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Biodiversity/Environment Protection
and
Climate change mitigation:
International Efforts

Compiled by Dr.Anoob Razak

[Check http://www.clearias.com for more!]

Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
What' inside?
• Different international conventions and
protocols.

Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
South - South cooperation
North - South cooperation
Triangular cooperation

North-South debate
-many of those debates stem around the concept I principle of
Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR)

North/Global North - Developed Countries


South/Global South - Developing Countries
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
Common But Differentiated
Responsibilities (CBDR)
• 2 fundamental elements
I) the common responsibility of each & every State
for the protection of the environment, or parts of it,
at the national, regional and global levels
2) the need to take into account the different
circumstances, particularly each State's contribution
to the evolution of a particular problem and
its ability to prevent, reduce and control the threat
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
Rio Declaration on Environment & Development
- from UNCED, Rio, 1992

--.;. • principle 7 states that-


"States shall cooperate in a spirit of global
partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health
and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem.
In view of the different contributions to global
environmental degradation, States have common but
differentiated responsibilities.
The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility
that they bear in the international pursuit to sustainable
development in view of the pressures their societies place
on the global environment and of the technologies and
f,nancial resources they command"
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
(-entered into on 21 st March 1994)

,___,. Principle I-
''The Parties should protect the climate
system for the benefit of present and future
generations of humankind, on the basis of
equity and in accordance with their common
but differentiated responsibilities and
respective capabilities.
Accordingly, the developed country Parties
should take the lead in combating climate
change and the a~~p ~f~~-~ff~£~~eck~~~r[~9t(;'IAS
.com
Civil Service Mains 2008

..-Q) South - South Cooperation

..- (150 words, 15 marks)

Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
Convention & Protocol
• Convention
• a general assembly
• a general agreement on some principles
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Eg. Carbon emission should be reduced

• Protocol
• a detailed plan of scientific procedure
• a code prescribing strict adherence/ set of rules to
be followed
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Eg. Each nation should limit its carbon emission to
a maximum of 95% of previous year
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
• Very often Protocol comes out as a resu It of a
discussion within a Convention

>- Vienna Convention


»Montreal Protocol
>- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
» Cartagena Protocol
>- Nagoya - Kuala Lampur Supplementary Protocol
» Nagoya Protocol
>- UNFramework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC)
» Kyoto ProtocolCompiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@
IAS .com
• The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the
.-. Convention on Biological Diversity

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The Nagoya - Kuala Lumpur Supplementary
Protocol on Liability and Redress to the Cartagena
Protocol on Biosafety

• The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic


Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of
Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the
Convention on Biological Diversity
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
__.• Secretariat of CBD - Montreal, Canada

• Conference of Parties (COP)


0
Governing body of CBD
0
Includes all parties who have ratified the convention
(US has signed, but not ratified CBD
so it is not a party to CBD, but attends the
meetings of CBD)
°ᣊ COP - Meets every 2 years

Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
• COP I -1 994 - Bahamas

• COP IO - 20 IO - Nagoya, Japan

• COP I I - 2012 - Hyderabad, India,


October 2012

• COP 12 - 2014 - Pyeongchang, South Korea,


October 2014
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
CARTAGENA PROTOCOL
on BIOSAFETY
--ii• In 2000, the Conference of the Parties to the
Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a
supplementary agreement to the Convention known
as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

• Came into force in 2003


• COP-MOP along with COP every two years
i.e. COP-MOP 6 in 2012, along with COP I I @ Hyderabad

(COP-MOP : Conference of Parties serving as the Meeting of Parties


to the protocol)
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
• The Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity
from the potential risks posed by Living Modified
Organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern
biotechnology.
• Protocol establishes
};;> Advance Informed Agreement (AIA) procedure
for ensuring that countries are provided with the
information necessary to make informed
decisions before agreeing to the import of such
organisms into their territory.
};;> Biosafety Clearing-House to facilitate the
exchange of information on living modified
organisms and to assist countries in the
implementation of the Protocol
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
• Miami Group :
- opposes the Cartagena Protocol provisions
- US, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay

(exporters of GM crops + developed countries with


large biotechnology industries, includes 3 developing
countries).

• Wanted free trade of GM products without


burdensome bureaucratic approval procedures and
protectionism masquerading as environmental

protection Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: t;f§,jij IAS .com
NAGOYA PROTOCOL on
ACCESS BENEFIT SHARING
--ii • Adopted at COP IO held at NAGOYA in AICHI

Province in Japan in 20 I 0

• ''Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic


Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of

Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS) to


the Convention on Biological Diversity''
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
Convention on International Trade
in Endangered Species of Wild Flora
& Fauna (CITES)
(Washington Convention)
• an intergovernmental agreement,
administered through UNEP
• Aim
0
To ensure that international trade in specimens of
wild animals and plants does not threaten their
survival

• around 178 parties


• COP- once in 3 years
March 20 I 3- Bangkok
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
• Around 5000 species of animals & 29000 species of
plants are protected by CITES against
overexploitation through international trade

• 3 Appendices
• Appendix I -
• species that are threatened with extinction
• Appendix II -
• species that are not necessarily threatened with
extinction, but may become so unless trade is subjected
to regulations
• Appendix Ill -
• species that are not threatened with extinction, but
added to the list since requested by a party
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com
Convention on the Conservation of
Migratory Species of Wild Animals
(CMS) (Bonn Convention)
--ii• Intergovernmental treaty,
under the aegis of UNEP

• Aims to conserve terrestrial,


marine and avian migratory
species throughout their range

• 2 App en dices
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Append ix I -
• threatened species
0
Appendix II -
• Migratory species requiring
international cooperation for
CO nse rvati On Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: t;f§,jij IAS .com
The International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources for Food & Agriculture
(International Seed Treaty)
Intergovernmental agreement

"plant genetic resources for food & agriculture"

Objectives are the conservation of plant genetic resources


for food & agriculture and fair & equitable sharing of
benefits derived from their use, in harmony with CBD, for
sustainable agriculture & food security

Farmer's Rights
Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak. Check for more at: r';f§,j@ IAS .com

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