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CIV-SU-4747-A

CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

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Construction of Underground Drainage Systems CIV-SU-4747-A

CONTENTS

1.0 SCOPE .........................................................................................................................3


2.0 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................3
3.0 EXCAVATION ..............................................................................................................3
3.1 ......Trench Excavation ............................................................................................3
3.2 ......Excavation/Bedding for Appurtenances ...........................................................6
3.3 ......Slopes, Sheeting, and Shoring .........................................................................6
3.4 ......Considerations for Existing Facilities ................................................................6
3.5 ......Dewatering .......................................................................................................7
3.6 ......Excavation in Contaminated Ground ................................................................7
4.0 CONSTRUCTION OF APPURTENANCES .................................................................7
4.1 ......General .............................................................................................................7
4.2 ......Protection of Appurtenances ............................................................................7
5.0 PIPE AND FITTING INSTALLATION ..........................................................................7
5.1 ......General .............................................................................................................7
5.2 ......Protection and Care of Pipe, Fittings, and Trench ...........................................8
5.3 ......Alignment and Grade .......................................................................................8
5.4 ......Bell and Spigot or Similar Pipe .........................................................................8
5.5 ......Suspended Pipe Laying ...................................................................................8
5.6 ......HDPE pipe ........................................................................................................8
6.0 JOINTING ....................................................................................................................8
6.1 ......Pipe ..................................................................................................................8
6.2 ......Field Joints and Repairs in Corrosion Coating .................................................9
7.0 TESTING ......................................................................................................................9
7.1 ......Procedure .........................................................................................................9
7.2 ......Water Source and Disposal ..............................................................................9
7.3 ......Test Duration ....................................................................................................9
7.4 ......Allowable Leakage .........................................................................................10
8.0 BACKFILL .................................................................................................................10
8.1 ......Compaction ....................................................................................................10
8.2 ......Trenches ........................................................................................................10
8.3 ......Appurtenances ...............................................................................................12
9.0 TIE-IN TO EXISTING SYSTEM .................................................................................12
10.0 MISCELLANEOUS ....................................................................................................12
10.1 ....Keep System Clean ........................................................................................12
10.2 ....Plug Openings into System ............................................................................12
10.3 ....Embedment of Flexible Pipe ..........................................................................12

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1.0 SCOPE
This specification covers the requirements for construction of underground drainage systems.

2.0 REFERENCES
Process Industry Practices (PIP)
PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria, October 2004
PIP CVS02100 Site Preparation, Excavation, and Backfill Specification, August 2003
PIP CVS02700 Underground Gravity Sewer Specification, October 2004
PIP CVI02720 Sewer Details, June 2004
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM C969 Standard Practice for Infiltration and Exfiltration Acceptance Testing of
Installed Precast Concrete Pipe Sewer Lines
ASTM D422 Standard Test Method for Particle - Size Analysis of Soils
Code of Federal Regulations: Safety and Health Regulations for Construction
29 CFR 1926 Subpart P - Excavations

3.0 EXCAVATION

3.1 Trench Excavation

3.1.1 General
All excavation and trenching shall be made in accordance with PIP CVS02100, OSHA
standards, and Company's local requirements and guidelines for the following:
1. Shoring, bracing, and/or sloping wall construction.
2. Marking, flagging, and protecting open excavations.
3. Permitting and confined space entry requirements.
4. Employing excavation-competent person (ECP).
5. Handling and storing excavated materials.

3.1.2 Trench Alignment


The trench shall be correctly aligned to permit pipe laying without straining the pipe and
pipe joints.

3.1.3 Trench Width


1. The trench shall be excavated to the smallest width sufficient to allow proper assem-
bly of pipe joints and compaction of fill material.
2. If practical, maximum trench width from bottom of the trench to 12 inches (305 mm)
above the pipe shall be 4/3 the nominal diameter of the pipe plus 8 inches (203 mm).

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3.1.4 Trench Depth

Table 1: Typical Trench Widths

Outside Diameter (O.D.) Trench Width

Less than or equal to 30 inches (762 mm) O.D. + 20 inches (508 mm)
Greater than 30 inches (762 mm) O.D. + 24 inches (610 mm)

The trench depth shall be based on the specified invert of the pipe plus the bedding
requirements as specified in this Specification and in the contract documents.

3.1.5 Excavated Material


1. Stockpiling and disposal requirements shall be in accordance with Company require-
ments.
2. Excavated material shall not be stockpiled on roads.
3. Excavated material must not be stockpiled alongside the trence excavation. A clear
distance, as directed by the project, must be maintained between the trench edge and
the bottom of the heap of excavated material to prevent collapse of the trench side due
to local surcharging.

3.1.6 Preparation of Trench Bottom


1. General
The bottoms of trenches shall be firm, flat throughout its width, and graded to provide
uniform bearing of the pipe.
2. Rock
a. If ledge rock, hard pan, shale, or other unyielding material, cobbles, rubble,
debris, boulders, or stones larger than 1.5 (38 mm) inches are encountered in the
trench bottom, the trench shall be over-excavated to a distance below the pipe of 8
inches or 1/6 of the pipe diameter, whichever is greater.
b. The over-excavation shall be centered about the pipe and at least 12 inches
(305 mm) wider than the outside diameter of the pipe barrel.
c. The excavated materials shall be replaced with proper embedment material.
3. Unsuitable Material
Unsuitable material such as muck, peat, or similar material shall be over-excavated
throughout the width of the trench to a distance below the pipe of 12 inches (305 mm)
or ½ of the pipe internal diameter, whichever is greater.
4. Over-excavation
a. If a trench is over-excavated, the over-excavated portion shall be replaced with
compacted backfill.
b. Backfill material and compaction shall be in accordance with Section 8.1.1 and
8.2.2.

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3.1.7 Bedding
1. Bedding Material
a. Bedding material shall be granular and well graded. All material shall pass a
½-inch sieve and shall be at least 90% retained on No. 200 (75 microns) sieve as
determined in accordance with ASTM D422.
b. Bedding material shall be compacted to a density approximately that of the undis-
turbed site soil materials.
2. Basic Requirements
a. Compacted bedding shall cover the full width of the trench with a minimum thick-
ness equal to 6 inches (152 mm) or ¼ of the outside diameter of the pipe barrel,
whichever is greater.
b. The pipe bed shall provide uniform bearing for the bottom of the pipe.
c. Localized loading and differential settlement shall be minimized where the pipe
crosses other utilities or subsurface structures or in areas having special founda-
tions such as pile caps or sheeting. A cushion of bedding shall be provided
between the pipe and any such point of localized loading.
3. Bedding Classes
a. Bedding in general shall conform to one of the classes in accordance with
PIP CVS02700 Section 4.3.4.6.
b. Bedding for box culverts shall conform to one of the classes in accordance with
PIP CVS02700 Section 4.3.4.7.

3.1.8 Pipe with Projections


1. The Contractor shall make holes for each bell, coupling, or projection.
2. A clearance of at least 2 inches (50 mm) shall be provided between the bottom of the
projecting piece and the bottom of the hole.

3.1.9 Bell Holes


If pipe joint diameter exceeds pipe outside diameter (e.g., bell and spigot piping), bell
holes shall be manually excavated after the trench bottom has been graded.

3.1.10 Flexible Pipe


1. Only as much trench shall be opened as can be safely maintained by available equip-
ments.
2. The space between the pipe and trench wall shall be wider than the compaction equip-
ment used in the conduit zone; however, in no case shall it be wider than the conduit
diameter times 1.5 plus 12 inches (305 mm).

3.1.11 Wall Supports


1. If trench wall supports such as sheeting are required, these supports must be left in
place to preclude loss of support for the pipe.
2. If sheeting is to be cut off, cuts shall be made a minimum of 1.5 ft. (457 mm) above
the crown of the pipe.

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3. Rangers, whalers, and braces shall be left in place as required to support cutoff sheet-
ing.
4. If timber sheeting is used, it shall be treated as a permanent structure and treated
against biological degradation.

3.2 Excavation/Bedding for Appurtenances


1. Excavations for appurtenances shall be large enough for correct placement of the item true and
plumb, and adequately supported on firm material.
2. Bedding, if required, shall be as shown on the construction drawing.
3. Appurtenances include manholes, valve boxes, and large catch basins.

3.3 Slopes, Sheeting, and Shoring


The Contractor shall submit a procedure to show how the excavation is safely supported and the
pipes are installed. This shall include design calculations where appropriate.
1. The Contractor shall meet the minimum requirements for shoring and bracing of excavations
given in the 29 CFR 1926 Subpart P.
2. The Contractor shall take adequate measures to prevent slips, cave-ins, and slides.
a. The Contractor shall install trench bracing, sheeting, or shoring as necessary to perform
the work and protect the excavation.
b. If trenches must have side slopes for stability, the slope shall not be carried below a plane
level with the top of the pipe barrel.

3.4 Considerations for Existing Facilities


1. The Contractor shall use caution to avoid damaging existing facilities (e.g., foundations, ser-
vices, pipelines, etc.) on, above, or below the surface of the area where excavation and backfill
operations are to be performed.
2. The Contractor shall adequately support all existing underground lines that are excavated and
all existing footings, foundations, or pipe supports near any excavation.
3. Any excavation within 2 feet (610 mm) of operating lines shall be done by hand until the lines
are completely exposed.
4. Trial hole shall be made where the excavation is to take place. These shall be carried out by
hand until undisturbed rock or soil is encountered. When all existing services are located,
marked and notified on the excavation permit the contractor may start mechanical excavation
in undisturbed material. It is recommended that any excavation in fill continue to be carried
out by hand unless it is known that there are no underground services
5. The Contractor shall immediately report to the Company any underground facilities discov-
ered during excavation that are not shown on the construction drawings, and suspend work on
this section until given authority by the Company representative to continue.
6. If construction of new sewers interferes with existing sewers, satisfactory temporary bypass
facilities shall be provided. Open ends of existing sewers that are cut shall be temporarily
blocked to prevent escape of liquid or gas into the excavation.
7. Open ends of existing sewers that are cut or abandoned in place shall be securely closed with a
plug or wall of concrete having a minimum thickness of 3 pipe diameters.

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3.5 Dewatering

3.5.1 General
1. Dewatering shall be carried out continuously (24 hrs/day) while work is being carried
out.
2. Water shall not be allowed to accumulate in excavations. Subsurface water flowing
into excavations shall be removed by pumping or if possible by gravity drainage.
3. Liquids which accumulate in trenches shall be removed. Disposal of liquids removed
from trenches shall be in accordance with Company instructions.
4. The length of open trench shall be limited to that which can be dewatered with meth-
ods and equipment available.

3.5.2 Equipment
Equipment necessary to collect and discharge water away from excavations, such as
pumps, sumps, suction and discharge lines, and all other dewatering system components,
shall be provided, installed, and maintained.

3.5.3 Dewatering Methods


Dewatering methods shall be used to minimize softening of the soil supporting the pipe
and changes in soil characteristics that are detrimental to subgrade stability.

3.6 Excavation in Contaminated Ground


1. Known contaminated soils within the construction limits shall be managed in accordance with
a contaminated soil management plan provided by the Project before the start of excavation.
2. If unexpected soil contamination is encountered during the work, the Contractor shall stop
work and notify the Company immediately.

4.0 CONSTRUCTION OF APPURTENANCES

4.1 General
1. Manholes, catch basins, dry boxes, etc., shall be constructed in accordance with
PIP CVI02720.
2. The Contractor shall construct manholes, catch basins, area drains, drainage sumps, and other
appurtenances as shown on the construction drawings.

4.2 Protection of Appurtenances


The Contractor shall protect drain hubs and other projecting or exposed appurtenances against
physical damage, settlement, misalignment, or entry of dirt and debris.

5.0 PIPE AND FITTING INSTALLATION

5.1 General
1. Nothing shall be installed in water or other liquids.
a. Pipe shall be laid true to line and grade and kept clean and sound.
b. Pipe laying and joining shall be carried out in a dry trench.

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2. Each fitting and piece of pipe shall bear uniformly along its entire length or barrel. Where the
Contractor has had to wedge or block up pipes, the sections of pipe between the wedges shall
be fully surrounded by backfill and compacted fully, the wedges or blocks removed and the
remaining sections of pipe fully surrounded with compacted backfill.
3. Pipe and fittings shall be carefully installed so that the completed system has a smooth invert.

5.2 Protection and Care of Pipe, Fittings, and Trench


1. Components which are bruised, loosed, cracked, or otherwise damaged shall not be installed.
The inside of each piece shall be examined, and all dirt, construction tools or equipment, and
other foreign material shall be removed prior to and after installation.
2. Components shall be protected during installation against impact, shock, and free fall. Proper
facilities and equipment shall be used during installation to prevent disturbance of the bed and
sides of the trench.
3. Components damaged by the Contractor during or after installation shall be removed and
replaced.

5.3 Alignment and Grade


1. Pipe shall be laid beginning at the lowest point in trenches.
2. Components shall be installed to the line and set firmly to the grade shown on the construction
drawings.
a. The Contractor shall survey, record, and submit to the Company the system alignment and
grade.
b. The Contractor shall follow a Contractor-prepared plan that is acceptable to the Company.

5.4 Bell and Spigot or Similar Pipe


1. Pipes with tongue or spigot end shall be laid with spigot end pointing in the direction of flow.
The bell or coupling shall not bear on the trench. See also Section 2.1.8.
2. Bell and spigot joints shall be clean and dry.
a. A lubricant recommended by the pipe manufacturer shall be applied to the joint materials.
b. The spigot shall have full bell penetration.

5.5 Suspended Pipe Laying


If pipe laying is suspended, the ends of the pipe shall be kept closed and sealed to keep out soil and
foreign materials.

5.6 HDPE pipe


1. HDPE pipe shall be welded by experienced, qualified welders.
2. All welds shall be fusion welds except at manholes, where extrusion welds are permitted.

6.0 JOINTING

6.1 Pipe
Jointing shall be in accordance with the methods recommended by the joint manufacturers.

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6.2 Field Joints and Repairs in Corrosion Coating


Field joints in corrosion coatings, if applicable, shall be installed, tested, and repaired in accor-
dance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

7.0 TESTING

7.1 Procedure

7.1.1 General
1. The entire system shall be hydrotested according to a Company-approved plan pre-
pared by the Contractor.
2. The Contractor shall submit the plan to the Company for review at least 5 days prior to
testing.
3. The Contractor's plan shall include at least the following:
a. Schedule including at what points of completion the system will be tested.
b. Test procedures.
c. Re-test procedures (in case there are leaks).
4. Each section of the system shall be tested before that section is completely backfilled
so leaks can be spotted. Joints, couplings, bells, etc., shall remain completely exposed.
5. In systems with mortar joints, testing shall be done after the joints have developed suf-
ficient strength (at least 24 hours).
6. The entire system shall meet the allowable leakage requirement.

7.1.2 Process and Sanitary Sewers


Procedure for Process and Sanitary Sewers shall be in accordance with PIP CVS 02700
Section 4.4.2.

7.1.3 Storm Sewers


Exfiltration testing of storm sewers shall be done in accordance with ASTM C969.

7.2 Water Source and Disposal


1. Testing water shall be supplied at a location designated by the Company.
2. The Contractor shall be responsible for all hoses, connections, valves, etc., necessary to move
the test water to the test location.
3. Test water shall be disposed of by the Contractor at a location designated by the Company.

7.3 Test Duration


1. Specify duration here. "The test duration shall be ___________. The test shall start no sooner
than ___ hours after completion of filling."
2. Choose the test duration considering:
a. The size of the system being tested. How long it will take to walk the system, find and
record leaks, etc.

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b. The system material. Concrete or cement components will absorb water, so the Contractor
shall fill the system and let it stand for 12 to 24 hours before topping off and testing.
c. The climate. In hot climates, either allow enough time for the (hot) pipe and (cool or
warm) water temperatures to come to equilibrium, or test in early morning or late evening
when the temperature difference might not be as large.
d. The sensitivity of your measuring system and test pressure.

7.4 Allowable Leakage


Specify allowable leakage here. "The maximum allowable leakage shall be __ gal/hr."

8.0 BACKFILL

8.1 Compaction

8.1.1 General
1. All fill material shall be brought to an optimum moisture content range and compacted
to obtain a dry density of, unless specified otherwise, at least 90% of the maximum
dry density.
2. Backfill under roads shall be in accordance with the road construction specification
and be compacted to at least 95% of the max dry density.
3. The maximum dry density shall be obtained by the method of test for moisture-density
relations of soils (ASTM D422).
4. The maximum loose depth of any lift shall be 8 inches (203 mm).

8.1.2 Water Jetting or Flooding


Compaction by water jetting or flooding shall not be permitted.

8.2 Trenches
1. The trench shall be backfilled and compacted to a density equal to that specified on the con-
tract documents or equal to that of the adjacent in situ material.
2. Bedding and backfill for flexible pipe (for example, Spirolite and other plastics, corrugated
steel) must be placed and compacted with special care since the soil and pipe act together to
support loads. Be sure to follow manufacturer's instructions.

8.2.1 Protection of Pipe


1. No machinery or vehicles shall be allowed to pass over the trench until the trench is
completely backfilled and compacted sufficiently to prevent damage to the pipe.
2. The Contractor shall take care to avoid damaging or dislocating the system during
backfilling.

8.2.2 Backfill Material


1. Backfill and compaction material shall be in accordance with PIP CVS02100 and this
Specification and shall be similar to in-situ material.
2. In general, backfill material shall be one of the following:
a. Excavated material, if suitable and agreed to by the Company;

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b. Sand with a maximum particle size of 1/4 inch;


c. Gravel with a minimum grain size of 1/4 inch;
d. Pea gravel;
e. Gravel mixed with sand; or
f. Well-graded compactable material, free from stones exceeding 3 inches (76 mm)
in the largest dimension, chunks of highly plastic clay, or other deleterious mate-
rial.

8.2.3 Placement
1. Initial Backfill
a. As soon as possible after making up joints, the Contractor shall place and compact
lifts in the space between the pipe and sides of the trench, with care to prevent
movement of the line or grade, until the compacted backfill reaches halfway up
the pipe.
b. All couplings, bells, joints, etc., shall remain exposed (for observation during
hydrotesting).
c. After hydrotesting, these areas shall be backfilled.
d. To avoid misalignment or damage to the pipe and joints, the Contractor shall work
on both sides at the same time while placing and compacting lifts.
e. Lifts shall be placed and compacted as follows:

Nominal Pipe Maximum Lift Compaction


Diameter (Loose Depth) Method
12 inches and less 4 inches Hand
Over 12 inches 8 inches Hand or machine tamping

2. Intermediate Backfill
a. After hydrotesting and final surveying, the Contractor shall place and compact
lifts until the compacted backfill extends 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the
pipe.
b. The maximum loose depth of the lifts shall be 8 inches (203 mm).
3. Final Backfill
The remaining volume to be filled shall be placed and compacted as follows:

Maximum Lift Maximum


Area (Loose Depth) Dry Density%
Roadway, railway, or paved areas 8 inches 95
Other areas* 8 inches 90
* Excavated material may/may not be used for final backfill.

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8.3 Appurtenances

9.0 TIE-IN TO EXISTING SYSTEM


Tie-ins to existing systems shall be done as shown on the construction drawing.

10.0 MISCELLANEOUS

10.1 Keep System Clean


1. The inside of the pipes and appurtenances shall be kept clean at all times.
2. Dirt, mortar, other joint material, construction tools and equipment, and other foreign material
shall be removed from the system.

10.2 Plug Openings into System


Openings into the system through pipe or appurtenances, when unattended, shall be plugged.

10.3 Embedment of Flexible Pipe


The requirement of the embedment configuration, material, compaction and installation shall be in
accordance with PIP CVS02700 Section 4.3.7.

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