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Conference Paper · April 2018

 

CITATIONS

READS

0

602

3

authors, including:

<a href=Jose Estaire Centro de Estudios y Experimentación de Obras Públicas Maria Santana " id="pdf-obj-0-41" src="pdf-obj-0-41.jpg">
 

49 PUBLICATIONS

29 CITATIONS

16 PUBLICATIONS

9 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE
SEE PROFILE
SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

  • Geotechnics of Railways View project

  • Geotecnia Journal: published jointly by the Geotechnical Societies of Portugal, Brazil and Spain: SPG, ABMS and SEMSIG View project

IV INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR: EARTHWORKS IN EUROPE

Madrid (Spain), 19-20 April, 2018

Modification of UIC Code 719 “Earthworks and track bed construction for railway lines” according to the principles developed in EN 16907 “Earthworks” and other European EN Standards

Jose Estaire (1) , María Santana (2) & David Villalmanzo (3) (1) Dr. Civil Engineer, Laboratorio de Geotecnia-CEDEX, Madrid (Spain). (2) Geologist, Laboratorio de Geotecnia-CEDEX, Madrid (Spain). (3) Dr. Civil Engineer, Rail System Department UIC, París (France). Corresponding author: Jose.Estaire@cedex.es

Abstract: UIC decided on May 2016 to update its UIC Code 719 “Earthworks and Track Bed Construction for Railway Lines” and to transform it into two IRS documents (International Railway Solution), named as “Design and construction of earthworks and track bed for railway lines” and “Maintenance and improvement of earthworks and track bed of existing

railway lines.

To do so, a committee formed by representatives of the main railway administrations in the world was created, headed by UIC and chaired by CEDEX.

That committee decided to follow the principles developed by CEN/TC396 in the new EN 16907 “Earthworks” – Part 2:

Classification of materials” to classify the materials to be used in earthworks and in “Earthworks – Part 3: Construction procedures” to build the embankments and also layers under ballast in cuttings.

The paper explains the table of content of the new IRS document and the relationships between the previous UIC material groups (based on the QS system) and the material classification developed in EN 16907-2.

Furthermore, the main aspects of the construction procedures are highlighted.

1.

INTRODUCTION

UIC decided on May 2016 to update its Code 719 “Earthworks and Track Bed Construction for Railway Lines” and its Code 722 “Methods of improving the track formation of existing linesand to transform it into two International Railway Solution (UIC-IRS) documents, named as “Design and construction of earthworks and track bed for railway lines” (UIC- IRS Design, hereafter) and “Maintenance and improvement of earthworks and track bed of existing railway lines”.

To do so, a committee formed by representatives of the main Infrastructure Management companies in Europe and Asia was created, headed by the UIC Railway Sector Department and chaired by CEDEX. This committee has held six face- to-face meeting with frequent assistance of experts from Spain (ADIF), Belgium (Infrabel), Italy (RFI), Check Republic (SZDC), France (SNCF Reseau), Great Britain (Network Rail) and Germany (Deutsche Bahn), and some contributions from Asian members such as CARS and East Japan Railways. The approval date for this UIC-IRS Design is expected to be at the end of 2018.

One of the main objectives of the new two documents was to take into account the contents of some of the EN standards relative to the issues developed in the documents. The EN Standards considered, ordered by its number, are:

EN 1997-1: Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design Part 1: General rules.

EN 1997-2: Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design Part 2: Ground investigation and testing.

EN 13450: Aggregates for railway ballast.

EN 16432-1: Railway applications Ballastless track systems” – Part 1: “General requirements.

EN 16432-2: Railway applications – Ballastless track systems” – Part 2: “System design, subsystems and components.

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EN 16907-1: Earthworks - Part 1: Principles and general rules.

EN 16907-2: Earthworks - Part 2: Classification of materials.

EN 16907-3: Earthworks - Part 3: Construction procedures.

EN 16907-5: Earthworks - Part 5: Quality control.

  • 2. IRS “DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF EARTHWORKS AND TRACK BED FOR RAILWAY LINES

The International Railway Solution (IRS) “Design and construction of earthworks and track bed for railway lines” is divided in eight chapters whose titles and principal contents are as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction and scope

This chapter is devoted to the cross section of a railway structure for both ballasted and ballastless tracks, by

Chapter 2. Definition of the cross section of a railway structure

defining their main elements and giving them names to identify them.

Chapter 3: Classification of materials for railway structures

The principal aim of this chapter is to stablish the qualitative and quantitative criteria to classify the materials,

both soils and rocks, into the QSi quality classes, the classification currently used in the railway projects.

Chapter 4: Ballasted track: design principles and criteria for new lines

This chapter gives the principles and criteria for the design of the different elements of the railway track cross

section, previously defined in Chapter 2.

Chapter 5: Transition zones

This chapter collects some of the cross sections used by different European railway administrations for their

transition zones.

Chapter 6: Ballastless track: design principles and criteria for new lines

This chapter collects some guidelines to follow in the design of ballastless or slab tracks.

Chapter 7: Construction procedures and quality control

The construction procedures and the conforming test values to be used during the quality control are collected

in this chapter.

Chapter 8: Future developments and innovations

The aim of this chapter is to highlight some issues that could be addressed in a future revision of the IRS

document.

  • 3. UIC - IRS DESIGNCONTENTS RELATED WITH EN-16907

    • 3.1 Introduction

This section is devoted to show the contents of the UCI-IRS Design that were developed according to the different parts of EN 16907 “Earthworks”.

  • 3.2 Railway track cross section (Chapter 2)

Figure 1 shows the ballasted track cross section that has been included in UIC-IRS Design, consisting of the following elements, listed from top to bottom:

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Track components: it includes the rail, the fastening system and the sleepers.

Ballast layer: this layer, formed by ballast particles, plays an important role in track performance with respect to track support stiffness, maintenance of track geometry and drainage.

Blanket layers: this layer is placed between the prepared subgrade and ballast layers and may consist of one or several layers: sub-ballast layer, frost protection layer and filtering layer. It has the following functions:

  • - improving the bearing capacity by modifying the stiffness and achieving a better distribution of transmitted loads,

  • - contributing to the improvement of dynamic performance,

  • - protecting against erosion and frost,

  • - acting as a filter between subgrade and ballast,

  • - shedding surface water.

Prepared subgrade (also named as “Form layer”): this layer must have bearing capacity to support the ballast and blanket layers and to avoid water infiltration in the embankment.

Embankment or cutting surface: if the design level of the rails is above the current surface ground, it will be necessary to build an embankment; in the opposite case, a cutting of the natural ground will have to be performed.

Foundation ground: it is the ground on which the railway structure is placed and supports its weight.

IV INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR: EARTHWORKS IN EUROPE Madrid (Spain), 19-20 April, 2018 • Track components : it

Figure 1. Ballasted track cross section

In Figure 1, other terms commonly used relative to the cross-section appear, such as:

“Track bed layers”: this term refers to both the ballast and subballast layers.

“Superstructure”: this term refers to the elements above the subballast layer.

“Substructure” or “Infrastructure”: these terms refer to the elements below the subballast layer.

“Platform”: this term refers to different concepts according to the different railway administrations. In some cases, it refers to the elements below the prepared subgrade and it is called “earthwork platform” while in other cases, it refers to the elements below the subballast layer, being named as “railway platform”.

One further step was to define the different zones of the embankment, an aspect that is not covered in the current version. To do so, the same names and concepts that appear in EN 16907-1 were used, as it can be seen in Figure 2.

According to that figure, the cross-section of a railway line embankment may be divided into the following zones, although the project may identify particular requirements that require additional zones within the embankment:

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Foundation ground: ground below the embankment that supports its weight and loads.

Base: embankment zone in direct contact with the foundation ground. This zone may be divided into layers, e.g. for drainage, working platform, impervious protection layer. It may include replacement of existing foundation ground to some depth or improvement of existing ground by binders or installation of geosynthetics.

Core: embankment zone located between any base layers and the upper zone. The core can be protected from water or isolated to limit pollution of the environment.

Shoulder or side zones: lateral zones of the embankment that can have various functions, e.g.: enable steeper slopes, protect the core, serve as filters and protect from erosion.

Upper zone: zone located between the core and the prepared subgrade.

Cross section in UIC-IRS Design Cross section in EN 16907 – 1: Earthworks – Principles and
Cross section in UIC-IRS Design
Cross section in EN 16907 – 1: Earthworks – Principles and general rules

Figure 2. Comparison of the embankment cross sections in UIC-IRS Design and in EN 16907-1

  • 3.3 Classification of materials for railway earthwork structures (Chapter 3)

    • 3.3.1 Classification of soils

The current version of UIC Code 719 “Earthworks” has a soil quality classification based on mainly qualitative considerations. In this revision, it was decided to turn to a more quantitative and objective classification.

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To accomplish that aim, Chapter 3, devoted to the classification of soils to be used as construction material for the body of the embankment and for the prepared subgrade, was drafted based on the following principles:

The current four QSi quality classes of materials should be kept as follows:

 

QS0: unsuitable material,

QS1: poor material,

QS2: average material,

QS3: good material.

The classification of any soil into any of the four QSi quality classes is based, as shown in Table 1, on the following aspects:

 

The soil groups defined in EN 16907-2 “Earthworks - Classification of materials”.

The results obtained with representative samples in the following tests:

o

Particle size distribution test.

o

Atterberg limits test.

o

Organic Matter Content test.

o

Water-Soluble Sulphate Content test.

o

Soluble Salt Content test.

o

Proctor test.

o

CBR test.

o

Swelling test.

o

Collapse test.

Table 1. Classification of soils in QSi quality classes

   

QS quality classes

 

Parameter

QS0

QS1

QS2

QS3

Geotechnical classification

 

I1 IL

(Soil group symbol according to Tables 2 a & b)

F4 FV

I2 IM F1 FL

G2 S2 G4 S4

G1 S1 G3 S3

F2 FM

Organic matter content (%)

>2.0

<2.0

<1.0

<0.5

Water-Soluble Sulphate content (SO 3 %)

>10

<10

<1.0

<0.1

Soluble salt content (%)

>1.0

<1.0

<0.5

<0.2

CBR

<3.0

>3.0

>5.0

>10.0

Free swelling

 

(%)

>3.0

<3.0

<2.0

<1.0

Collapse

 

(%)

>2.0

<2.0

<1.0

<0.5

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Soil groups are given in Tables 2 a & b, taken directly from EN 16907-2. As it can be seen, the classification is based on the particle size distribution curves and Atterberg limits of the materials.

Table 2. Groups for Coarse Soils:

Materials containing particles not larger than 63 mm and with organic matter content not more than 2% a.- Soils with fines content (C0,063) not more than 15%

IV INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR: EARTHWORKS IN EUROPE Madrid (Spain), 19-20 April, 2018 Soil groups are given in

b.- Soils with fines content (C0,063) more than 15%

IV INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR: EARTHWORKS IN EUROPE Madrid (Spain), 19-20 April, 2018 Soil groups are given in

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Soils with organic matter content greater than 2% are classified as “Organic Soils” in three categories: O 1 , O 2 , O 3 , according to its organic matter content.

  • 3.3.2 Classification of rocks

This classification applies for rocks when they are used as rockfills. The material for rockfills shall satisfy the next requirements relative to its particles; otherwise it should be considered as a soil and classified according to Table 1.

Particle size distribution: #20 < 30% and Fine content < 10%.

Particle maximum size: between 10 and 50 cm.

Particle shape: Particles with [(L+G)/2 ≥ 3] should be < 30%, where:

 

o

L (length): Maximum space between two parallel planes tangent to the particle

o

G (Thickness): Minimum diameter of the circle that particle can overpass.

o

E (Thickness): Minimum space between two parallel planes tangent to the particle.

Any given rock material, that fulfills the above requirements, can be classified into the four QSi quality classes, used in the current version of UIC Leaflet 719 and described previously (QS0, QS1, QS2 and QS3). This classification is based on the same principles used in the case of soils:

The rock groups defined in EN 16907-2 “Earthworks - Classification of materials” according the rock geological nature.

The results obtained with representative samples in the following tests:

o

Particle requirements Fragmentability Degradability Los Angeles Coefficient Micro Deval Coefficient

o

Strength requirements Dry density Uniaxial compression test

The classification is made taking into account what it is stated in EN 16907-2 relative to the behaviour of rock, once it has been excavated:

It will behave as a soil, generally a coarse or very coarse soil but with varying amounts of fines.

The coarse particles and the fines may each be strong and abrasive, weak and degradable or strong and

degradable. Rock materials are normally usable in earth structures except when rocks are evolutive or degradable. These rocks may only be used, depending on the design, with special precautions.

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Table 3. Classification of rocks for rockfill material in QSi quality classes

Classif.

Indicative

Geological

Group

Frag.

Degrad.

Los Angles

Microdeval

Dry

Group

Index

Index

density

Behaviour

strength

nature

Symbol

(IFR) (1)

(IDG) (1)

Coefficient

Coefficient

(t/m 3 )

 

Intermediate

Clay rocks

R4Cld

<7

>5 / >2

---

>45

---

(25-50MPa)

All other rocks

R4Xxd

<7

>5 / >2

---

>45

---

Evolutive or

QS1

High

Clay rocks

R3Cld

<7

>5 / >2

---

<45

---

degradable

 

rock

(50-100

All other rocks

R3Xxd

<7

>5 / >2

 

<45

 
 

---

---

MPa)

 
   

Non

 

Clay rocks

R4Cl

<7

<5 / <2

---

>45

---

evolutive/non

   

degradable

 

Limestone

R4Li

<5 / <2

---

>45

>1.8

Intermediate

Sandstone

R4Sa

<7

<5 / <2

>45

>45

---

(25-50 MPa)

Conglomerate

R4Co

<7

<5 / <2

>45

>45

---

Depending

Volcanic and

R4Vo

<7

<5 / <2

>45

>45

---

on work

procedure

plutonic

rocks

Metamorphic

 

<7

<5 / <2

>45

>45

 

QS2

rocks

R4Me

---

 

Non

 

Clay rocks

R3Cl

<7

<5/<2

---

<45

---

evolutive/non

   

degradable

 

Limestone

R3Li

<7

<5 / <2

<45

---

High

Sandstone

R3Sa

<7

<5 / <2

<45

<45

---

(50-100

Conglomerate

R3Co

<7

<5 / <2

<45

<45

MPa)

---

As a granular

Volcanic and

R3Vo

---

---

<45

<45

---

soil

plutonic

rocks

Metamorphic

 

<45

<45

 

rocks

R3Me

---

---

---

 

Very high

Volcanic and

R2V0

---

---

---

plutonic

rocks

(100-250

 

<35

<25

 

Metamorphic

rocks

 

QS3

MPa)

R2Me

---

---

---

As a granular

Extremely

high

Volcanic and

R1Vo

 

soil

---

---

---

plutonic

rocks

<25

<10

(>250MPa)

Metamorphic

R1Me

 

---

---

---

rocks

NOTE 1: The values for IFR and IDG will vary with the test procedures adopted. In this table parameters for IFR are given according to French Standard NF P 94066; parameters for IDG are given according to French Standards NF P 94067(first value) and Spanish Standard UNE 146510 (second value).

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  • 3.4 Construction procedures and quality control (Chapter 7)

In the current version of UIC Code 719 “Earthworks”, the requirements about the construction procedures are scarce and disperse, so it was decided to structure Chapter 7, devoted to the construction procedures and quality control, in the following bullets:

Execution of earthworks should begin only when the design is fully completed, paying special attention to the suitability of soil and rocks and their specificities.

The construction of an earthwork involves the following stages: excavating, transporting, filling and compacting materials.

EN 16907-3 “Earthworks - Part 3: Construction procedures” is directly referenced as it provides execution procedures for each of the construction stages of earth-structures.

EN 16907-5 “Earthworks - Part 5: Quality control” is also directly referenced as it provides recommendations and guidance on the quality assurance and quality control of earthworks construction forming part of general civil engineering works.

The parameters that are usually controlled during the embankment construction are collected in Table 4, in addition to the conforming test results for all the cross section elements.

Table 4. Conforming test values for different parameters

Parameter

Unit

Embankment

Embankment

Prepared

Subballast

 

(Base and core)

(Upper zone)

subgrade

In-situ dry density ( 1 )

%

95MP 98SP

95 MP

98 MP

98 MP100 SP

Moisture content (w)

%

w opt -2% w w opt +1%

w opt -2% ≤ w ≤ w opt +1%

wopt -2% ≤ w ≤ wopt+1%

wopt -2% ≤ w ≤ wopt+1%

Compaction layer thickness ( 2 )

cm

15-30

15-30

15-30

15-30

Deformation modulus [Ev 2 ]

MN/m 2

45

60

80

120

Deformation modulus

 

---

2,2

2,2

2,2

2,2

ratio [Ev 2 /Ev 1 ] ( 3 ) Note ( 1 ): Related to the reference test: Standard Proctor (SP) or Modified Proctor (MP)

 

Note ( 2 ): The thickness depends on the material (nature and hydraulic condition), the required level of compaction and the class of compactor used.

Note ( 3 ): Some countries use less restrictive values for conventional lines

 
  • 4. UIC - IRS Design” contents related with other EN standards

    • 4.1 EN 1997-1: Eurocode 7

EN 1997-1: Eurocode 7 “Geotechnical design” is a code “intended to be applied to the geotechnical aspects of the design of buildings and civil engineering works” and “ … is concerned with the requirements for strength, stability, serviceability and durability of geotechnical structures”.

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Taking this into account, Eurocode 7 (EC7) should be considered an “umbrella code” or a “reference frame” under which all geotechnical structures shall be designed, so the designs and geotechnical works for railway lines shall follow EC7 principles, at least in countries that have adopted the Eurocodes as Codes of practice.

On other part, the current version of Eurocode 7 was approved by CEN in 2004. However, in 2012, the European Commission issued the Mandate M515 with the aim to produce a new generation of Eurocodes that should be published around 2022. By now, the final draft of the future EC7-Part 1 was delivered in November 2017 and now it is under discussion.

To fulfill the EC7 design requirements, the following references in UIC-IRS Design were made:

About the “Ground Investigation Report”, a concept that appears in the draft of the future version. In UIC-IRS Design it is said that “The results of geotechnical investigation and testing shall be compiled in a Ground Investigation Report that shall state known limitations of the results and record the environmental conditions encountered during the investigation.

About the “Geotechnical Report”, a concept that also appears in the draft of the future version. In UIC-IRS Design it is said that “…documentation of the design process including description of the purpose, assumptions, analyses and validation of calculation model, excluded solutions and specification of the final design shall be compiled in a Geotechnical Design Report. The Geotechnical Design Report shall give a description of the site by means of a longitudinal geotechnical section that may include information of each cutting or embankment and a description of the planned geotechnical structures”.

About the stability calculations:

It is said that “Stability calculations may be performed following the rules of Section 12: “Embankments” in EN

1997-1:2004”.

  • 4.2 EN 16432 Railway applications Ballastless track systems

European Standard EN 16432-1:2017 describes the general requirements for the ballastless system design relative to:

Track design geometry, Track stability, Structure gauge , Design life, Maintainability, Sustainability, Noise and vibration, Derailment and Railways interfaces (electrical and signaling).

Taking into account the existence of such standard, it was considered that UIC-IRS Design should follow the general requirements stablished there. At this respect, as a first step, UIC-IRS Design defined the cross section of a ballastless track system based directly on EN 16432-2, as it can be seen in Figure 3.

Track components Supporting structure
Track
components
Supporting
structure

Figure 3: Ballastless track schematic cross section (taken from EN 16432-2)

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According to Figure 3, a ballastless track section can consist of the following levels of subsystems and components, although other components may be used:

The track components: it includes the rail, the fastening system and the prefabricated elements (sleeper, block,

slab or frame). The supporting structure: it includes the pavement and the upper and lower intermediate layers.

The substructure can be an earthwork, a bridge or a tunnel. In case of earthwork, it usually includes frost protection layer, form layer and embankment.

  • 4.3 EN 13450: “Aggregates for railway ballast”

Section 3.4 of UIC-IRS Design is devoted to the characteristics that material must fulfill to be part of the ballast layer. At this respect, it was considered to take into account the contents of European Standard EN 13450 on the tests and requirements to be fulfilled by the aggregates for railway.

So, UIC-IRS Design uses the reference to EN 13450 to define the laboratory tests to be used to validate the aggregates for railway ballast, as listed below, giving the possibility to the different Infrastructure Management companies to set their own limit or conforming values:

 

Petrography analysis

Particle size distribution

Flakiness index

Shape index

Los Angeles abrasion test

Uniaxial compression strength

Impact strength

Micro Deval abrasion test

Freeze-thaw cycling test

Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate

Specific density

Water absorption

Sonnenbrand test

5.

Summary

UIC is updating its UIC Leaflet Codes 719 and 722 by converting them into UIC IRS (International Railway Solution) documents: UIC-IRS Design of Earthworks and Track Bed for Railway Lines and IRS Maintenance and Improvement of Earthworks and Track Bed of Existing Railway Lines.

The objective of this paper is to show the EN standards taken into account when drafting the new IRS documents, as shown in Table 5.

Table 5: Relation between the content of UIC-IRS Design with some European EN Standards

Chapter UIC-IRS Design

European Standard

Concept

 

EN 16907-1

Ballasted track cross section

Ch. 2 Cross Section

EN 16432-2

Ballastless cross section

Ch. 3 - Classification of materials

EN 16907-2

Classification of materials into QSi quality classes

for railway structures

EN 13450

Definition of laboratory tests to be used to

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Chapter UIC-IRS Design

European Standard

Concept

   

validate the aggregates for railway ballast

Ch. 4 Ballasted track: design

EN 1997-2

Ground investigation

principles and criteria for new lines

EN 1997-1

Stability calculations of embankments

Ch. 7 - Construction procedures and quality control

EN 16907-3 & EN 16907-5

Construction procedures and quality control

Standards names:

Standards names:

EN 1997-1: Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design Part 1: General rules EN 1997-2: Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design Part 2: Ground investigation and testing EN 13450: Aggregates for railway ballast EN 16907-1: Earthworks - Part 1: Principles and general rules EN 16907-2: Earthworks - Part 2: Classification of materials EN 16907-3: Earthworks - Part 3: Construction procedures EN 16907-5: Earthworks - Part 5: Quality control

Acknowledgements

The authors of the paper want to acknowledge the people who have participated in the UIC meetings for their collaboration in the drafting of the code and for their helpful comments, specially Mario Robles, Luis Serrano and Francisco Cabrera (ADIF), Niels Tommelein (Infrabel), Andrea Latorre (RFI), Petr Jasansky and Radek Bernatik (SZDC) and Nicolas Calon (SNCF).

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