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AN APPLIED RESEARCH PROJECT

EMERGENCY HABITAT: AN INSTANT DEPLOYED EMERGENCY CITY


SHELTER
Moshe Nissan, Advisor: Prof. Emeritus Michael Burt, Technion IIT, Industrial Design Program, 2014

ABSTRACT
The natural disasters that have occurred during the last decade have shown the need for temporary emergency
housing that could be quickly dispatched and placed. Foldable structures have shown optimal performance and
great space utilization, lightweight and great mobility possibilities. But how to design a portable, foldable,
lightweight, ultra-compact emergency shelter that can be easy shipped and assembled by unexperienced users?
Foldable air supported structures can be a solution for emergency shelters, covering structural and habitability
requirements for disaster victims.
The project defines a system for emergency housing; showing the process of an applied industrial design
research for temporal housing in disaster-stricken areas.
In addition, a shelter design processes, market analysis, emergency recommendations and action plan for disaster
zones, presented.
A Bio-mimicry (or bio-mimetic1) design Method presents some nature -inspired visions applied to R&D
products for disaster relief.

INTRODUCTION The importance in focusing on other vital factors


like: creating user's privacy or giving secure storage
for belongings is a priority.
Disasters have caused immense losses in the history
of humanity. Even today despite the technology's I believe that the development of an integral
advances and the well-organized rescue systems, “Emergency shelter-system” will drastically
teams and organizations, millions of people are improve the situation of the victims of natural and
affected every year. The global warming affects the man-made disasters.
weather behavior and disasters increase causing
human emigration, for example the "environmental Offering temporary shelter and basic habitability
2
refugees" , that are being affected by destructive conditions are the best allies of the victim's process to
disasters and then, they found themselves with no rebuild their homes and lives.
basic services, Shelter or Food forcing them to
emigrate to save their lives. This is why in this Portable folding pneumatic structures are easy to
project is presented a well-designed "Emergency manage, and is practically impossible to achieve
Shelter system, a must today. Aspects like shipping higher compactness with any other structure.
time to the disaster zone, and population mobility or
adaptation to harsh situations. The modular and lightweight possibilities that air
supported structures allow like optimal
After a Disaster, civilians are challenged by survival transportation since the folded pneumatic structure is
shortages, water supply, hygiene and food is critical very compact using ship, rail, air, truck
for ensuring the populations survival. The first 72 transportation, or even airdrop3 like a possibility.
hours are a key to ensure survival relief, and prevent
further complications. This Project responds to the
need for an emergency shelter in case of a disaster.

Our goal is to give displaced individuals and their


families some shelter while they rebuild their homes,
or at least gain some time after the shock of losing
everything.
Figure 1 "airdrop" image by Michael Downes, Fort
There are options for emergency shelter in the skill, Oklahoma
market, but yet they don’t focus on vital factors like:
shipping time, part reduction and easy assembling Temporary housing using pneumatic structures
for non-experienced users. would be easy to prefabricate at an off-site location
or factory, which could cut costs on traditional
construction while increasing quality control and In August 2005, when Hurricane Katrina hit the
consistency. southern coast of the U.S., the city of New Orleans
made available a sports stadium as a shelter. The
The design includes considerations for connection occupancy reached an estimated 12,000 people with
and between modules, is a modular structure which insufficient water and food supplies, while high
aspires to erect an instant tent city after a natural winds and flooding limited access by road to the
disaster, using modularity as a key-advantage to take stadium during the first days to provide additional
care of the stricken community. supplies and management. During the weeks
following the hurricane, tent cities were erected in
Biloxi, Mississippi, to shelter victims.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
The use of emergency shelters in case of emergency
due to natural disasters is not a new solution, but for
optimize the actual solutions is important to improve:

1. The emergency shelter transportation time:


2. The assemble and disassemble of the
structure:
3. The linkable capacity between structures,
and the advantage of modularity.
4. The field reparation possibilities
5. The general usability of the shelter
optimized for a stricken community, taking Figure 2 "the legacy of hurracane katrina –large
into account family's privacy requirements emergency shelter" from an exhibition in the Ogden
and hygiene considerations. museum of New Orleans6
6. Structure's Instanticity and extra mobility
capacity to serve the now "nomad" victims
of a disaster.
7. Offering versatility to the "design" to meet
the needs of different family sizes.

My thesis is that the usage of modular, portable,


foldable, air-supported structures is the right
solution for fast-shippable, movable, easy to fold and
instant lifting structures in case of emergency after a
disaster.

Figure 3 the inside of the New orleans Auditorium after


A) Disaster Facts4 the Katrina hurricane7
Asian tsunamis and earthquake of December, 2004,
affected twelve countries causing over 150,000 Man-made or Natural Disasters Between 2000 and
deaths and at least a half million injured, and leaving 2012, natural disasters caused $1.7 trillion in damage
five million homeless or without adequate access to and affected 2.9 billion people.
safe drinking water, food or health service. After this Worldwide in 2011, there were 154 floods, 16
event, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued droughts, and 15 cases of extreme temperature.
a declaration entitled “focus on life”, which states The year 2012 marked the third consecutive year of
that the response to any disaster has one primary worldwide natural disaster damage exceeding $100
focus: enabling those who are affected to live, billion. In the year, 2011 reached a record high of
Sustain their lives and enrich their livelihoods. $371 billion.
(World health organization) 1.1 million People killed by natural disasters between
2000 and 2012.
Immediately after a disaster, when houses have Floods are the most widespread natural disaster aside
rendered inhabitable by its effect, the initial from wildfires. 90 % of all U.S. natural disasters
approach may be in the form of large emergency declared by the President involve some sort of
shelters such as gymnasiums and other facilities, or flooding.
with hotels to accommodate large numbers of Earthquakes are disasters that cause associated
victims5. destruction of manufactured structures and instigate
other natural disasters such as tsunamis, avalanches,
and landslides.
In 2012, there were 905 natural catastrophes rapid alteration.
worldwide including severe storms, droughts,
tornadoes, earthquakes, floods, hailstorms, typhoons,
wildfires, and hurricanes.

Nearly 50 percent of the fatalities caused by natural


disasters in 2012 were due to hydrological events like
flooding or mass movements.

Hurricanes are large, spiralling tropical storms that 2) Vetter Shelters: Production of pneumatic,
can pack wind speeds of over 160 miles an hour and rescue equipment and tents for fire services
unleash more than 2.4 trillion gallons of rain a day. and medical services throughout the world.
Hurricanes can couple with storm surges and severe 3) "Emergency Pneumatics", Custom oriented,
flooding. rescue experience.
4) Rofi Shelters: Protecting People oriented textile
Damage paths of tornadoes can be in excess of one industry. Is a supplier of soft shelters and
mile wide and 50 miles long. protection solutions, such as tents, body armour,
and lightweight ballistic protection for vehicles.
Landslides often accompany earthquakes, floods, Heimplanet: The goal is to develop the best possible
storm surges, hurricanes, wildfires, or volcanic travel equipment to support you on your journeys.
activity. They are often more damaging and deadly Our inflatable tents provide you with a particularly
than the triggering event. easy set-up – simply roll it out, pump it up and
welcome home. The tents’ extraordinary design
B) User Needs creates, a very comfortable interior and offer an
The hierarchy of the victims needs is based on the amazingly generous amount of space, which can be
Maslow pyramid8 which presents a five layer felt, among other ways, in a large sleeping area.
pyramid placing in the most important levels the
Physiological and safety levels, which are expected
to be uncovered by the system.

D) Foldable air supported air structures


Technological development nowadays is so rapid that
Figure 4-Maslow Hierarchy of needs soon the innovations of today will be obsolete
tomorrow, is an era of constant change influencing
The user requirements are directly defined by the social trends.
first two levels of "the hierarchy of needs"; what we
need to design in a shelter to provide physiological Greater turnover material belongings, cars, furniture,
and safety opportunities to the victims? cloths and physical environments will evolve to a
more versatile design.
C) Actual solutions (Benchmarking)
Portable, instant, short-term throwaway architecture
will emerge; pneumatic architecture is infinitely
1) Pneumocell: The pneumocell architecture is more flexible in its options like: quick erection and
created by a series of shapes, all with the same dismantling, lightweight, portability and material
edge length, that can be joined together to form inexpensive material usage.
an unlimited number of shapes and sizes. These Therefore offers a possible solution to a wide range
cells enable a resilient design that is capable of of problems, both social and commercial kind.

Pneumatic architecture construction can be sued to


overcome temporary shortages of warehousing, this
spaces canbe also used to provide shelter for stricken
population in case of natural or man-made disasters structure, arranged with structural A) airbeams acting
and some radical designers affirm that can be even as supporting devices and B) thin membranes linking
used in space exploration and lunar shelters and the airbeams acting as walls.
space structures thanks to its deployability
possibilities. The structural capabilities of these structural
The most important is that pneumatic architecture elements are dependent of four things:
points to a "habitability revolution", correcting 1. Air volume: contained within the element by
environmental deficiencies, ventilation and heating its membrane
standards and insulation of traditional structural 2. The excess pressure: differential exerted on
envelopes. the membrane.
3. The characteristics of the membrane:
The essence of pneumatic architecture is a "fully material's porosity, impermeability, etc.
conditioned environment" without a conventional 4. Structural form: strength, and optimal form,
structure usually linked with architecture.9 (Herzog, which will be discussed in the "form finding
1976) section", adding some biomimicry visions
for structure form-finding.
As an industrial designer professional I feel
extremely attracted by the idea of manufacturing Some applications (watch appendix for images) of
living spaces in a foreign industrial plant in far east pneumatic structures are:
or wherever that will be erected in the other side of
the globe. 1. United states atomic energy commission
exhibition structure (dual walled air-
Pneumatic structures are membranes, membranes are structure inflated construction)
made with fabric or plastic thin sheets arranged in a 2. BARRACUDA sports hall
geometrical pattern that allow, all together a form, a 3. Pneumatic hybrid manufactured by krupp
structure, an envelope, an habitat that protect with its 4. Inflatable survival life-radt
boundaries from the brutalities of weather or any 5. DEW- line radomes
other danger. 6. Warehouses
7. Inflatable tents (stromeyer inflatable
Pneumatic architecture or air supported structure tent..and others)
consist of a single structural membrane, which is 8. Balloons (hot air balloons10)
supported by a small air pressure differential. This 9. Air ships and rafts
means that the internal building volume is at a 10. Pneumatic light- airplanes
pressure slightly above atmospheric, and access in 11. Pneumatic camping equipment (chairs,
and out of the building is accomplished across mats, etc.)
pressure differential. Thus, there is a continuous 12. Emergency shelters
leakage of air from the building's interior, which 13. Portable buildings, offices, field hospitals,
must be replenished by an uninterrupted air supply. school rooms, etc.
On the contrary, in an air inflated construction, air is 14. Pneumatic formwork for concrete
contained within a closed membrane to form inflated construction (binishels for thin shell
structural elements, such as columns, beams, walls concrete construction)
and arches, which themselves resist the external 15. Pneumatic lifting devices
loads in much the same way as the structural 16. Inflatable life-jackets and rafts
elements of more conventional structures. Here loss 17. Inflatable scape slides (used mainly in
of air pressure is less, and attributed to the slight air airplanes, also called evacuation slides 11)
porosity of membrane materials. In fact is a radical 18. Inflatostair: a inflatable stair made by
flip in construction's paradigm, a complete reversal in Goodyear aerospatial12
architectures thinking. 19. Pressurized inflatable storage containers
20. Portable exhibitions structures, displays, etc.
The potential of this structural medium for mobile 21. Inflatable DAMS (made by fabridams,
architecture is a huge and very flexible option, an firestone fabridams, also called rubber
amazing opportunity for filling habitability dams13)
requirements in very wide applications. 22. Pneumatics for leisure and recreational
pursuits
The structure we present here is and inflated 23. Outer space exploration devices,
structural element that uses "airbeams" giving 24. Radomes
structure to the "emergency shelter", and then after 25. Buoyancy rings
the structural geometry is well defined and 26. Inflatable radar antennae
supported, thin membrane layers are linked between 27. Inflatable MUST shelters
this airbeams creating a portable-foldable-pneumatic-
28. Inflatable industrial plants ( inflatable meat
process unit, Robert Wilson & sons,
gourock air supported shelter)
29. Greenhouses
30. Air supported offices
31. Airport hangars
32. Pool covers
33. Social and sport centers
34. And many, many others …

E) CBDM: Community Based Disaster


Management14 Figure 5-Temporary tent city at the Allahabad Kumbha
Mela, India
Community participation, has been recognized
as the additional element in disaster
management necessary to reverse the Emergency is defined as, a serious, unexpected, and
worldwide trend of increasing frequency and often dangerous situation requiring immediate action.
loss from disasters, build a culture of safety
Is situation that poses an immediate risk16 to health,
and disaster resilient communities, and ensure
15 life, property, or environment. Most emergencies
sustainable development for all. require urgent intervention to prevent a worsening of
After the experience of successive “mega- the situation, although in some situations, mitigation
disasters” within the last decade and the may not be possible and agencies may only be able to
positive case stories of community offer palliative care for the aftermath.
mobilization in disaster preparedness and
Shelter:
mitigation, there have been more How much Emergency?
communities, people’s organizations and How much Shelter?
NGOs, government agencies and local
government units which have taken on F) Philosophy of Design
community based disaster management.
The Department for International Development of the
United Nations on its transitional settlement and
Which are the elements and features of reconstruction after natural disasters report17 that
community based disaster management? affected communities should not be displaced or
Peoples participation, priority for the most resettled unless it is absolutely essential in order to
vulnerable groups, families, and people in the avoid risks from physical hazard since displacement
community. Risk reduction measures are is likely to exacerbate the impact a disaster has on
their livelihood. Planned camps are places where
community-specfic, the aim is to reduce
disaster victims find accommodations on purpose-
vulnerabilities by strengthening capacities, built sites and a full-service infrastructure is
links disaster risk reduction with development. provided18. It is also recommended that the size of
the camps be manageable to facilitate assembly,
Within this process, the formation and placement and removal in stages or phases.
strengthening of community disaster response
organization or community disaster Community, Synergy, and Emergency shelters:
management volunteers team is the key to DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
mobilizing communities for sustainable
disaster risk reduction.
General Concept
1-System19: is a plan on "how to act", a few minutes
after the disaster, for this situations a strategy is
proposed.
Whilst the amount of families increases, services and
functions are added to the shelter camp structure.
Even if a shelter camp is meant to be used for a finite
period of time, measured in months rather than years,
functions and services are there to facilitate the
process to gearing towards the return of normalcy for Water purification kit: Personal (i-Straw and
the camp dwellers. communal Water filtering Systems.
As one can see from the chart on the right hand page, Cooking kit: a camping stove for a family and for
units consisting of family tents form larger large scale cooking some other devices can be used
components and each component adds new shared for stationary cooking.
elements into the camp. The modular structure of the Sea-water desalinization kit: like the ones used for
emergency shelter camp means that instead of the large sea trips.
whole structure one can choose to deploy a “village” 2 absorbent compress dressings (5 x 9 inches)
or an “area” only. Watch the table. 25 adhesive bandages (assorted sizes)
1 adhesive cloth tape (10 yards x 1 inch)
5 antibiotic ointment packets (approximately 1 gram)
Is a novel disaster response tool aimed at providing 5 antiseptic wipe packets
temporary shelter to people who have lost their 2 packets of aspirin (81 mg each)
homes. The capacity of the camp is 10,000 to 13,000 1 blanket (space blanket)
people depending on how many people on average 1 breathing barrier (with one-way valve)
live in one family tent. 1 instant cold compress
In addition to family tents, the structure of the camp 2 pair of non-latex gloves (size: large)
also includes the necessary infrastructure to sustain 2 hydrocortisone ointment packets (approximately 1
the life of a temporary human dwelling of this size. gram each)
The everyday function of the camp is very much Scissors
based on the active participation of its inhabitants as 1 roller bandage (3 inches wide)
well as the cooperation of the permanent local 1 roller bandage (4 inches wide)
population of the area, public authorities and other 5 sterile gauze pads (3 x 3 inches)
humanitarian actors. 5 sterile gauze pads (4 x 4 inches)
Oral thermometer (non-mercury/non-glass)
Staffing of emergency shelter camp 2 triangular bandages
1 Team Leader Tweezers
2 Administration delegates First aid instruction booklet
1 Information delegate Organization = People Services
10-15 Technical delegates (specialities: water and Family - 5 -
sanitation, IT, logistics, electricity, procurement, Tent family 5 Accessories for
relief distribution plus generalists) accommodation, food
1 General practitioner preparation, hygiene, and
clothing for one family
3 Nurses (of which one is a midwife)
In addition, emergency shelter camp hires, depending Block 4 tents 20 Latrines and shared clean
on circumstances, local staff such as teachers, water storage
warehouse staff, interpreters, nurses, electricians etc.
Neighborhood 10 blocks 200 Garbage disposal, communal
kitchen, communal space,
In Short, the system must perform very simple tasks water point and children’s
to perfection, explained by this algorithm: playground
1-get to the affected Area (fast Shipping), 2-Deploy Village 5 neigh. 1000 School, shared laundry place
the shelter (assembling), 3- Give shelter & service, 4- and space for sports
activities. Fuel distribution in
Dissasemble (fold), 5- leave to other place or a cold climate location
warehouse, 6- If needed repeat the whole process in Area 5 villages 5000 Water purification unit.
new location. Relief item distribution point
Shelter is desperately needed in the disaster zones, to Camp 2 Areas 10000 Basic health clinic, market
find a place for the victims to live is a “priority”. square, cemetery
A temporary solution, in emergency moments is the
difference between life and death.
B) Shelter Kit: The shelter should add some extra
2-Emergency kit: devices that add belter usability performance, for
example, field reparation kit, or some strings and
The Emergency kit is divided by 3 sub-systems and a reinforced fabrics for customize the shelter in case of
few complementary recommended gadgets need (linking two or more structures, etc.), also is
important to be ready to adapt the shelter for colder
A) First Aid Kit20: The first aid Kid is a typical kit or hotter weathers, using "Sunshades" or ventilation
but optimized for mobility, it should be easy to carry devices in for very hot areas or heating systems that
and easy to fold up, some of the needed items can be improvised using plastic bottles for example
include: or even the cooking systems , some of the
complementary devices are listed below:
The Shelter
Sanitation-kit (portable-WC, inflatable lavatory seat, purchased, sends a matching light to
shower, etc) someone without access to electricity.
Inflatable furniture kit, (a bed, chair, table, pillow, a
puff)
Shelter fixing kit (similar to rafting reparation kit)
Sunshade (fabric, strings, hooks)
Mylar coated poncho 21(Space blanket)
Collapsible water recipients (water-storage)
Water resistant container for important documents,
could be linked to the Shelter (for security reasons)
Tap with grommets, in case of raining, etc.
C) Resilience Kit22: The resilience kit is a list of
articles that are not required just to accomplish the
Physical and Safety hierarchical needs (watch
Maslow's Pyramid) but too give an extra comfort to 3-Emergency Shelter:
the victim, and include:
Eton* Radio23
Flare Required qualities
Compass & Watch Instanticity:
Local maps Fold-ability:
Snare wire Mobility:
Seal-Containers (water, food) Adaptability:
Mirror
Whistle Limitations of the System
Peper Spray The system cannot deal with extreme weathers like,
Glow sticks very hot or cold, is best performance deals with a
Portable- LED flashlight range between -5 to 40 C degrees.
Swiss-army Knife Inspirations:
Sewing Kit
Hats (for extreeme sun) Michael Burt
Parachute Cord Felix Candela
Collapsable Water containers Victor Papanek
Kitchen goods: frying-pan, etc Frei Otto
protection agaist water Buckminster Fuller
water resistent case for documents Pier Luigi Nervi
Sanitaton- kit and Portable shower Leonardo Da Vinci
googles & Dust mask Shigeru Ban
Knife Leonard euler
Axe Daniel Simons (conceptual Designer)
Pneumatic Mat Raymond Loewy
Grommets Frank Lloyd Wright
Eero Saarinen
-Complementary Gadgets: Biomimicry as Design Methods
1. SolarBall:24: The Solarball is a student- Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the
designed device that creates clean drinking models, systems, and elements of nature for the
water through evaporation and condensation purpose of solving complex human problems. The
(All photos courtesy Monash University) terms biomimetics and biomimicry come from
Ancient Greek: βίος (bios), life, and μίμησις
(mīmēsis), imitation, from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), to
imitate, from μῖμος (mimos), actor. A closely related
field is bionics.
Living organisms have evolved well-adapted
structures and materials over geological time through
natural selection. Biomimetics has given rise to new
technologies inspired by biological solutions at
macro and nanoscales. Humans have searched from
2. LuminAID25: The LuminAID is a solar- nature for answers to problems throughout our
powered, inflatable light that packs flat and existence. Nature has solved engineering problems
inflates to create a lightweight, waterproof such as self-healing abilities, environmental exposure
lantern. Each Give Light, Get Light package tolerance and resistance, hydrophobicity, self-
assembly, and harnessing solar energy. In this project geometry, morphology and radical Design- ideas, for
a few natural analogies were revised as part of the me was a wonderful causality to found a person that
general concept of the shelter: links all these passions in one. Michael's worldview
1) Foam Nesting Frog: reflects the ultimate and unique skills that are
2) Cholla Cactus: self organization and coplex required to any designer, architect or engineer that
geometry dealing with forces wants to change the world, first a burning passion for
3) Chamaleon: Adaptability and life, sharp & powerful analysis and to be a proactive,
4) Pill Millidope: folding capability skills, which I take close to my heart in every session
5) Soap Bubbles26: during the project. I want to thank Mr. Alex
6) Exoskeleton: Gordon, which somehow was part of the magic that
7) Turtle Shell: connected me with Michael, Alex you gave me a few
8) Crystal lattice: good lessons here at the Technion, thanks. Finally
9) Marine Sponge: yet importantly many thanks to Irit the Architecture's
10) Euplactella: and Town planing graduate students secretary that
11) Nautilus Shell: always help me with no exception, Many thanks.
12) Beehive
13) Marine Shells
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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that always welcomed me in its Home and Studio, I Press.
always felt extremely attracted for complex
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Tsunami. Humanitarian Health Action. varied roles, as designers is important to know that
World Health Organization. July 17, 2012, we are responsible of defining products and services,
from http:// in short, new systems that give solutions for human
www.who.int/hac/crises/international/asia_t need. Design, is a discipline in constant search for
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16. Lizarralde, G., Johnson, C., & Davidson, C. the final user.
(2010). Rebuilding after Disaster – From
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17. Nigg, J. M. (1995). Disaster Recovery as a the process itself, is elemental to move toward a
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University of Delaware, The disaster were planned for which reason, role and how to
Recovery Process. Article 284. (13pp.) produce them, commercialize or recycle.
Newark, Delaware.
18. Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Design explain things to be implemented, it also
Recovery (GFDRR), The World Bank and describes how the thing can be realized giving
The Government of Haiti. (2011). Haiti direction to others who will be in charge of that
Earthquake Reconstruction – Knowledge implementation.
Notes from DRM Global Expert Team for
the Government of Haiti (pp.1-48).
Washington, DC: July 17, 2012, from: Designs are testable, for example building and testing
https://www.gfdrr.org/ a real aircraft, using the design to analytically test is a
19. McCarthy, F. X. (2010). FEMA Disaster safer and cheaper option, prospective users can reach
Housing: From Sheltering to Permanent agreement when testing this models before building
Housing. (Publication No. 7-5700). the final model.
Washington, DC. Government Printing We can say that any process, that develops
Office. appropriate designs as described above is an instance
20. Klarreich, K. (2010, January 31). Haiti of designing.
Earthquake Diary. The Christian Science
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http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Haiti- the designs to the right answer, there are several
Earthquake-Diary ways to ask the questions but few questions to make.
21. Haiti Earthquake: One year later (2010). In Not all the answers can be answered completely.
Britannica. December 1, 2011, from There are questions that require a lifetime to be
:http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2011/01/h answered; this is when the hierarchical thought gets
aiti-earthquakeof- 2010-one-year-later- in scene, which are the most important thing to relate
picture-essay-of-the-day in the project, how to do it, who needs it, why and
22. Reyner Banham, 1984. Architecture of the how to achieve the goal.
Well-Tempered Environment. Second
Edition, Revised Edition. University Of The best design process depends on the awareness of
Chicago Press. the “Context”, nonetheless, a review of designing as
23. Winfried Nerdinger, 2005. Frei Otto. it conducted in many different industries, companies
Complete Works. 1st ed. 2005. 2nd printing cultures, disciplines and challenges, reveals certain
Edition. Birkhäuser Architecture. key features that are always present and require a
“professional” to storytell those aspects. Design is
way to see the case, a eyeglass to create a solution for
Reference Generator: Harvard Online: a problem.
http://www.harvardgenerator.com/
Design is the process of making proposals for
APPENDIX: change. Design is a constant reality description with
analytical bounds for constant change and
WHAT IS DESIGN? improvement. Is a continuous processing of
People ask me what is Industrial design? Is the same information between, and within different design
as graphical design? domains, is a problem solving activity where a design
Sometimes is difficult to give a quick answer, but is problem and its solutions co-evolve.
important as designers to be ready to explain others Design is also any complex system or course of
what we Industrial Designers do. action, without an existing plan. It is common now to
trait the design process as falling into four stages:
Analysis of the problem, conceptual design, Design is an attitude ( Moholy Nagy).
embodiment, detailing. Design is hope made visible, which means to create
The purpose of design as any scientific discipline is something responsive to people’s needs, ambitions,
to produce knowledge; this activity can also be and dreams, and not such a thing.
helpful in manufacturing objects, services, ideas,
tools, or creating synergies between members in a
Industries:
organization.
1) Shelter systems: http://www.shelter-
Design is: describing new possibilities, which is systems.com/relieftents/
expected to allow the achievement of a preferred 2) Creative Tents: http://creativetent.us/home
situation. Depending of how we want to focus, we 3) Hexayurt: http://hexayurt.com/
can say, we have two ways to perceive design: 4) Heimplanet: http://www.heimplanet.com/
5) Rofi shelters: www.rofi.no/
6) Vetter: http://vetter.de/
SPECIFIC DESIGN: research, analysis and creation 7) Design for Disaster:
of innovative products & services which shape the http://www.design4disaster.org/
human experience. 8) Pacific Domes: http://www.pacificdomes.com/
GENERIC DESIGN: is a bridge, a gap between the 9) Ferrari Fabric structures:
present and the future as a catalyst for improvement http://en.sergeferrari.com/
of the human condition. is a constant responsibility 10) Cannobbio tensile architecture:
for improvement. www.canobbio.com/
11) Shelter centre: http://www.sheltercentre.org/
Design is the human power to conceive, plan, and 12) Krupp- Light structures and tensile architecture:
realize objects, ideas, products, services, interactions, http://www.kruppconstruction.com/about
experiences that serve human beings in the 13) Satellite Industries & CO.Portable WC (the best
accomplishment of any individual or collective in the market – US):
purpose - (Richard Buchanan, Carnegie Mellon). http://www.satelliteindustries.com/
14) IFAI Coated fabrics (for the shelter):
Design involves the strategic development, planning, http://www.ifai.com/
and production of artefacts of visual and tactile 15) BIRDAIR one of the first companies for
communication. It deals with the effective and pneumatic architecture:
efficient communication of: ideas, beliefs, attitudes, http://www.birdair.com/
messages, and information, to specific audiences for 16) Universal Structures: Military, fabric structures:
specific purposes, and within specific intentions. http://www.ufsinc.com/
Design is constant sharpness of our individual and 17) Shelter box: http://www.shelterbox.org/
collective intentions, is defining our mission, here 18) KH Air compresors ( portable):
and now. http://www.khindustries.com/
The idea of design rests in its ability to escape 19) PAPER: DESIGN OF REUSABLE
definition. EMERGENCY RELIEF HOUSING UNITS
USING GENERAL-PURPOSE (GP) SHIPPING
Conception, intention, arrangement, graphic CONTAINERS, José A. Peña, Purdue University
representation, communication, pattern, ornament in Calumet; Kurt Schuzer, Purdue University Calumet,
the same sense product design as an occupation came Fall 2012
about mass production allowing the separation of 20) Designing Like They Give a Damn . 2014.
design from making (except for the making of plans Designing Like They Give a Damn . [ONLINE]
or prototypes). Available at:
http://archive.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/news/2
004/08/64409. [Accessed 28 July 2014].
Design is a variety of mental skills that relate to our 21)
previous object creation. A concentration on planning
the user experiences has become central for many of
us in the design area. Possible Clients:
1) UN
Design is the human power to conceive, plan and 2) FEMA
realize products that serve human beings in the 3) USOC
accomplishment of any individual or collective 4) USAID
purpose (Dan Saffer). 5) DWOB
6) UNHCR
Design is the opposite of everything else a designer 7) Global Emergency group:
doesn't do to earn a living (Glenn Johnson). http://globalemergencygroup.com/
Emergency kit devices:

Space Blanket:

Eton Radio (emergency radio with: weather alert,


man-powered battery, solar powered, music on the
go, LED flashlight, radio, even wireless depending
Extras:
on the models.
- Instant City
Figure 6- Inflatostari by goodyear aerospace

Project – explanation Posters:

In this image, I explain the "10k emergency Camp concept & services required for Disaster Relief
This is a complementary image- showing the services, interactions between victims and the plan for survival.

This is the "APEX-Emergency kit" explanation were every recommended gadget is mentioned and presented
This slide presents Disaster facts and how the user's needs arise from the shocking reality after the destruction is
left behind after a disaster, some examples of economical loss in Disasters.

Problematic and concept definition of the System


This is a very short but high quality selection of similar projects that have succeed in the market

Defining the pneumatic shelters, instanticity and fold ability for high mobility as prime requirements for disaster
relief. Some of those concepts were inspired by the project "Instant city by: Ron Herron en Peter
Cook27
In this slide the Biomimicry28, were some natural analogies presented.

In a kind of Zoom in, this slide presents a brief research of the "Soap-bubble" and how can be used for
performance oriented form-finding structures
In this slide: some inspirations, designers, architects, inventors, engineers and conceptual ideas for further
product design development for emergencies, and disasters.
1
Biomimetics: Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for
the purpose of solving complex human problems.[1] The terms biomimetics and biomimicry come from
Ancient Greek: βίος (bios), life, and μίμησις (mīmēsis), imitation, from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), to imitate, from
μῖμος (mimos), actor. A closely related field is bionics.[2]

Living organisms have evolved well-adapted structures and materials over geological time through natural
selection. Biomimetics has given rise to new technologies inspired by biological solutions at macro and
nanoscales. Humans have looked at nature for answers to problems throughout our existence. Nature has solved
engineering problems such as self-healing abilities, environmental exposure tolerance and resistance,
hydrophobicity, self-assembly, and harnessing solar energy. – Wikipedia, 2014,
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Biomimetics&printable=yes
2
Environmental Refugees: http://www.unhcr.org/3ae6a0d00.html ,
http://www.globalization101.org/environmental-refugees/
3
Airdrop: An airdrop is a type of airlift, developed during World War II to resupply otherwise inaccessible
troops, who themselves may have been airborne forces. In some cases, it is used to refer to the airborne assault
itself. Early airdrops were conducted by dropping or pushing padded bundles from aircraft,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airdrop
4
Disaster Facts from UNISDR- The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction,
http://www.unisdr.org/archive/31685
5
National Disaster Housing Strategy, January 2009, FEMA (US- Homeland Security), " Traditional approaches
to disaster housing, which worked well in most disasters, were inadequate to meet the demands of this
catastrophic event. Those involved faced the challenge of rapidly registering and housing more than 1.4 million
households in large congregate shelters and hotels spread across a multistate area. The challenge to succeed in
the midst of the confusion and imperfect information that accompanies a catastrophic event unfolded before the
Nation. Throughout the Hurricane Katrina response, responsibilities and roles that seemed clear in previous
events became less clear as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other Federal departments
and agencies provided increasing levels of support to State and local officials." (manual page 6.)
6
Katrina image library. http://www.npr.org/blogs/pictureshow/2010/08/24/129400381/telling-their-stories
7
LJ world Journal, http://www2.ljworld.com/photos/2006/aug/15/
8
Maslow Pyramid http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html ,
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201205/our-hierarchy-needs
9
Thomas Herzog, 1976. Pneumatic Structures: A Handbook of Inflatable Architecture. Edition. Oxford
University Press.
10
Hot air Balloons, The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. It is part of a
class of aircraft known as balloon aircraft. On November 21, 1783, in Paris, France, the first untethered[1]
manned flight was performed by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d'Arlandes in a hot air
balloon created on December 14, 1782 by the Montgolfier brothers.[2] Hot air balloons that can be propelled
through the air rather than just being pushed along by the wind are known as airships or, more specifically,
thermal airships. , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hot_air_balloon

11 An evacuation slide is an inflatable slide used to evacuate an aircraft quickly. An escape slide is required on all
commercial (passenger carrying) aircraft where the door sill height is such that, in the event of an evacuation, passengers
would be unable to step down from the door uninjured (Federal Aviation Administration requires slides on all aircraft doors
where the floor is 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above the ground).

Escape slides are packed and held within the door structure inside the slide bustle, a protruding part of the inside of an
aircraft door that varies in size depending on both the size of the aircraft and the size of the door.

Many, but not all slides are also designed to double as life rafts in case of a water landing.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evacuation_slide
12
Goodyear- Aerospace, Goodyear Aerospace Corporation was the aerospace and defense subsidiary of
Goodyear. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goodyear_Aerospace ,inflatostair:
http://www.newspapers.com/newspage/61285308/
13
RUBBER- DAMS, Rubber dams are long tubular-shaped fabrics placed across channels, streams and weir
crest to raise the upstream water level when inflated. The membrane is a multi-layer fabric made of synthetic
fibre which may be rubberised on one or both sides, and possibly coated with plastic film,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflatable_rubber_dam
14
CBDM: Community based disaster management: Disaster Risk Reduction is a systematic approach to
identifying, assessing and reducing the risks of disaster. It aims to reduce socio-economic vulnerabilities to
disaster as well as dealing with the environmental and other hazards that trigger them,
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_community_based_disaster_management ,
http://www.adpc.net/v2007/programs/CBDRM/ , ADPC: The Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC)
believes that community action for disaster risk management is a crucial element in promoting a "culture
of prevention" and creating safer communities. Therefore, community based approaches have been an
integral part of the various projects and programs of ADPC since mid and late 1990s.
15
PAPER: COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES:
MAKING A DIFERENCE IN PEOPLE’S LIVES, Lorna P. Victoria - Director, Center for Disaster
Preparedness
16
Emergency definition by Wikipedia "the Free Encycloedia", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergency
17
OCHA- Office for the coordination of humanitarian Affairs , Shelter centre, Department for international
development, "transitional settlement and reconstruction after natural disasters" – MANUAL.
18
Container Technology A-Z, Container Architecture and ISBU Technology ™
19
Based on the Finnish- red Cross Emergency shelter 10K Plan, that in 2010 gave Emergency shelter services
for 2.300 families to Haiti, in connection with the January 12th 2010 earthquake. -
http://www.redcross.fi/about-red-cross/our-work-throughout-world/emergency-shelter-10k
20
Based on: The American Red Cross Anatomy of a first AID –kit,
http://www.redcross.org/prepare/location/home-family/get-kit/anatomy
21
Used by NASA and other rescue organizations like Red-Cross, A space blanket (also known as a Mylar
blanket, first aid blanket, emergency blanket, thermal blanket or weather blanket) is an especially low-
weight, low-bulk blanket made of heat-reflective thin plastic sheeting. Their design reduces the heat loss in a
person's body which would otherwise occur due to thermal radiation, water evaporation, or convection. Their
compact size before unfurling and light weight makes them ideal for use in spacecraft—where cargo space is at a
premium. Civilian versions may be included in first aid kits and also in camping equipment. Lost campers and
hikers have an additional possible benefit: the metallic surface appearance flashes in the sun, allowing use as an
improvised locator-beacon for searchers. , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_blanket
22
The Resilence kit, is alist of recommended devices that will certainly give an EXTRA in case of an
emergency, but are very expensive articles, that’s why is just a extra recommendation.
23
ETON devices are very well designed products, emergency radios sold in retail stores and online , some of its
radios are manufactured and branded for the American Red-Cross , http://www.etoncorp.com/en
24
Solar Ball- Solar powered water purifier system: http://www.gizmag.com/solarball-creates-drinkable-
water/18270/
25
LuminAID, The LuminAID is a solar-powered, inflatable light that packs flat and inflates to create a
lightweight, waterproof lantern. Each Give Light, Get Light package purchased, sends a matching light to
someone without access to electricity. , http://www.luminaid.com/
26
Prof. Michael Burt has a very extensive project that deals with Soap bubbles and complex geometries, and the
optimal use of surfaces and structures, minimal use of materials, etc.
27
Archigram magazine presents a brief explanation of the Project,
http://www.classic.archined.nl/news/0201/archigram_eng.html
28
Concept by The Biomimicry institute 3.8, http://biomimicry.net/