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You know that in a solid, the molecules wiggle in place.

In a liquid, they
move more and slide over each other. In a gas, the molecules bounce around
and move very fast. The difference between the phases is a difference in how
the molecules move.

Therefore, if you want to make matter change phase, you have to make its
molecules move differently.

How do you make a molecule move faster? It is simple. Remember that heat
is the energy of moving molecules. To make a molecule move faster you
have to heat it.

How do you make a molecule move more slowly? To make a molecule


move more slowly, you have to take heat away.

Changing Phase
Water (H2O) is a very common kind of matter on Earth. The water molecule
is made of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. Water is solid, a
liquid, and a gas at some very ordinary temperatures. Water is a good way to
talk about the phases of matter and how they change.

The solid phase of water is called ice. In ice, the molecules are wiggling in
place. They keep their position as long as there is not too much heat. On a
cold winter day or in a freezer, an ice cube keeps its shape. It is stiff and
hard.

Suppose you heat the ice cube. You take it out of the freezer and put it in a
pan in your kitchen. The air in your kitchen is moving very fast. It bounces
against the ice cube and bumps into its molecules. The molecules start
wiggling faster. Some of them start sliding. Because of gravity, they slide
downwards to the bottom of the pan. Your ice cube is turning into a liquid
called water. Eventually it will be a puddle on the bottom of the pan.
The ice has changed phase. Now it is water. It is still the same kind of
matter. Its molecules are still H2O. It is only the phase which is different.

You can make the water change phase too. If you put the pan on the stove,
you can make the molecules move faster. If they move fast enough, they will
bounce right out of the liquid and into the air, spreading out in every
direction. This is the gas phase of water, which is called steam. The water
has changed phase. It is still the same kind of matter. Its molecules are still
H2O. It is only the phase which is different.

You cannot see steam. When you see little wispy clouds above a boiling pan,
you are seeing condensation. Water molecules in the steam hit the cool air,
lost some of their heat, and turned back into water again. Condensation is
the change of phase from gas to liquid.

Likewise, you can change water to ice. Put the water in the freezer. It will
lose some heat, its molecules will slow down, and it will freeze.

Change Points
The temperature at which water must change phase from solid to liquid (ice
to water) is 0° Celsius. That temperature is the melting point of water. The
temperature at which it must change phase from liquid to gas (water to
steam) is 100° Celsius. That is the boiling point of water. A melting point is
the temperature at which a solid will change to a liquid. A boiling point is
the temperature at which a liquid will change to a gas.

Suppose you heat a piece of solid metal, like an electric stove burner. To
begin with, though its molecules vibrate faster, they still hold their position.
You heat the burner more, and the molecules vibrate even more, but they
still hold their position. In fact, you can make its molecules move so fast
they start giving off light, but the burner is still a solid.

The melting point of the stove burner is much hotter than the melting point
of ice, isn't it? Remember that every kind of matter has its own properties,
such as color, hardness, shininess, and density. Every kind of matter also
changes phase at its own special temperatures.

Below is a chart showing the melting points and boiling points of some common kinds of
matter. A minus number is a number below zero. The larger a minus number is on the
temperature scale, the colder it is.

Kind of Melting Point Boiling Point


matter (Celsius) (Celsius)
Water 0° 100°
Nitrogen -210° -195.8°
Mercury -38.4° 357°
Iron 1536° 3000°
You can see that nitrogen goes from a solid to a liquid and a liquid to a gas at
very low temperatures. Iron, on the other hand, stays a solid until it gets very
hot, and does not boil until the heat is almost incredible! The molecules of
nitrogen move apart from each other very easily. The molecules of iron do
not.

In this unit, you have found out that everything around you is made of
matter. People call reality "solid matter," but now you know matter does not
have to be solid. It can be a liquid, a gas, or even a plasma. Yet it is still
matter.

Homework
Questions: For your first assignment of the week, answer these questions in
complete sentences on a sheet of loose-leaf paper, with a proper header:

1. If you want to make a piece of matter change phase from solid to


liquid, what must you do to its molecules?
2. What is the difference between a melting point and a boiling point?
3. Look at the chart above. What phase of matter is mercury most likely
to be when the temperature is normal? (Hint: look at the freezing point
of water.)
4. A chemist trying to identify a piece of matter might heat it. Why do
you think the chemist would do this?
Pengertian Gerak Serta Macam & Jenis Gerak : Semu/Relatif,
Ganda dan Lurus - Belajar Online Internet Gratis Ilmu
Science Fisika
Tue, 08/08/2006 - 10:43am — godam64

A. Arti / Definsi / Pengertian Gerak

Gerak adalah suatu perubahan tempat kedudukan pada suatu benda dari titik

keseimbangan awal. Sebuah benda dikatakan bergerak jika benda itu berpindah

kedudukan terhadap benda lainnya baik perubahan kedudukan yang menjauhi maupun

yang mendekati.

B. Jenis / Macam-Macam Gerak

1. Gerak Semu atau Relatif

Gerak semu adalah gerak yang sifatnya seolah-olah bergerak atau tidak sebenarnya

(ilusi).

Contoh :

- Benda-benda yang ada diluar mobil kita seolah bergerak padahal kendaraanlah yang

bergerak.

- Bumi berputar pada porosnya terhadap matahari, namun sekonyong-konyong kita

melihat matahari bergerak dari timur ke barat.

2. Gerak Ganda

Gerak ganda adalah gerak yang terjadi secara bersamaan terhadap benda-benda yang

ada di sekitarnya.

Contoh :

Seorang bocah kecil yang kurus dan dekil melempar puntung rokok dari atas kereta

rangkaia listrik saat berjalan di atap krl tersebut. Maka terjadi gerak puntung rokok

terhadap tiga (3) benda di sekitarnya, yaitu :

- Gerak terhadap kereta krl

- Gerak terhadap bocah kecil yang kurus dan dekil

- Gerak terhadap tanah / bumi


3. Gerak Lurus

Gerak lurus adalah gerak pada suatu benda melalui lintasan garis lurus. Contohnya

seperti gerak rotasi bumi, gerak jatuh buah apel, dan lain sebagainya. Gerak lurus dapat

kita bagi lagi menjadi beberapa jenis, yaitu :

a. Gerak lurus beraturan (GLB)

Gerak lurus beraturan adalah gerak suatu benda yang lurus beraturan dengan kecepatan

yang tetap dan stabil.

Misal :

- Kereta melaju dengan kecepatan yang sama di jalur rel yang lurus

- Mobil di jalan tol dengan kecepatan tetap stabil di dalam perjalanannya.

b. Gerak lurus berubah beraturan (GLBB)

Gerak lurus berubah beraturan adalah gerak suatu benda yang tidak beraturan dengan

kecepatan yang berubah-ubah dari waktu ke waktu.

Misalnya :

- Gerak jatuhnya tetesan air hujan dari atap ke lantai

- Mobil yang bergerak di jalan lurus mulai dari berhenti

 fisika

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