Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

Т.Н.

Станиловская

CIVIL
ENGINEERING

Учебное пособие

Для студентов II курса


инженерного факультета

Часть 2

Москва
Российский университет дружбы народов
2009

1
Утверждено
РИС Ученого совета
Российского университета
дружбы народов

Станиловская Т.Н.
Civil engineering: Учебное пособие.- М.: РУДН, 2009. - с.

В пособии представлен ряд оригинальных текстов по гражданскому строительству


для перевода текстов как с английского языка на русский, так и наоборот, а также для
изучения терминологии по специальности. Тексты сопровождаются упражнениями на
закрепление терминологии, анализа текста и грамматическими упражнениями.
Предназначено для студентов II курса специальности «Гражданское
строительство», а также широкого круга лиц, интересующихся гражданским
строительством.
Подготовлено на кафедре иностранных языков № 4.

Станиловская Т.Н., 2009


Российский университет дружбы народов, Издательство, 2009

2
CONTENTS

UNIT 1 NEW TRENDS IN ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

Text 1 Bioclimatic architecture


Text 2 Bio-History
Text 3 New trends in urban management
Text 4 Why choose wood?
Text 5 Innovations in wood materials.

UNIT 2

3
UNIT 1

NEW TRENDS IN ARCHITECTURE

BIOCLIMATIC ARCHITECTURE

Pre-reading discussion

1. What do you think the green house is?


2. What is meant by “Bioclimatic architecture” in your opinion?
3. What is a sustainable architecture?

Text 1 Scan the text below and find information on the impact of building on the environment
and integrated bioclimatic architecture. What is the topic and the main idea of the text?

Bioclimatic Architecture

Bioclimatic architecture is a way of designing buildings and manipulating the


environment within buildings by working with natural forces around the building rather than
against them. Thus it concerns itself with climate as a major contextual generator, and with
benign environments using minimum energy as its target. Bioclimatic architecture aims to
protect and enhance the environment and life. It is developing on many different levels from
rethinking basic concepts about our need for shelter and the function of the “city” in our lives to
developing recycled or sustainable building materials.
The impact of traditional building on the environment and natural resources is enormous.
However, the ideal of designing and building structures that are environmentally friendly has
become fairly widespread throughout the community of architects and builders in developed
nations. In many areas there is the necessity of complying with new regulations and standards
aimed at protecting the environment. In addition, there are an increasing number of incentives
for putting up buildings with more efficient energy consumption and that reduces the negative
impacts on natural resources by using recycled or sustainable materials. While these vary around
the world, there is awareness that our need for shelter must not jeopardize the environment.
There is growing interest in “green” building practices, which offer an opportunity to
create environmentally sound and resource- efficient buildings by using an integrated approach
to design. “Green” buildings promote resource conservation through energy efficiency,
renewable energy, and water conservation features. They take into consideration the
environmental impact of the building and minimize waste. Other goals to create a healthy and
comfortable environment, reduce operation and maintenance cost, and address issues such as
historical preservation, access to public transportation and other community infrastructure
systems. The entire life cycle of the building and its components is considered, as well as the
economic and environmental impact and performance.
As public awareness of environmental issues increases, the construction developers are
also beginning to see that “green building” can be profitable and a selling point. Market surveys
show that a surprising number of potential buyers are interested and will pay the higher prices
for a home that is environmentally friendly. In the last few years there has been much talk
concerning environmentally responsible architecture, that is architecture respectful of the earth’s
resources and its natural beauty. Unfortunately, many of the architects and designers who profess
interest in the concept of sustainable architecture do not practice in their own work for whatever

4
reason, be it their client’s lack of interest or their own lack of conviction. In fact, most architects
ignore the issue altogether, preferring to regard architecture as fashion. This is a terribly
irresponsible view, because in terms of energy use and visual pollution, buildings have had an
increasingly severe and damaging impact on the environment, this makes the issue of sustainable
architecture not only an important consideration but also a necessary one. As for a building
philosophy for national parks, which were created to conserve nature for future generations, it
seems that sustainable architecture, or “ integrated bioclimatic architecture”, is the only logical
and responsible approach.
What is integrated bioclimatic architecture? It is the architecture that arises out of the
landscape, with the site determining the orientation and construction of a building, not just
aesthetically, but also mechanically, determining its heating, cooling, and lighting too. Thus, it is
an architecture that respects nature and its resources and provides its occupants with the most
comfortable and pleasing environment possible. However, this architectural approach need not
be a restrictive one for imaginative practitioners. As integrated bioclimatic architecture
encompasses examples of vernacular architecture, like the typical “white stucco Mediterranean
fishing village”, as well as mimetic architecture, which draws on materials, textures, even the
plants of the surrounding landscape for its inspiration. Indeed, good integrated bioclimatic
architecture should exist in harmony with the site.

Task 2 Learn key vocabulary/expressions.

Benign - kind and gentle (благотворный; плодоносная (почва)


Conservation -the protection of natural things (animals, plants, forests etc.) from being spoiled
or destroyed - сохранение.
Conviction - a very strong belief or opinion – убеждение.
Comply - to do what you have to do or asked to do – исполнять просьбу, приказ.
Encompass - to include a wide range of ideas, subjects etc.- охватывать. 2. to completely
cover or surround smth. – окружать, заключать.
Enhance - to improve smth. – улучшать, усиливать.
Impact - to have an important or noticeable effect on smb. or smth – оказывть влияние,
воздействие.
Incentive - smth. that encourages you to work harder, start a new activity etc. – стимул,
побуждение.
Jeopardize - to risk loosing or spoiling smth. important. – угрожать, подвергать опасности.
Mimetic - technical copying the movements or appearance of smb. or smth. else. –
подражательный.
Profess - to say that you do, are etc. smth., especially when it is not really true -
выдавать себя за кого-то, претендовать. 2. To state a personal feeling or belief
openly – открыто заявлять.
Sustainable - able to continue without causing any damage to environment - непрерывный.
2. able to continue for a long time - возобновляемый.
Sustainable architecture – choosing materials that do not pollute and harm man’s health and
obtainable through non-polluting processes according to the principles of bio-
architecture.
Stucco - a type of plaster that is used especially to cover the outside walls of buildings –
штукатурка, штукатурить.
Vernacular - a style of building, music, art etc that is suitable for ordinary people-
национальный, местный.

Task 3. Read a few explanations to the text and learn them.

5
As public awareness of environmental issues increases,- по мере того как растет
осведомленность общественности во вопросам окружающей среды.
…who profess interest in the concept of sustainable architecture- которые открыто
интересуются концепцией поддерживающей архитектуры.
… buildings have had an increasingly severe and damaging impact on the environment – здания
оказывают все более разрушающее воздействие на окружающую среду.

Task 4.1 Translate the following words keeping in mind the meaning of prefix re-

Rethink, reheat, refuel, reread, reform, restructure, remake, refocus, re-establish, re-examination,
recycling, renew.

Task 4.2 Learn the meaning of the following words:


Bio – 1)relating to or using living things.
2) life.
3) biographical.
• Bio-diplomacy- to rely on diplomacy, to resort to diplomacy.
• Bio-organization – an organization which studies biographies.
• Bio-history – to trace the history of smth.
• Bio-technology – to use the cells, bacteria etc. to make drugs, destroy waste matter.
• Bio-chemistry – the scientific study of the chemistry of living things.
• Biodegradable – materials, chemicals etc. that are changed naturally by bacteria into
substances that do not harm the environment.
• Bio-diversity- the variety of plants and animals in a particular place.
• Bio-feed back – a method of helping people to relax by teaching them to control their
heart rate, breathing etc., using an instrument attached to the body.
• Biological clock – the system in plants and animals that controls when they sleep, eat,
produce babies etc.
• Biomass – plant and animal matter used to provide power or energy.
• Biome – a type of environment that is described according to the typical weather
conditions and plants that exist there.
• Bionic- bionic arms, legs etc. are electronic and therefore stronger or faster than normal
arms etc.
• Biopic- a film that tells the storey of someone’s life.
• Bio-rhythms – regular changes in the speed at which physical processes happen in your
body, which some people believe can affect the way you feel.
• Biosphere- the part of the world in which animals, plants etc can live.
• Bio-education –education related to ecological aspects of our life-sustaining activity.
• Bio-archeology- studying diseases, diets etc. by the remnants of ancient people.

Task 5 Find in the text all synonyms to the phrase “green building”.

Task 6 Find Russian equivalents:

1. environmentally friendly –
2. bioclimatic architecture –
3. more efficient energy consumption –
4. to promote resource conservation –
5. an irresponsible view –

6
6. to exist in harmony with the site or nature –
7. public awareness of environmental issues –
8. resource-efficient buildings –
9. the environmental impact of the building –

Task 7 Translate from Russian into English:

1. арка, поддерживаемая колоннами –


2. создание здоровой окружающей среды –
3. плодоносная почва –
4. разрушающее воздействие –
5. пересмотр основных взглядов, понятий –
6. строительство, запланированное в этом районе –
7. повторное использование материалов –
8. возобновляемые ресурсы –
9. отсутствие убежденности

Task 8
Add the missing parts from the text

1. Bioclimatic architecture aims……………………………………………


2. In addition, there are an increasing number of incentives for……………
3. There is growing interest in “green” building practices,…………………
4. ……………..through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and water conservation
features.
5. ……………that “green building” can be profitable and a selling point.
6. In fact, most architects ignore the issue altogether, ………………………..
7. …………..or “integrated bioclimatic architecture”, is the only logical and responsible
approach.
8. It is the architecture that arises out of ………………………………………..
9. As integrate bioclimatic architecture encompasses…………………………..

Task 9. Answer the following questions to the text.

1. What is a bioclimatic architecture?


2. What is the impact of traditional building on the environment and natural resources?
3. Why is there growing interest in “Green” building practices?
4. What makes the construction developers see that “green” building can be profitable?
5. Do most architects regard architecture as fashion?
6. What is integrated bioclimatic architecture?
7. What is vernacular architecture?
8. How should good integrated bioclimatic architecture exist?

Task 10 Read the text and tell what the main concerns of environmentalists are.

Environmentalism is an organized movement of concerned citizens and government to


protect and enhance people’s living environment, to prevent the environment from being spoilt.
Environmentalists are the public concerned with strip mining, forest depletion, factory
smoke, billboards; with the loss of recreational opportunity; and with the increase in health
problems caused by polluted air, water, and chemically sprayed food. Environmentalists is a
person who tries to prevent the environment from being spoilt. Environmentalists are not against
marketing and consumption; they simply want businesses and consumers to operate on more

7
ecological principles. They think the goal of marketing system should be to maximize life quality
of the environment. They require business to invest in antipollution device, taxing non-returnable
bottles, and banning high – phosphate detergents. These measures are as necessary to induce
business and consumers to act in environmentally sound ways.

Task 11 Translate the following sentences with Subjunctive mood into Russian:

1. It is curious that the Mexican Indians should have employed concrete in their buildings.
2. But for timber piles, the Romans couldn’t have built roads.
3. The company insisted that the construction of the plant should be continued.
4. The owner of the house wished it would be protected by several coats of paint.
5. It is necessary that workers should protect the thumb and the fingers with leather pads.
6. It is time your company create a new turnkey project.
7. Your laminated floor looks as if it were parquet.
8. The plan was that the specialists should provide air-conditioning of the building.
9. As a rule the contractor provides with spare parts so that the project could normally
operate during the maintenance guarantee.
10. The heating or air-conditioning apparatus would have been able to maintain good
conditions inside the house but for the fault in its system.

Task 12 Match A with B


A
1. They would have gone long ago……..
2. I am sure they were pressed………….
3. I wish…………………………………
4. The suggestion was……………………
5. But for Marcus Porcius Cato………….
6. It is required……………………………

B
1. … that the material designed for modern buildings be practical and cheap.
2. …the ancient Romans shouldn’t have learnt to bake lime in the kilns.
3. ….but we insisted on their finishing the work.
4. ……otherwise they would have prepared a better draft.
5. …..that the vertical “blinds” on the façade of the building were mobile.
6. ….you had used marble for decoration of my house.

Task 13 Translate the sentences into English.

1. Хорошо, что мне привезли обои. Как бы я без них сделала ремонт в квартире?
2. Жаль, что вы не обратили внимание на отделку здания.
3. Его требование состояло в том, чтобы работа была немедленно выполнена.
4. Не может быть, чтобы этот завод производил некачественную продукцию.
5. Он потребовал, чтобы ему срочно показали проект стадиона.
6. Ах, если бы вы видели этот замечательный собор!
7. В этом здании так холодно, как будто бы здесь забыли провести отопление.
8. Нам бы хотелось, чтобы вы использовали дерево, а не фанеру при отделке нашей
квартиры.
9. Мы прочитаем эту статью, чтобы мы знали о современных строительных
материалах.
10. Необходимо, чтобы при строительстве этого комплекса учитывался местный
ландшафт.

8
Task 14 Translate from Russian into English.

В дополнение к плотному графику дизайнерские и конструкторские команды


должны были придерживаться строгих требований охраны окружающей среды компании
«Голдман Закс». По словам вице-президента компании целью является достижение
статуса «зеленое строительство», которое будет первым для комплекса такого размера.
Для этого, требования к зданию будут согласованы со стандартами Американского Совета
по «зеленому строительству» находящегося в Вашингтоне. Эта организация
устанавливает следующие стандарты: процентное соотношение материалов,
используемых в строительстве зданий, состоящих из переработанных материалов,
устранение строительных отходов, использование систем, уменьшающих расход
электроэнергии, меры защиты животных. Растет озабоченность по поводу травм птиц,
которые они получают при столкновении со стеклянными фасадами, поэтому в компании
«Голдман Закс» упорно работают над получением максимальной отражаемости стекла для
уменьшения количества таких случаев. Чтобы уменьшить блеск, на используемые стекла
наносится прямоугольный орнамент. Компания «Голдман Закс» старается уменьшить
количество неудобств, возникших при строительстве у людей, живущих неподалеку,
например, выкопанная земля вывозится баржей дважды в день, вместо того, чтобы
загружать ее на грузовики и вывозить через близлежащую территорию. Была цель
переработать или использовать максимальное количество отходов, но их оказалось
слишком много.

«Интеррос» построит первый в России эко-курорт.


Компания «Роза-хутор», акционером которой является компания «Интеррос», подписала
соглашение с российским представительством Всемирного Фонда дикой природы о
строительстве в Сочи экологического курортного комплекса.
В рамках соглашения строительная компания обязалась неукоснительно соблюдать
действующие на территории России экологические стандарты и нормативы, применять
экологически безопасные строительные материалы, а также проводить природоохранные
мероприятия по восстановлению природной среды на территории Сочинского
национального парка. Застройщик также планирует внедрение, наряду с традиционными,
альтернативных источников энергии, установку оборудования для энерго- и
водосбережения, а также поддержку экологического туризма и образовательных проектов
в области экологии.
«Интеррос» осуществляет в крае ряд проектов по строительству спортивных
объектов. Несмотря на проводившиеся акции протеста «зеленых» против возведения
некоторых олимпийских объектов, к «Интерросу» экологи претензий не предъявляли: его
объект «Роза Хутор» один из немногих, получивших необходимые для строительства
экспертные заключения, включая заключение Росприроднадзора.

В Великобритании появился первый полностью экологичный дом.

Дом Lighthouse , представленный на выставке OFFSITE 2007, отвечает практически


всем требованиям к экологически чистому строительству. Количество вредных веществ,
выделяемых им в атмосферу, снижено до нуля. Таким образом, он стал первым полностью
экологичным домом в Великобритании.
Прект выполнен архитектурным бюро Sheppard Robson совместно с фирмами Arup
и Kingspan Off-site. Площадь каждого этажа 2,5 этажного Lighthouse составляет около 100
кв.м. Для экономии тепла используются структурные теплоизоляционные панели, на
крыше установлены фотоэлементы для выработки электроэнергии. Размещение спален на

9
первом этаже позволяет наиболее эффективно использовать естественное освещение
верхнего рабочего пространства.
Ожидается, что новые требования к строительству будут обязательны для всех
возводящихся домов в Великобритании к 2016 году. Как сообщалось ранее, власти страны
намереваются начать строительство пяти 2эко-городов», которые помогут снизить
дефицит жилья. Около ста тысяч домов планируется оснастить солнечными панелями и
ветряками. Первый из эко-городов будет возведен в Кембриджшире.

Орландо Блум построит в Лондоне «зеленый» дом.

Британский актер Орландо Блум (Orlando Bloom) на предваряющей церемонию


вручения «Оскара» вечеринке, организованной экологами из Global Green USA , заявил,
что намерен построить в Лондоне «зеленый» дом, настолько экологичный, насколько это
возможно, сообщает Associated Press/
На крыше здания будут располагаться солнечные панели, а в комнатах
используются энергосберегающие лампы.
На доме пристрастие Блума к экологии не заканчивается. Автомобиль актера
использует гибридную технологию, работая как на бензине, так и на электричестве.
Блум подчеркнул, что никто не может позволить себе «экологически чистую
жизнь», но нужно начать с выключения неиспользуемых телевизоров и зарядных
устройств.
В вечеринке кроме Блума участвовали Пенелопа Круз (Penelope Cruz), Чеви Чейз
(Chevy Chase), Джеймс Блант (James Blant) и участники группы Maroon 5. Они дали старт
компании за то, чтобы номинанты на Оскар приезжали на церемонию вручения премии в
экологически чистых автомобилях.

Task 15 Skim the text and give your understanding of bio-history and bio-education.

Text 2 Bio-history
Under the influence of our developing civilization the environment has been drastically
changed. These changes have given rise to a new milieu to which humanity itself, which has
caused these changes, has not adapted. However, in order to survive and to protect the
environment, we must now find a way not only to adjust to the changes in the environment, but
also to compensate for the deleterious effects of our activities. By establishing close links
between biological evolution and human history, we can face the challenges of a new era and
create harmonious relations with the environment in order to overcome the serious
environmental problems of our times.
Life has been tested in unlimited varieties for millions of years, and the most viable
species have survived through the powerful selection of evolution. A major direction for bio-
history concerns the interactions between the biosphere and humankind in different historical
eras. It also concerns the ways that the environment has influenced the evolution of human
civilization and has shaped our societies, present and past.
All of human development during the last few thousand years could be interpreted as the
result of the struggle for adaptation to the bio-environment. From the most basic needs of
survival (water, food, shelter, energy) towards the absolute domination of nature, the human
being has been observing, deifying, thinking, understanding, controlling and dominating the
world into which he was born . Out of this bilateral exchange, behavioural patterns, culture,
experience, knowledge and science have resulted.
The consequences of this millennium-long development have had such a great and
sometimes devastating impact on the environment that the conservation and protection of bios
has grown into one of the most acute needs at the dawn of the third millennium.

10
We have to learn from the past, and have to realize that most of the fields of bio-
environmental interaction between man and nature have already occupied the conscious thought
or unconscious knowledge in previous times and other cultures.
Protection of nature, the urge to dominate it and to have the choice of decision upon
natural phenomena, is to be observed in every human society or culture.
The understanding of changing environmental circumstances and of the fluidity of the
concept of environmental protection requires the development of a critical appreciation of the
numerous influences affecting the interactions between humanity and environment.
Bio-history can be seen as a new promising research direction, of interest both to the
scientific community and to the general public. Its aim is to bring history and the sciences close
together, with the intention of constructing long and well-founded perspectives on environmental
issues, past and present. As part of an integrated bio-centric education, the main ideas of bio-
history need to be promoted worldwide.

Task 16 Translate the text in writing.

Task 17 Topics for presentation:

1. The environment has been drastically changed under the influence of our developing
civilization.
2. Protection of the nature is to be observed in every human society or culture.
3. The environmental protection brings together social, economic, moral and political
considerations.
4. Life comes from and depends on nature.

Task 18 Prereading discussion.

1.Which aspects does environmental protection include?


2.What are the key elements to be considered in urban planning?
3. What environmentally friendly building materials do you know?

Task 19 Scan the text below and find the information on urban management principles.
Which sentences contain the information you were looking for? Go back and read the text more
slowly. What other topics are discussed?

New Trends in Urban Management.

The environmental protection brings together social, economic, moral and political
considerations. Urban management must take these considerations into account and incorporate
the following principles:
Environmental limits. Uncertainty about the environmental threshold of the earth’s
carrying capacity requires the adoption of the precautionary principle and calls for demanding
management.
Environmental efficiency. Reducing the use of natural resources, increasing durability
and closing resource loops will contribute o long-range environmentally compatible urban
management.
Welfare efficiency and equity. Multiple use and social and economic diversity, as well as
a fair distribution of natural resources are key elements to be considered in urban planning.
To reconcile continuing development with environmental limits mankind must choose
certain types of development rather than others. Efficiency has meanings beyond maximizing the
economic output of each human being. Human benefit is not necessarily identical to utility.

11
Quantity of goods should be replaced with quality of life. Environmental protection is closely
connected to social equity.

Natural building materials.


Natural building has emerged as a response to an increasing concern for our built
environment. Natural materials can provide an alternative to toxic substances which have led to
widespread environmental illness. While interest has surged in the industrialized West, the
ancient roots of natural building are being lost in many traditional areas. Ironically, builders in
industrialized countries are now turning to these very cultures for solutions to their building
problems. It is to be hoped that increased interest and research into vernacular building systems
will increase respect for these timeless ideas in their native lands, and through diligent efforts by
a number of people, many of these techniques are indeed being revived, studied and
implemented throughout the world.
Most popular natural building techniques and materials include: adobe, bamboo,
compressed earth, earthen floors, light straw-clay, natural fibres, living roofs, natural plasters and
finishes, paper blocks, rammed earth, straw bale construction, thatch, wattle and daub and wood.
Many of the European city problems could be resolved by paying greater attention to the
environment. Architecture and urban planning based on environmental preservation are the only
option for maintaining quality of life and preventing lasting environmental damage. Pollution
reduction, waste minimization and energy conservation can be furthered through
environmentally friendly urban design and construction.
Bio-architecture links the appreciation of the environment and biodiversity with urban
design and planning. Bio-architecture also promotes the use of materials and techniques, which
are environmentally sound, culturally sensitive and reliant on local resources and skills. A
“Biopolis” functions as a model for the harmonious co-evolution of humanity with the bio-
environment. It is based on the application of clean energy sources (solar, wind, hydrogen, etc.),
cleaner production and environmentally friendly materials, and protection of bios aims at
creating a self-sufficient, aesthetically pleasing urban environment with an active participation of
every member of society in conservation of nature.

Task 20 Learn the following key vocabulary/expressions.

Adobe – earth and straw that are made into bricks for building houses – кирпич-сырец.
Bale - a large quantity of smth. Such as paper or hay that is tightly tied together especially in
to a block – кипа.
Cohesion - connection in a reasonable way to form a whole –связь, сплоченность.
Equity – a situation in which everybody or everything is treated equally – справедливость.
Further through – to help smth. progress or be successful – содействовать, способствовать.
Hitherto – up to this time – до сих пор.
Loop – a shape like a curve – петля.
Output – the amount of produced goods – продукция, выпуск; производительность.
Reconcile – to find a way for the situations or facts to be acceptable – примирять, улаживать.
Surge – to suddenly move very quickly in a particular direction – возникать.
Threshold – the level at which smth. starts to happen- преддверие, порог.
Wattle and daub- a frame made from sticks woven together and covered with clay- строение,
сплетенное из прутьев, камыша или соломы и обмазанное глиной.

Task 21 Add the missing information from the text.

1. ………..requires the adoption of the precautionary principle and calls for demanding
management.
2. …………will contribute to long-range environmentally compatible urban management.

12
3. ………are key elements to be considered in urban planning.
4. Natural materials can provide an alternative……….
5. Most popular natural building techniques and materials include………
6. Architecture and urban planning based on…………….
7. ………..can be furthered through environmentally friendly urban design and
construction.
8. Bio-architecture also promotes………..
9. …………as a model for the harmonious co-evolution of humanity with the bio-
environment.
10. It is based on……………

Task 22 Find Russian equivalents.

Take into account –


The adoption of the precautionary principle –
Straw bale construction-
Living roofs –
Long-range environmentally compatible urban management-
Co-evolution of humanity with the bio-environment-
Vernacular building systems –
Environmental limits-

Task 23 Answer the questions to the text.

1. How can you explain the notion “vernacular architecture”?


2. What principles must urban management incorporate?
3. What should replace quantity of goods?
4. Give your understanding of the word “Biopolis”.
5. What is the only option for maintaining quality of life?
6. Do you know the geographical regions where natural building materials are widely used?

Task 24 Translate the following words keeping in mind the meaning of prefix semi- полу-

Semi-manufactured, semi-detached, semi-basement, semifinal, semiconductor, semicircle, semi-


automatic, semi-conscious, semiprecious.

Task 25 Translate participles paying attention to the forms expressing simultaneousness of


action, completed action and having passive meaning.

a) Constructing, being constructed, having obtained, determining, having been referred,


having developed, regarded, deciding, projected.
b) The student determining, the professor delivering the lecture, the engineers obtaining, the
students translating, the workers doing, the work done, the problem solved, the results
obtained, the substance identified.
c) The weight lifted, the worker lifting, the force acting upon, the body acted upon.
d) Going to the construction site, having come to the office, calculating this problem, having
referred to the article, decomposing the substance, having obtained the results.
e) The materials tested required, the work performed showed, the problem solved proved,
the bricks burnt required, the equation obtained resulted, the experiments discussed
proved.

Task 26 Choose the correct forms:

13
1. At our institute there are several subjects (studied, studying) optionally. 2. Students (taken,
taking) exams next week should come to the dean’s office. 3(Making, having made) the
experiment, they discussed the results (obtained, obtaining). 4. (Listening, having listened) to the
lecture, students usually make notes.

Task 27 Give as many versions of the translation as you can.

For example: reading a book – когда (в то время как) кто-то читает (читал, будет читать),
читая, при чтении;
Having read - после того как (так как) кто-то прочитал , после прочтения

Testing the equipment they……; delivering the lecture the professor…..; decomposing the
substance the students….; having come to the factory the workers…..; having obtained the
results of a tender the manager…..

Task 28 Translate from English into Russian paying attention to ing-forms and ed-forms.

1. Making these experiments we can compare the loads acting on the structural elements.
2. When studying this project the engineer found some mistakes in designing the pipelines.
3. The forces acting between atoms within a molecule are very great.
4. Measuring the length of a ladder steps was necessary to supply required anti-slip
protection covers.
5. The substances tested were described in his report.
6. When asked to identify this substance he found that it was copper.
7. The method recommended was widely used in cement production.

Task 29 Translate the sentences from Russian into English paying attention to the use of
correct forms of Participles.

1. Нагрузки, действующие на фундамент здания, слишком большие.


2. Тело, обладающее потенциальной энергией, может совершать работу.
3. Студенты, пишущие диплом, с четвертого курса.
4. Совершенная работа может быть измерена разными способами.
5. Измеряемое расстояние будет обозначено в проекте.
6. Используемое оборудование было получено в прошлом году.
7. Производимый бетон обладает хорошими рабочими характеристиками.
8. Использованный кирпич привезли прямо с завода.
9. Испытываемые строительные материалы различались по своим свойствам.
10. При тестировании ламинат оказался плохого качества.

Task 30 Translate the following text from Russian into English.

Владельцы кирпичных домов, живущие в « зеленом» мире.

Зеленое строительство – это направление, которое вдохновляет людей сохранять


экологически чистые ресурсы и использовать продукцию из возобновляемых или
переработанных материалов. Строительная промышленность взяла это на заметку и стала
быстро продвигать строительство «здоровых домов».
Особенности экологически чистых домов включают в себя крыши с солнечными
батареями, «живые крыши» из растительности и энергосберегающие электрические
приборы. Существуют также другие, более сложные зеленые системы, включающие

14
ирригационные системы, которые используют сточную воду из под раковин и душа и
крышу с фотоэлектрическими батареями, которые вырабатывают энергию для ее подачи в
домашние электроцепи. Но некоторые производители строительной продукции говорят,
что стать зеленым не обязательно должно означать новое и сложное. На самом деле
зеленое строительство может означать старое. Действительно старое.
Кирпичные дома используют один из самых старых природных материалов в мире
и создают экологически чистую конструкцию. Каменщики, использовавшие кирпич,
строили «зеленые» здания задолго до того, чтобы знать, что они приобретут популярность
в двадцать первом столетии.
Кирпич производится только из природных материалов – глины, воды и обжига и
не обрабатывается никакими химикатами. Строительство кирпичных стен создает
превосходный барьер, защищая дом от проникновения влаги и навязчивого шума. Кирпич
также усиливает изоляционные свойства дома, удерживая теплый или холодный воздух,
сокращая использование энергии внутри дома.
Домовладельцы, которые хотят присоединиться к «зеленому» движению, должны
осознать, что им не обязательно нужны современные, сложные материалы, чтобы быть
экологически сознательными.
Кирпич обжигается в печи при чрезвычайно высоких температурах, создавая
твердую глину, которая не подвержена влиянию термитов и гниению. Цвет кирпича не
тускнеет, так как цвет определяется содержанием минералов, а не искусственными
добавками. Размер и прочность кирпича также делают его стойким к воздействию ветра и
огня.

Task 31 Summarize the text in the form of a plan.

Task 32 Translate the last paragraph of the text in writing.

Task 33 Pre-reading discussion.

1. Which kinds of wood do you know?


2. Why to choose wood when constructing a house?
3. Is construction from wood related to green building and why?

Task 34 Read the text and find the information where wood is pretty well the safest
material. Is the function of the text to teach the subject, to give new information or something
else? Which information was familiar to you before reading the text and which facts are new?

Why choose wood?

Before looking in detail at the technical and architectural opportunities at our disposal when using
wood as a building material, let us ask ourselves: why is it that we choose this material in
particular?
Let us begin with what is most obvious.
Building in wood offers unusually extensive opportunities, and yet it is less tolerant than any
other material of the taking of liberties - at every stage of building, from the initial architectural
design, the planning of details and systems, right up to implementation.
If a long-lasting type of wood is selected, worked in the right way, and if the requirements that
this wood imposes (good natural ventilation, an overhanging roof that protects from direct rainfall,
the absence of places where moisture can collect and linger) are complied with, then buildings
made from it can stand for hundreds of years.

15
It has long sinсe been established that for building in regions with high seismic activity, wood is
pretty well the safest material.
At the same time, in spite of what is commonly thought, wood's low density does not imply lack of
strength. If a 3-metre beam capable of withstanding a load of 20 tons weighs 60 kg when made
from spruce, the same beam made of steel will weigh 80 kg, and, made of reinforced concrete, will
weigh all of 300 kg.
Wood is a good insulator. It has a thermal conductivity coefficient λ of 0,12 W/m°C - which is
400 times less than that of steel, 15 times less than that of reinforced concrete, and four times less
than that of plaster.
Everyone says wood is a fire hazard. Yes, wood burns. But in the space of 15 minutes flame
penetrates it to a depth of only 8 mm.
This means that, if used in a properly designed structure, it can protect a public building from
combustion during the course of an entire hour or more.
Sheet metal has a fire resistance of no more than several minutes.
Another quality that makes wood attractive as a construction material - especially in Europe
and America - is its ecological purity.
Wood is the only renewable building material which both absorbs carbon dioxide and produces
oxygen as it grows.

One cubic meter of timber represents one ton of absorbed carbon dioxide.
Expenditure of energy on use of wood to make elements for construction is less than when the
same elements are prepared using other materials.

The drive towards ecological purity finds expression in the way we build today not just in the
use of timber, but also in the appearance of ever more new 'ecological' materials and in
revaluation of construction technologies.

This trend is most clearly to be seen in the use of a great variety of kinds of wooden boarding
and facade linings.
From the 1960s onwards, all over the world, thousands of tons of timber for use in faсades and
external work (planking, boarding, fencing) were processed in an autoclave using salts of copper,
chrome, and arsenic.
Such protective treatment, which gives the timber a greenish hue, keeps the wood from spoiling
for decades to come.
However, research carried out in the European Union has found that materials subjected to this
kind of chemical processing are highly toxic and environmentally harmful.
The investigation led to a European law forbidding the use of salts of copper, chrome, and
arsenic in the timber industry starting from June 2004 (with the exception of for manufacture of
elements used in load-bearing structures, for the processing of which no alternative has yet been
found).

The ban on using chemical treatments for construction timber has helped the development of
'ecological' technologies aimed at making wood longer-lasting.
There has been steadily growing interest in thermal processing.
This technology takes its inspiration from the practices of our ancestors, who used to bake piles
prior to their installation, and consists of heating timber in special kilns to a temperature of 200-
240°C under an inert gas (such as nitrogen).
In this way, without recourse to chemicals, the internal structure of the timber is modified,
becoming much more resistant to deformation of whatever kind (wood shrinkage, for instance, is
reduced by almost 100%) and longer-lasting. Thermal processing is accompanied by changes in

16
the colour of the wood - from light yellow or honey coloured to shades of dark brown - and by a
lessening of the material's bending strength.
Interesting examples of the use of thermally treated wood are the headquarters of McDonald's
in Helsinki and the spa at Cransac in France.

Task 35 Learn the following words and word combinations.

Overhanging roof – the roof that hangs over smth else – навесная крыша.
Linger – to continue to exist for longer than usual or desirable – скапливаться.
To withstand a load – to be strong enough to remain unharmed by pressure – выдерживать
нагрузку.
Spruce – a tree that grows in northern countries and has short leaves shaped like needles – ель.
Thermal conductivity –ability to conduct heat – теплопроводность.
Combustion – the process of burning – сгорание, воспламенение.
Fire resistance –the ability of a substance to slow down fire propagation- огнестойкость.
Renewable- replaceable naturally or easily – возобновляемый.
Drive- a strong natural need or desire – сильное желание, движущая сила.
Wooden boarding – narrow pieces of wood that are fixed side by side –деревянная обшивка.
Façade lining- a piece of material that covers the front part of a building – облицовка фасада.
Planking –wood that has been cut into planks, especially when it is used to make a floor, bridge
or fence – дощатый настил.
Thermal processing – treatment with heat – теплообработка.

Task 36 Find missing information for the sentences from the text.

1. ………………. then buildings made from it can stand for hundreds of years.
2. But in the space of 15 minutes ……………………………………………….
3. Another quality that makes wood attractive………………………………….
4. …………………..which both absorbs carbon dioxide and produces oxygen as it grows.
5. This trend is most clearly to be seen in…………………………………………………..
6. …………………..were processed in an autoclave using salts of copper, chrome and
arsenic.
7. However, research carried out in the European Union has found that……………………
8. The ban on using chemical treatments for construction timber…………………………..
9. This technology takes its inspiration from the practices………………………………….
10. …………….becoming much more resistant to deformation of whatever kind and longer-
lasting.

Task 37 How much do you agree with the following statements?

1. Building in wood offers unusually extensive opportunities, and yet it is more tolerant than
any other material of the taking of liberties - at every stage of building.
2. If the requirements that this wood imposes (good natural ventilation, an overhanging roof
that protects from direct rainfall, the absence of places where moisture can collect and
linger) are complied with, then buildings made from it can stand for twenty years.
3. Wood's low density implies lack of strength.
4. A 3-metre beam can withstand a load of 20 tons.
5. Wood is a bad insulator.
6. Wood can’t protect a public building from combustion during the course of an entire hour
or more.
7. Sheet metal has a fire resistance of more than several hours.
8. Wood produces carbon dioxide.

17
9. However, research carried out in the European Union has found that materials subjected to
this kind of chemical processing are highly toxic and environmentally harmful.
10. Thermal processing makes wood more resistant to deformation of any kind.

Task 37 Answer the following questions to the text.

1. Where is wood the safest material for construction?


2. What are the advantages of wood?
3. Why is wood attractive as a construction material?
4. What does it produce?
5. What is the result of chemical processing of wood?
6. Which processing is used instead of chemical one?
7. What are the results of thermal processing?

Task 38 a) Read words and word combinations which cannot be predicates.


Being capable, was capable, has been destroyed, being destroyed, having been isolated, had
been isolated, multiplying, are multiplying, being accelerated, will accelerate, acquiring,
have acquired, being acquired, to lift, having been lifted.
b) Read non-finite forms 1) having passive meaning, 2) expressing priority of
action.
Speeding, being moved, acquired, having multiplied, isolated, having been weighed, measuring,
being stored, assumed, having destroyed, accelerated.

Task 39 Translate the following giving all possible ways of translation.

1. The body lifted, the energy possessed, the body possessing, the body acted upon, the
condition achieved, the goods stored, the system accepted, the force measured.
2. Determining the action, multiplying, acquiring equipment, speeding the process, having
obtained the condition, having measured the load, having determined the parameters, the
force acting, the body acted, acting upon the body, having acted the force, the force
destroying, the reaction obtained, identifying the element, having received the results.

Task 40 Choose the correct forms.

1.You can measure the wind force (acted, acting) upon the building.
2. The force (applied, applying) to the body was measured.
3. When an (unbalanced, unbalancing) force is applied to a free body, the body will start into
uniformly (accelerating, accelerated) motion.
4. The following equation gives the potential energy of a (lifting, lifted ) body.
5. A (lifting, lifted) weight possesses potential energy.
6. Scientists (transforming, transformed) the nature of this region work for the benefit of
humanity.
7. The energy (transforming, transformed) in this experiment was thermal energy.
8. (Having graduated, graduating) from the institute, he began to work in the office.

Task 41 Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the participles.

1. Solid bodies offering resistance to a change in form or size exhibit the property of
recovery.
2. While rubbing two pieces of metal we may produce heat.
3. When compressing a gas heat may be developed.

18
4. When strained beyond the elastic limit a body may not recover completely if strained
for a long time.
5. When acted upon by an external force a body will change its state of rest to a state of
motion.
6. A piece of vulcanized rubber stretched exhibited better properties of elasticity when
tested.
7. The engine tested required no further improvement.
8. The equipment improved resulted in higher labour productivity.
9. The results obtained showed that the tested material possessed the property of
recovering its original state.
10. The experiments carried out differed in the data obtained when analyzed.

Task 42 Translate the following text from Russian into English.

«Зеленое строительство» в Нью Йорке

Не так уж давно термин «зеленое строительство» означал лишь использование


переработанных материалов и установку энергосберегающих окон или солнечных
батарей. В то время как эти традиционные методы остаются основными, «зеленое
строительство» приобрело гораздо более широкое значение, и на рынке появилось
много новой «зеленой» продукции.
На современном рынке экологически чистые материалы представлены не только
переработанным фарфором и материалами из возобновляемых ресурсов. Их торговый ряд
представлен товарами от нетоксичных красок и безформальдегидных изоляционных
материалов до лесоматериала из экологически здоровых источников, таких как
быстрорастущий бамбук.
Президент компании Green Depot говорит, что «зеленые» строительные
материалы пользуются огромным спросом. «У нас есть лишь небольшая группа
продукции – около 100, но этот список растет с каждым днем». Эта компания одна из
самых крупных поставщиков экологически чистой продукции в Нью Йорке и по стране.
Один из самых популярных продуктов компании – это нетоксичные краски.
Обычная рядовая краска содержит большое количество летучих органических
соединений, которые выделяют газ во время нанесения. Они ухудшают качество воздуха
и могут причинить вред здоровью. Альтернативные производственные технологии
позволили разработать краски с низким содержанием летучих органических соединений,
которые выделяют минимальное количество вредных веществ и практически не имеют
запаха.
Другой причиной для перемен послужили новые технологии. Нанотехнологии,
манипуляции с материей на молекулярном уровне,- это актуальная тема в научном мире,
которая также создает новые возможности для зеленого строительства. Продукция от
краски, способной накапливать солнечную энергию, до теплосберегающих окон, уже
прокладывает себе путь в строительной промышленности. Предсказания того, что
прозрачные окна будут вытеснены тонированными и благоприятными для окружающей
среды биологическими средствами для защиты дерева, предвещают хорошее будущее для
зеленого движения.
В Нью Йорке инженеры, архитекторы, разработчики и строители небоскребов
торгового центра не ждут, чтобы увидеть, что даст новая технология. Они сейчас видят
большой прогресс и небоскребы, в которых использованы зеленые материалы и
технологии. Среди них седьмой Центр международной торговли, здание Банка Америки
и башня Херст.
Башня Херст являются наглядным примером экологически чистого дизайна. Для
работников в башне Херст, это подразумевает вентиляцию и фильтрацию воздуха,

19
тонирование окон для блокировки солнечной радиации в дневные часы, ограниченное
количество внутренних стен, блестящие каменные полы, выделяющие тепло зимой и
поглощающие летом, а также естественная система увлажнения и прохлады – 3-х
этажный водопад.
Такой подход к зеленому строительству распространяется за пределы
использования нетоксичных, экологически чистых материалов, увеличивает размах
зеленого строительства. «Зеленая революция» - это частое сотрудничество дизайнеров,
инженеров и инженеров-механиков. Профессионалы по дизайну работают вместе, чтобы
установить звукоизолирующие системы благоприятные для окружающей среды ( также
как и системы с условно чистой водой и электрогенерирующие ветровые системы) и
изменить представление о зеленых материалах. В то время как приветствуются новые
подходы, старые понятия, как например переработка, также остаются популярными В
Нью Йорке компания WastMatch занялась переработкой на новом уровне. С начала
существования (1997г) компания переработала 25000 тонн материала с мусорных свалок
и принесла акционерам 4 млн. долларов в сбережениях и годовом доходе.

Task 43 Make the text “Why choose wood” shorter at least by half leaving out all
supporting facts and secondary ideas.

Task 44 Translate the last paragraph of the text in writing.

Task 45 Pre-reading discussion

1. Which new materials made from wood do you know?


2. Do you prefer materials for construction of your own cottage made of wood or some
other materials?

Task 46 Read the text and find general information, supporting facts and secondary ideas
in the text.
Innovations in wood materials

Let us return to the innovations which today are being introduced on a large scale on the market in
construction materials and technologies.
Among the most popular are combined wood-and-concrete floor/ceiling panels.
The bottom layer of these panels is assembled at the factory or building site from solid wooden
beams; concrete is then laid on top.
The concrete is not simply poured onto the wooden base, but bound to it using special metal or
plastic connectors or wooden fixings.
This kind of structure makes it possible to make the most of the advantages of both components:
when the panel is subjected to a load, its concrete 'superstructure' compresses, while the wooden
bottom layer stretches; the connectors absorb transfer pressure arising in the area where the
wood makes contact with the concrete.

Ceiling/floor panels of this type are lighter than reinforced-concrete panels of similar load-
bearing capacity and stronger than wooden beam-and-floor structures.
In addition, they have magnificent sound- and heat-insulatory qualities.
The wooden basis of the panel absorbs ceiling reverberations, while, thanks to its mass, the
upper concrete layer provides effective sound insulation.
Furthermore, structures of this type make it possible to span large widths and are much more
thermally stable than concrete panels or wooden planks.

20
In short, this kind of floor/ceiling structure has many merits and only one disadvantage: the
considerable time that must be spent on its assembly.

The other main trend in the development of wooden house building and the associated market
in products and materials is the use of increasingly 'natural' insulation materials. 'Traditional'
insulators such as mineral wool and polystyrene no longer satisfy many clients, who now look to
wooden houses as the ideal type of healthy, natural construction.

When we talk of 'natural' insulation materials, we mean meerschaum (in semi-hard slabs or
rolls), linen fibre, sheep's wool, cellulose wool; cork (in flakes or pressed), wood fibre,
duckdown (rolls), etc.
Although known as 'natural', these materials are nevertheless treated with chemicals - usually
boron salts, whose insecticidal and fire-resistant qualities improve a material's hygiene and
service life.

One of the latest trends on the market is a surge in sales of composite wood-plastic materials.
Such materials are a mix of synthetic resin and woodchips or wood-fibre, and are the 'children'
of all the various types of chipboard that owe their existence to a desire to avoid wastage in use
of timber.

The main virtues of these products are flexible form and ease of re-processing and re-use -
especially when they have a polythene or polypropylene base.

Depending on the material's intended use and required performance characteristics, the
proportion of wood to synthetic may vary from 1/4 to 4/1.

The main wood-plastic products available at the moment include various kinds of flooring,
railings, doors, mouldings, cartouches and picture frames for interior decoration, and
windowsills.
Even this by no means exhaustive list is sufficient to show that the range of wood-plastic
products is extremely broad.
Other new sub-products may therefore be expected to make their appearance before long.

Traditional ways of building using logs, frame-and-board, or pillar-and-beam structures are


increasingly giving way to panel-assembly or pre-fabricated modular houses.

Such structures require not just external wails and internal partition walls, but also-beams and
roof structures.

The disadvantages of such a system are the inevitable difficulties that occur with transporting
enormous panels, the need to use a lorry and crane on the building site, and, last but not least, the
fact that the entire structure, when assembled, has to be covered in exterior facing.

These diverse examples will, I hope, give you some understanding of why it is that Europeans
increasingly choose wood, and of why, when you set out to build something today, it is almost
impossible to avoid encountering this 'precious' material in some form or another.

Task 47 Learn the following words and word combinations.

21
Bind : to make things stick/ be connected together /связывать/
Fixing : things that are used to hold other things together /крепление/
Load bearing capacity : maximum load which a structure can bear /допустимая нагрузка/
Reverberation : if a room, structure etc. reverberates, it seems to shake because of a loud
sound /реверберация/
Mineral wool : sinter or mineral cotton / шлаковая или минеральная вата/|
Meerschaum : sea hemp /пеньковая трубка, морская пенька/
Slab : a thick flat piece of a hard material, such as stone: a concrete slab, paving
slabs /плита/
Flake : a small thin piece that breaks away easily from smth. else /чешуйка, комок, хлопья/
Duckdown : the soft fine feathers of a bird /утиный пух/
Boron salt : борная соль
Insecticidal : killing insects / инсектицидный/
Woodchip : a small piece of wood which breaks off accidentally /древесная
стружка, щепа/
Chipboard : a type of board made from small pieces of wood pressed together with
glue / макулатурный картон, древесностружечная плита/
Virtue : an advantage that makes smth. better or more useful than smth. else /
преимущество/
Moulding молдинг, пресс-изделие
Cartouch орнамент в виде свитка, картуш
Pre-fabricated built from parts which are made in standard sizes so that they can be put
together anywhere
Exterior facing : an outer surface of a wall or building made of a different material from
the rest in order to make it look attractive.

Task 48 Give definitions in English to the following products and structures.

Combined wood-and concrete floor/ceiling panels.


Reinforced-concrete panels.
Wooden beam –and-floor structures.
Wooden planks.
Natural insulation materials.
Traditional insulators.
Composite wood-plastic materials.
Frame and board structure.
Pillar-and beam structure.
Pre-fabricated modular house.

Task 49 Find missing information for the sentences from the text.

1. …………… is assembled at the factory or building site……………..


2. ………..but bound to it using special metal or plastic connectors……..
3. Ceiling/floor panels of this type are………………………………….
4. ……………..is the use of increasingly “natural” insulation materials.
5. Although known as natural, these materials are………………………
6. …………………….is a surge in sales of composite wood-plastic materials.
7. ………………….especially when they have a polythene or plypropylene
base.
8. The main wood-plastic products available at the moment include……………
9. …………giving way to panel-assembly or pre-fabricated modular houses.

22
10. The disadvantages of such a system are……………………………………

Task 50 Mark each statement True or False.

1. Among the most popular are reinforced –concrete panels.


2. The concrete is simply poured onto the wooden base.
3. The bottom layer of these panels is assembled from solid wooden beams; concrete is then
laid on top.
4. The wooden basis of the panel does not absorb ceiling reverberations.
5. Traditional insulators no longer satisfy many clients.
6. “Natural” insulators are not treated with chemicals.
7. Composite wood-plastic materials are a mix of synthetic resin and woodchips or wood-
fibre.
8. The main virtues of composite wood-plastic materials are flexible form and ease of re-
processing.
9. Traditional ways of building using logs, frame-and-board, or pillar-and-beam structures
are not giving way to panel-assembly or pre-fabricated modular houses.
10. Europeans does not choose wood, they choose concrete blocks for construction.

Task 51 Answer the following questions.

1. What are the most popular innovations among construction materials?


2. Where is the bottom layer of these panels assembled?
3. How is the concrete bound to the wooden base?
4. What are the advantages of both components in such panels?
5. What are their sound-and-heat insulatory qualities like?
6. What are the advantages of these panels in comparison with concrete panels or wooden
planks?
7. What is the other modern trend in the development of wooden house building?
8. What are traditional insulators?
9. What are natural insulation materials?
10. What is one of the latest trends in the market?
11. What are composite wood-plastic materials like?
12. Which main wood-plastic products are available at the moment?
13. Does traditional way of building give way to pre-fabricated modular houses?
14. What is the disadvantage with panel assembly construction?

Task 52 Make a plan of the text in nominative sentences.

Task 53 Point out the sentence where the word “lifted” should be translated as
«поднятый».
1. Having lifted this beam to this height we should fix it up.
2. The beam has been lifted to the necessary height. You may fix it up.
3. The beam had been lifted before it was fixed up.
4. The beam lifted to this height may be fixed up.

Task 54 Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the Absolute Participle
construction.
1. The problem having been solved, the engineers began a new experiment.
2. The plan having been discussed, the meeting was over.
3. This law having been discovered, there are a lot of new possibilities.
4. The engineer having come, the experiment began.

23
5. The strain of the body exceeding a certain value, the body does not recover completely.
6. A body is under hydrostatic stress, the pressure upon it on all sides being the same.
7. A body is under tensile stress, the forces acting upon it tending to increase its length.
8. An external force acting, the body changes its state of rest to a state of motion.
9. The elastic properties of various materials are different, the ratio of stress to strain being
always the same for a given material within the elastic limit.
10. The distorting force removed, elastic bodies exhibit the property of recovering to their
original state.

Task 55 Translate from Russian into English using the Absolute Participle Construction.

1. Выполненная работа может быть вычислена по данному уравнению, а потери не


рассматриваются.
2. Теплота может быть превращена в работу и обратно, причем отношение теплоты к
работе является постоянным.
3. Тело не восстанавливает свою первоначальную форму, если напряжение
превышает определенную величину.
4. После того, как были получены новые данные, испытываемые материалы были
отправлены на завод.
5. Так как работа была очень трудная, студенты не смогли ее выполнить.
6. Так как студент не знал этого закона по геометрии, преподаватель поставил ему
плохую оценку.

Task 56 Read the text and find the English equivalent to the following Russian sentence:

Только при таких условиях конструкция будет долго и надежно служить, и в


строительных элементах не будет остаточной деформации.

The property of bodies of returning, after unloading, to their initial form is called elasticity. It is
said that the body is perfectly elastic if it recovers its original shape completely after unloading;
it is partially elastic if the deformation, produced by external forces, does not disappear
completely after unloading. In the case of a perfectly elastic body, the work done by the external
forces during deformation will be completely transformed into the potential energy of strain. In
the case of a partially elastic body, part of the work done by the external forces during
deformation will be dissipated in the form of heat which will be developed in the body during the
non-elastic deformation. Experiments show that such structural materials as steel, wood and
stone may be considered as perfectly elastic within certain limits which depend upon the
properties of the material. Assuming that the external forces acting upon the structure are known,
it is a fundamental problem for the designer to establish such proportions of the members of the
structure that it will improve the condition of a perfectly elastic body under all service
conditions. Only under such conditions there will be continued reliable service of the structure
and no permanent set in its members.

Task 57 Point out which of these sentences contains the information from the text.
1. There are three kinds of stress: tensile stress, hydrostatic stress and shearing
stress.
2. A heat engine is a machine for transforming heat into mechanical energy.
3. The body is perfectly elastic if it recovers its original shape completely after
unloading; it is partially elastic if the deformation, produced by external forces,
does not disappear completely after unloading.

Task 58 Point out which of the sentences express the main idea of the text.

24
1. Experiments show that such structural materials as steel, wood and stone may be
considered as perfectly elastic.
2. The body is perfectly elastic if it recovers its original shape completely after unloading.
3. The property of bodies of returning, after unloading, to their initial form is called
elasticity.
4. An example of potential energy accumulation in a strained body is the case of a watch
spring.

Task 59 Translate the following text from Russian into English.

Популярность ламинированных полов сегодня неоспорима. Но было время, когда


ламинированные полы рассматривались как нечто второсортное и не считались серьезным
конкурентом на рынке традиционных деревянных полов. Сейчас ламинированные полы –
это хороший выбор по практичности, привлекательности и экономичности.
Ламинированные полы на сегодняшний день являются достойными приемниками твердой
древесины и пригодны для площадей, не находящихся под постоянным экологическим
контролем, или в случаях, когда необходимы более прочные и требующие меньшего
ухода полы.
Вместе с развитием технологии, которая позволила ламинату все больше походить на
дерево, выросла и его популярность. Сегодня непрофессиональным взглядом трудно
определить разницу между качественным ламинатом и настоящим деревянным
покрытием.
При поиске покрытия, которое было бы прочным, водонепроницаемым и по разумной
цене, ламинат, как материал, просто идеальный выбор. Стойкий к повреждениям и влаге
ламинат доказал свою практичность и легкость при уходе за ним для массового
производства и использования в домах и офисах.

Task 60 Make a plan of the English text in nominative sentences.

Task 61 Make a resume of the text, use your plan and key words.

Task 62 Translate the last paragraph of the text in writing.

Task 64 Topics for presentation:

1. Life comes and depends on nature.


2. The environment has been drastically changed under the influence of our developing
civilization.
3. Protection of the nature is to be observed in every human society or culture.
4. The environmental protection brings together social, economic, moral and political
considerations.
5. The combination of need and opportunity has led to high technological and political
achievements.
6. Myths concerned with water are widespread in various cultures, testifying this major
reality of human life.
7. In Central Europe, the Danube has always been a cultural liaison between distant nations.
8. Ever since the human being appeared on Earth, he has been observing, deifying, thinking,
understanding, controlling and dominating the world into which he was born.

25