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En.

 Muhammad 
En. Muhammad Hanafi
Hanafi Bin Asril
Bin Asril Rajo
j
Mantari

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2015 1
MATERIALS CLASSES

No. Material Class


1 M t l
Metals d til t
ductile, tough and electrical conductors
h d l ti l d t
2 Ceramics and Glass hard, brittle and corrosion resistant
3 Polymers and elastomers light, easily shaped and electrical insulators
4 Composites combine the attractive properties of the other 
classes of materials while avoiding some of their 
drawbacks. Usually they are light, stiff and strong, 
and they can be tough
d th b t h

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• Figure 2 shows much more information is displayed by an 
alternative way of plotting properties. 

• One property (eg: Modulus, E) is plotted against another 
(
(density, ρ) on logarithmic scales.
y, ρ) g

• Data for a given class of materials (polymer for example) 
cluster together on the chart.

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Figure 2: 
The idea of a Materials 
P
Property Chart (M.F. 
t Ch t (M F
Ashby, 1999)
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Table 1: Materials classes and members of each class (M.F. Ashby, 1999)

Class Members Short name


Engineering Alloys Aluminium alloys Al alloys
(The metals and alloys of Copper alloys Cu alloys
engineering)
g g) Lead alloys Lead aloys
Magnesium alloys Mg alloys
Molybdenum alloys Mo alloys
Nickel alloys Ni alloys
Steels Steels
Tin alloys Tin alloys
Titanium alloys Ti alloys
Tungsten alloys W alloys
Zinc alloys Zn alloys

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Class Members Short name

Engineering Polymers Epoxies EP


(The thermoplastics Melamines MEL
and thermosets of Polycarbonate PC
engineering) Polyesters PEST
Polyethylene high density
Polyethylene, HDPE
Polyethylene, low density LDPE
Polyformaldehyde PF
Polymethylmethacrylate PMMA
Polypropylene PP
Polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE
Polyvinylchloride PVC

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Class Members Short name
Engineering Ceramics Alumina Al2O3
(Fine ceramics capable of Diamond C
load--bearing application)
load Si l
Sialons Si l
Sialons
Silicon Carbide SiC
Silicon Nitride Si3N4
Zi
Zirconia
i Z O2
ZrO
Porous Ceramics Brick Brick
(Traditional ceramics, Cement Cement
cements,
t rocksk and
d Common rocks Rocks
minerals) Concrete Concrete
Porcelain Pcln
Pottery Pot
Glasses Borosilicate glass B-glass
((ordinary
y silicate glass)
g ) Soda g glass Na--g
Na glass
Silica SiO2
Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2015 7
Class Members Short
name
Engineering Composites Carbon fibre reinforced CFRP
(The composites of polymer
engineering practice). A Glass fibre reinforced GFRP
distinction is drawn between polymer
the properties of ply – ‘UNIPLY’ Kevlar fibre reinforced
– and of a laminate – KFRP
polymer
‘LAMINATES’
W d
Woods Ash
A h Ash
A h
(separate envelopes describe Balsa Balsa
properties parallel to the grain Fir Fir
and normal to it, and wood Oak
O k Oak
O k
products)
Pine Pine
Wood products (ply, etc) Woods

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2015 8
Class Members Short name

Elastomers Natural rubber Rubber


(Natural and artificial rubbers) Hard Butyl rubber Hard Butyl
Polyurethanes
y PU
Silicon rubber Silicone
Soft Butyl rubber Soft Butyl
Polymer Foams Cork Cork
(Foamed polymers of Polyester PEST
engineering) Polystyrene PS
Polyurethane PU

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THE MATERIAL SELECTION CHARTS

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Figure 3: The 
modulus‐density 
d l d i
chart

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Figure 4: The Strength‐
density chart

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Figure 5: The modulus 
– Strength chart

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......FINISH ......
THANK YOUY

Hanafi,JKM,PPD,2015 14

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