasitic

v sh = R sh i

Simple and low cost

Parasitic inductance. Need for anti-inductive resistors for high frequency measurements

Thermal effect. Need for materials with low temperature coefficient (constantan, manganin)

It is not possible to achieve electrical isolation of the measured signal

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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT

Open loop

CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT Open loop R H  B I B  v H d
R H  B I B  v H d
R
H
B
I B
v H
d

I

cos t.

v H

I x
I x
I  B  v x H Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina 35
I
B
v
x
H
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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT

Closed loop

CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT Closed loop If B=0, then also the m.m.f. is zero: N I

If B=0, then also the m.m.f. is zero:

N I  N i  0 x x 2 2 B=0 i 2
N
I
N i
0
x
x
2
2
B=0
i 2

B

cos t.

I x
I x
I  i  0, I  x 2 Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina
I
 i
0, I
x
2
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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT

Datasheet

CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT Datasheet Azionamenti Elettrici - Lesson 1 Pagina 37
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CURRENT TRANSDUCERS: HALL EFFECT

Datasheet

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VOLTAGE TRANSDUCERS

VOLTAGE PARTITIONER

HALL EFFECT

i 1 V x i 2 HALL CURRENT SENSOR
i
1
V
x
i
2
HALL
CURRENT
SENSOR

V meas

Simple and low cost

Parasitic inductance

No electrical isolation

High bandwidth

Quite complex and costly

Electrical isolation

Voltage transducers are NOT used in commercial drives

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