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Stepper Motors

ECET 209 – Lecture 23


Introduction to Microcontrollers
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Stepper Motors
• Move in small increments of rotation
• Can hold a position indefinitely under load
• Can rotate continuously
• Can move quickly to position and “freeze”
• Are used for
– robots
– printer head positioning
– disk drive head positioning
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Stepper Motors

• Permanent Magnet Rotor


• Set of Windings
– Create Poles
– Orientation allows
• A Slightly Shifting Magnetic Field
• By Activating One Field at a Time
• That Step Around the Motor

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Electrical Characteristics
+V

Coil Coil Coil Coil


1 2 3 4

control
1
2
3
4
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Stepper Operation
Coil 1

Coil4 Coil2

Coil 3

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Stepper Operation
Coil 1

Coil4 Coil2

Coil 3

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Stepper Operation
Coil 1

Coil4 Coil2

Coil 3

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Stepper Operation
Coil 1

Coil4 Coil2

Coil 3

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Stepper Operation
Coil 1

Coil4 Coil2

Coil 3

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Electrical Characteristics
+V

Coil Coil Coil Coil


1 2 3 4

control
1
2
3
4
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Stepper Modes

• Full Step
• Half Step
• Wave Drive

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Full Step Sequence
C o il 1 C o il 2 C o il 3 C o il 4

1 0 1 0

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 0

7.5 degrees / step 48 steps / rev

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Half Step Sequence
C o il C o il 2 C o il 3 C o il 4
1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 0
3.75 degrees /step 96 steps /rev
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Wave Drive Sequence
C o il 1 C o il 2 C o il 3 C o il 4

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

7.5 Degrees per step, 48 steps/rev

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Micro generates sequence
Micro
Coil Coil Coil Coil
1 2 3 4

Port

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Full Step Sequence
C o il 1 C o il 2 C o il 3 C o il 4

1 0 1 0

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 0

7.5 degrees / step 48 steps / rev

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Half Step Sequence
C o il C o il 2 C o il 3 C o il 4
1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 0
3.75 degrees /step 96 steps /rev
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Micro generates sequence
Micro

Port

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Counter generates sequence

Coil Coil Coil Coil


1 2 3 4

UP/DN

clock
counter

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Position Sensor

• The motor’s gear has a slot cut in it


• This slot serves has a reference indicator
• The lab board has an IR gap sensor
• The output of gap sensor is provided in the
IO header of the stepper board

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In Lab
• Supply the PLD a Direction bit
– CW = 1
– CCW = 0
• Supply a STEP pulse ( High then Low )
– Speed Limit of 250 steps / second
• Delay between steps
• Monitor the reference indicator
– Determine when the motor is “home”

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