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DESIGN CALCULATION OF PILE

WITH APPRECIATION NOTE

FO R

CONSTRUCTION OF R.O.B. AT KM 67/9 TO 68/0 IN


BETWEEN STATION JAGIROAD AND AJURI

FOR
NORTH FRONTIER RAILWAY
(CONSTRUCTION)

STRUCTURAL CONSULTANTS :-
EIS PLANNERS & ENGINEERS
25N, Selimpur Road, Kolkata–700 031

DOCUMENT NO.: EISP/NFR-18/DC–01; Rev. – 0 Date: 12/10/2018


NOTE ON DESIGN PILE LOAD CAPACITY
a) The safe vertical load capacity of pile is considered as 250 T for safer design.
b) In the vaiduct portion of ROB, the end substructure is considered as abutment wall and other intermediate
substructures are considered as single column i.e. pier for ecconomic and better structural responses and reliability under
critical load combinations.
b) The initial pile test is carried out near bore hole 2. The calculation is done on the basis of Geo-technical report for two end.
of ROB. The pile layout is released for two abutments and five numbers of piers at NH 37 end and Morigaon end.
For the central portion i.e. near the crossing of rail track (P4 to P7 of Drawing No. PICDC/JAGIROAD/GAD/01) the pile layout
will be released after completion of pile testing and submission of revised Geo-technical report.

Reference: Geotechnical Investigation Report for Proposed Construction of ROB at Marigaon, Assam
Prepared by: North East Engineers Date: August, September 2018

Dia of Pile Bore Hole Field N- Termination level of Safe Vertical Load Capacity of Pile
Sl No Remark
in mm No Value Pile in Ton
1 1200 1 Main Bridge portion is not considered
Soil calculation to be revised and
2 1200 2 29 39 151.15
verified
Considered 250 T for predominantly
3 1200 3 R 35 441.99
end bearing pile

4 1200 4 Main Bridge portion is not considered


Considered 250 T for predominantly
5 1200 5 62 35 475.68
end bearing pile
Considered 250 T for predominantly
6 1200 6 39 39 507.23
end bearing pile
Considered 250 T for predominantly
7 1200 7 61 35 720.89
end bearing pile

Additional factor of safety provided for safe vertical load capacity of pile (250 T) is 1.5 to 2.8 times which is favourable in
seismic condition where reliability of end bearing is more than friction capacity of pile.
Moreover, it may noted on the basis of above evidence of safe pile capacity of 250 T as considered at a joint discussion held
with concerned officials of NFR on 05/10/2018 on this regard.
NOTE ON PILE ARRANGEMENT

Site Constraint: Existing road is crossing the Railway track through on grade level crossing. Existing metal
road width is 10 m with shoulder of 2.5 m to 3.5 m on each side. During construction work the road traffic
is to be maintained by construction of temporary service road of minimum 3.5 m width on either side
and for that reason, overall dimension required for pilling work has been kept within 9 m.
To facilitate the requirement of temporary service road, pile layout and pile cap size has been made
within 9 m width around the centre line of the existing road.
For the construction work for pile and pile cap, the requirement of width is nearly 11-12 m. So the
service road shall be laid beyond this width. Any obstruction beyond this width shall be temporarily
removed to provide 3.5 m width temporary service road on each side. After completion of construction
of substructure, the space for this road will be adequate except the abutment wall and main railway
bridge portion. A schematic diagrams of abutment wall and typical pier are given below.
Load Calculation for Substructure of 30 m Single Span of Viaduct and Intermediate Pier [ Morigaon End]
Live Load:
Impact Factor (Class A) = 1+{9/(13.5+30) }= 1.21 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.4]
Impact Factor (70 R) = 1.21 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-208.2]
Congestion Factor = 1.7 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-208.2]
70 R Wheeled vehicle
8 12 12 17 17 17 17

3.96 1.52 2.13 1.37 3.05 1.37

Load CG from rear end = ((17x1.37)+(17x(1.37+3.05))+(17(1.37x3.05+1.37))+(12x(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13))+(12(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13+1.52))+


(8x(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13+1.52+3.96)))/(8+12+12+17+17+17+17) = 5.124 m

70 R Wheeled vehicle

70

4.570
Load CG from rear end = 4.57/2 = 2.285 m
Class A
2.7 2.7 11.4 11.4 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8

1.1 3.2 1.2 4.3 3 3 3

Load CG from rear end = ((6.8x3)+(6.8x(3+3))+(6.8x(3+3+3))+(11.4x(3+3+3+4.3))+(11.4x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2))+(2.7x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2+3.2))+


(2.7x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2+3.2+1.1)))/(2.7+2.7+11.4+11.4+6.8+6.8+6.8+6.8) = 9.709 m

Live Load Cases For Substructure Loading For 30 m Span


Case 1: 70 R Wheeled Vehicle + 1 Lane of Class A
Minimum spacing between two successive vehicles is 30 m. [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.1]
70R
No Other Vehicle

5.124

30 30
Total load for 70R = 100 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = (24.8762/30)x1.21x1.7x100= 170.57 T (Including IF & CF)
Minimum spacing between two successive vehicles is 20 m. [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.1]
Part load of Successive Class A Vehicle
11.4 11.4 Class A
6.8 2.7 2.7
20
9.709

30 30
Total load for Class A = 55.4 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = [(20.291/30)x55.4x1.21x1.7]+[(10/30)x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(8.9/30)x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(5.7/30)x11.4x1.21x1.7]+
[(4.5/30)x11.4x1.21x1.7]+[(0.2/30)x6.8x1.21x1.7]= 88.64 T (Including IF & CF)
Total reaction at Intermediate Support = 170.57+88.64= 259.21 T (Including IF & CF)

Case 2: 70 R Tracked Vehicle + 1 Lane of Class A

70R

2.285

30 30
Total load for 70R = 70 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = (27.715/30)x70x1.7x1.21= 133.02 T (Including IF & CF)
Part load of Successive Class A Vehicle
11.4 11.4 Class A
6.8 2.7 2.7
20
9.709

30 30
Total load for Class A = 55.4 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = [(20.291/30)x55.4x1.21x1.7]+[(10/30)x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(8.9/30)x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(5.7/30)x11.4x1.21x1.7]+
[(4.5/30)x11.4x1.21x1.7]+[(0.2/30)x6.8x1.21x1.7]= 88.64 T (Including IF & CF)
Total reaction at Intermediate Support = 221.66 T (Including IF & CF)

Case 3: 3 Lane of Class A


Part load of Successive Class A Vehicle
34.2 34.2 3 Lane Class A
20.4 8.1 8.1 20

9.709

30 30

Total load for 3 Lane Class A = [(20.291/30)x3x55.4x1.21x1.7]+[(10/30)x3x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(8.9/30)x3x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(5.7/30)x3x


11.4x1.21x1.7]+ [(4.5/30)x3x11.4x1.21x1.7]+[(0.2/30)x3x6.8x1.21x1.7]= 265.93 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = 265.93 T (Including IF & CF)

So critical Live Load combination for substructure design is Case 3 i.e. 3 Lane of Class A vehicle

Dead Load:
Super imposed dead load:
Max Overall length of single span = 31.2 m [Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774]
Considering thickness of wearing course = 0.075 m
Clear Carriageway wdith of Road = 11 m [Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774]
Total width of wearing course = 11 m
Unit weight of wearing course = 2.4 T/m3
Weight of wearing course =0.075x11x2.4x31.2= 61.78 T
Considering Live Load for foothpath = 0.5 T/m2
Width of Footpath = 1.5 m
Live load for Foothpath=0.5x1.5x31.2x2= 46.8 T
Total SIDL =61.78+46.8= 108.58 T
Dead Load for Superstructure:
Total weight of steel for 30 span plate girder bridge = 139 T
[Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774/12]
Thickness of Deck Slab = 0.25 m
Total width of deck = 15.6 m
Unit wt. of concrete = 2.5 T/m3
Total weight of deck slab=0.25x15.6x31.2x2.5= 304.2 T
Thickness of slab for Footpath portion = 0.1 m
Width of Foothpath = 1.6 m
Total weight of Foothpath portion =0.1x2.5x1.6x2x31.2= 24.96 T
Considering weight of Hand railing etc. = 0.3 T/m
Total weight for hand railing =0.3x2x31.2= 18.72 T
Total height of Crush Barrier = 0.975 m
Average width of crush barrier = 0.375 m
Weight of Crush barrier =0.975x0.375x2.5= 0.914 T/m

Total Weight of Crush barrier =2x0.914x31.2= 57.03 T


Total Dead Load for superstructure = 543.9 T 15.6

Dead Load for Substructure:


Pier cap
Considering Column type pier:
Length of Pier cap = 15.6 m 2
Width of Pier cap = 2.5 m 2
Avg. Depth of pier cap = 2m 6 Pier
Depth of col. At base = 4m
Depth of col. At top = 8m
Width of col. = 2m
Max. height of col. = 6m
Weight of Pier =[(4x10.28)+{0.5x(10.28+18.28)x2}]x2.5= 174.2 T
Weight of Pier cap =15.6x2.5x2x2.5= 195 T Pile cap
Considering weight of pedestal, seismic guard etc = 50 T

Total weight for Pier cap, Pier =174.2+195+50= 419.2 T 1200 mm Dia Pile
Total length of pile cap = 9m
Total width of pile cap = 9m 1 2 1 1 6 1
Depth of cap = 2.5 m

Total weight of pile cap =9x9x2.5x2.5= 506.25 T

Plan of Pier at Base Plan of Pier at Top


2 2
Total Dead Load =506.25+419.2+543.91+108.58= 1577.94 T Area A1 = 10.28 m Area A2 = 18.28 m

Total vertical load for Dead Load & live Load =1577.94+265.93= 1843.87 T
Dia of pile = 1200 mm
Considering Safe Vertical Load capacity of each Pile = 250 T
[Ref: Geotechnical Investigation report for Peoposed Construction of ROB at Marigaon, BH6,7]

Provide 9 nos of pile for each pile cap


Max vertical reaction for each pile = 204.8744 T < 250 T

Seismic Load:

Importance factor ,I = 1.2 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.1.1 Table 19]
Zone factor (Zone V) , Z = 0.36 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.2]
Sa/g = 2.5 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.1]
Response reduction factor,R= 3 [ For column type structure, as per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.5 Table 20]

So, Horizontal seismic coefficient,Ah=(0.36/2)x1.2x2.5/3= 0.18


Seismic Load in the direction of Perpendicular to traffic
Live Load Component:
Effective Live Load =0.2x265.93/1.21= 43.955 T [20% of Max LL without IF]
[ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.2]
Considering max height of bearing = 0.35 m 0.35
Load CG for Live Load from top of pedestal =2.855+0.35= 3.205 m
Load CG for Dead Load from top of pedestal =0.961+0.35= 1.311 m Pier cap 2
[Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774/1]
Horizontal force during Seismic for LL =0.18x43.955 = 7.912 T
Acting 3.205+0.35+2+6= 11.555 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to LL =7.912x11.555= 91.420 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for LL =7.912x2/3 = 5.28 T 6 Pier

Dead Load Component:

Dead Load from superstructure =61.78+543.91= 605.7 T [Excluding LL in foothpath]


Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =605.69x0.18= 109.02 T
Pile cap
Acting 1.311+0.35+2+6= 9.661 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to DL(Superstructure) =9.661x109.02= 1053.240 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =109.02x2/3 = 72.68 T 1200 mm Dia Pile
Wt of Pier cap = 195 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier cap=195x0.18= 35.10 T
Acting (2/2)+6 = 7 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier cap =7x35.1= 245.70 T-m Pier cap
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =35.1x2/3 = 23.40 T
Wt of Pier = 174.2 T 2
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier =174.2x0.18= 31.356 T CG of Pier cap from pile cap
Acting 3.275 m from top pile cap Pier =[(2.5x4x10.28x2)+
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier = 102.69 T-m 4 (2.5x2x14.28x5.111)]/
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier =31.356x2/3 = 20.904 T 174.2= 3.275
Total moment during SL at top of cap=102.69+245.7+1053.24+91.42= 1493 T-m E.G.L 0 m
Total horizontal shear at cap during SL =31.356+35.1+109.02+7.912= 183.39 T Earth filling
Vertical force during SL =20.904+23.4+72.68+5.275= 122.26 T
Crirical load Combination: DL+Reduced LL+SL Pile cap
Vertical Load for DL = 1531.1 T
Vertical Load for LL = 43.955 T
Vertical Load for SL = 122.26 T
1200 mm Dia Pile
Depth filled soil over top of pile cap = 0.30 m
3
Avg unit wt of soil = 1.80 T/m
Total wt of soil =(81-10.28)x1.8x0.3= 38.189 T
Mx 8

2 CG = 2/3x(20/12)
1 2 3 4 = 1.111
Z 3.6

Direction of Traffic
4 5 6
X
3.6 3.6

7 8 9

3.6 3.6 CG of pile cap is at the location of P5 pile


Pile X Z
X = Direction of Traffic 1 -3.6 -3.6
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic 2 -3.6 0
3 -3.6 3.6
Now total, Mx = 1493 T-m Total shear, Fz = 183.39 T 4 0 -3.6
∑ Z 2= 77.76 ∑ X 2= 77.76 5 0 0
Min. Compression during Seismic: 6 0 3.6
Net Vertical force = 1531.14+43.955+38.189-122.259= 1491.025 T 7 3.6 -3.6
8 3.6 0
Reaction at P-1 and P-7 = 1491.025/9+(1493.05x-3.6)/77.76 9 3.6 3.6
= 96.547 T < 312.5 T
[ safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
Max. Compression during Seismic:
Net Vertical force = 122.259+43.955+1531.14+38.189= 1735.543 T

Reaction at P-3 and P-9 = 1735.543/9+(1493.05x3.6)/77.76


= 261.961 T < 312.5 T
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
SL in the direction of traffic
Live Load Component:
Effective Live Load = 0.000 T
[ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.2]
Horizontal force during Seismic for LL = 0.00 T
Dead Load Component:
Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure), DL for Pier, Pier cap etc will same as in SL in perpendiculat direction traffic.
Dead Load from superstructure =61.78+543.91= 605.69 T [Excluding LL in foothpath]
Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =605.69x0.18= 109.02 T
Acting 1.311+0.35+2+6= 9.661 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to DL(Superstructure) =9.661x605.69= 1053.240 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =605.69x2/3 = 72.68 T
Wt of Pier cap = 195 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier cap=195x0.18= 35.10 T
Acting (2/2)+6 = 7 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier cap =7x35.1= 245.70 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =35.1x2/3 = 23.40 T
Wt of Pier = 174.2 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier =174.2x0.18= 31.356 T
Acting 3.275 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier = 102.69 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier =31.356x2/3 = 20.904 T
Total moment during SL at top of cap=102.69+245.7+1053.24= 1401.63 T-m
Total horizontal shear at cap during SL =31.356+35.1+109.02= 175.48 T
Vertical force during SL =20.904+23.4+72.68= 116.98 T
Crirical load Combination: DL+Reduced LL+SL
Vertical Load for DL = 1531.1 T
Vertical Load for LL = 0.000 T
Vertical Load for SL = 116.98 T
Depth filled soil over top of pile cap = 0.30 m
3
Avg unit wt of soil = 1.80 T/m
Total wt of soil =(81-10.28)x1.8x0.3= 38.189 T

1 2 3
3.6 Direction of Traffic
Z
Mz
4 5 6

X 3.6

7 8 9

3.6 3.6 0 CG of pile cap is at the location of P5 pile


Pile X Z
X = Direction of Traffic 1 -3.6 -3.6
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic 2 -3.6 0
3 -3.6 3.6
Now total, Mz = 1402 T-m Total shear, Fz = 175.48 T 4 0 -3.6
∑ Z 2= 77.76 ∑ X 2= 77.76 5 0 0
Min. Compression during Seismic: 6 0 3.6
Net Vertical force = 1531.14+0+38.189-116.984= 1452.345 T 7 3.6 -3.6
Reaction at P-1 to P-3 = 1452.345/9+(1401.63x-3.6)/77.76 8 3.6 0
= 96.481 T < 312.5 T 9 3.6 3.6
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
Max. Compression during Seismic:
Total Vertical force = 1531.14+116.984+38.189= 1686.313 T
Reaction at P-7 to P-9 = 1686.313/9+(1401.63x3.6)/77.76
= 252.258 T < 312.5 T
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
Design of Pile at BH 06,07

fck = 35 Mpa ftk = 500 Mpa


Clear Cover = 50 mm
Dia of Pile = 1200 mm
Safe Load capacity of pile = 250 T

Critical Load Combination: DL+SL P.S.F. = 1.5 (For DL&SL)


Case 1: Max Compression:
Max Axial load, NED = 261.961 T
Level E.G.L. is considered as 0M
Cut-off level of this pile = (-)2.5.0M Lev. i.e. 2.5m. below E.G.L.

Calculation of depth of fixity of of Pile: As Per ANNEX-C IS:2911-2010 Part-I/Sec-2


For Normally Loaded Clay , (As per CL-C.2.3)
Stiffness Factor ,T=5 (EI/K)
Ec = 5000 x √fck = 5000 x √35 = 29580.39892 N/mm² ≈ 29580.4 MN/m²
Ip =Moment of inertia of 1200 Φ pile cross-section
4 4
Ip= π / 64 x (50) = 0.10179 m
B = Width of pile shaft = 1200 mm
where K= Horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction determined from Table-4 of IS 2911
2 2
From the soil report, at strata I of soil, C = 2.19 T/m = 21.9 kN/m
2
Now qu = 2xC= 43.80 kg/cm
So , k1 = 7.88 x 10^(1/3) kN/m3

T = 3.2842528 m
Now the embedded length of pile, Le = 37.7 m
[Ref: Soil Report prepared by North East Engineers dated August 2018]
Le> 4R Hence the pile will act as long pile and fig. 2 of above referred code is valid for above pile.
Length of pile above G.L., L1= 0m
\ L1/T = 0
From fig. 2 (Determination of depth of fixity) of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010
Lf/T = 2.2 i.e Lf = 7.225 m Taking Lf = 7.3 m

Provide, 20 no. Of 25 mm bar upto termination level as longitudinal steel


and 20 no. Of 32 mm bar upto 8.9 m

Horizontal Load Carrying Capacity of Pile: Clause- C-4.2


Horizontal deflection is assumed to be (y) = 5 mm
e = cantilever length aobove ground/bed to the point of load application, in m = 0 mm
For Fixed hesd pile, y = H(e+zf)3/(12EI) =
H= (y*12EI)/(103 *(e+zf)3) = 47.901 T
Max Horizontal Force = 183.39 T (Taken by 9 nos of pile)
Max Horizontal Force in each pile = 20.38 T < 47.901 T
Shear Check of Pile:
Again, Permissible shear strength of members under axial compression
= δ.t c
where, δ = 1 + 3P/(Ag.fck) or if >1.5,=1.5 ;
For piles,As = longitudinal tensile reinforcement at pile top = 129.512 cm²
Effective dia. of pile shaft, d = (1200/10)-((100+(32/2))/10 = 108.4 cm
\ þt = (100 x As)/(π/4 x d²) = 100x129.512/3.14x0.25x108.4^2= 1.403 %
\ tc = 0.74 N/mm²
2
Now, Pu = 392.9415 T = 392941.5 N Ag = π/4 x (1200)² = 1130973 mm
\δ= 1+((3x392941.5)/(1130973.355x35))= 1.03
2
Take actual= 1.03 N/mm
2
\ Permissible shear stress of pile (concrete section only) = 0.7622 N/mm
\ Shear capacity of pile (considering concrete section only i.e. ignoring shear capacity of links)
=0.7622x3.14x0.25x108.4^2x100 = 703.42 kN

Unfactored shear capacity of pile = 468.9466667 kN > 203.8 kN


Moment Check of Pile:
The horizontal shear at top of pile will cause horizontal deflection resulting a moment on pile at fixity level.
Since, the piles are considered as fixed head (for max. lateral deflection).
Actual moment on pile, M = m. MF where m = reduction factor
[Ref. Fig. – 3B Appendix – C, of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010]
& MF = Fixed end moment of the equivalent cantilever length of pile Mf = H(e+zf)/2
For above pile, L1/R = 0, m= 1 (As top portion of pile designed as Structural Column)
\ Actual moment on pile = 1*20.38*(0+7.3)/2= 74.387 T-m = 743.87 KN-m
Load on pile, Pu = 3929.42 KN ;
\Pu/fckD²= ( (3929.415x1000)/(35x(1200^2))= 0.078
Now, D=1200& d' =50+(32/2)= 66 mm. \ d’/D = 0.055 Take d'/D = 0.05
2
\ As = 25902.4 mm
þ =(25902.4x100)/(3.14x0.25x1200^2)= 2.29 %
\ þ/fck = 0.0654
From chart 59 of SP-16, Muperm./fckD³ = 0.08
i.e. Muperm (0.08x35x(1200^3))/(10^7)= 483.84 T-m
\ Mworking permissible = 483.84/1.5= 322.56 T-m > Actual moment on pile Hence safe
Hence the pile section and reinforcements provided is safe & o.k.

Calculation of Confinement Steel: [Ref: IRC 112]


2
Gross area of concrete, Ac = 1130400 mm
2
Confined core area, Acc = 949850 mm
ηk = 0.0662 < 0.08
Confinement is not required
Dia of bar = 16 mm
Dia of hoop , Dsp = 1100 mm
2
Area of hoop bar, Asp= 200.96 mm
Spacing of bar, SL = 100 mm
Volumetric ratio, ρw = 0.00730764
2 2
Now, f cd = 15.633 N/mm f yd = 434.78 N/mm
ωwd = 0.2032
Now, Long reinforcement ratio = 0.0229
ωw,req = 0.075794624
ωw,min = 0.18
ωwd,c = 0.18
For ωwd = 0.18 ρw = 0.0064722
2
Required Asp = 177.99 mm
Hence OK
Provide 16 dia tor as hoop bar @ 100 mm c/c upto 3.6 m depth as confinement steel

Case 1: Min Compression:


Min. Axial load, NED = 96.481 T
Level E.G.L. is considered as 0M
Cut-off level of this pile = (-)2.5.0M Lev. i.e. 2.5m. below E.G.L.

Calculation of depth of fixity of of Pile: As Per ANNEX-C IS:2911-2010 Part-I/Sec-2


For Normally Loaded Clay , (As per CL-C.2.3)
Stiffness Factor ,T=5 (EI/K)
Ec = 5000 x √fck = 5000 x √35 = 29580.39892 N/mm² ≈ 29580.4 MN/m²
Ip =Moment of inertia of 1200 Φ pile cross-section
4 4
Ip= π / 64 x (50) = 0.10179 m
B = Width of pile shaft = 1200 mm
where K= Horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction determined from Table-4 of IS 2911
2 2
From the soil report, at strata I of soil, C = 2.19 T/m = 21.9 kN/m
2
Now qu = 2xC= 43.80 kg/cm
3
So , k1 = 7.88 x 10^(1/3) kN/m

T = 3.2842528 m
Now the embedded length of pile, Le = 37.7 m
[Ref: Soil Report prepared by North East Engineers dated August 2018]
Le> 4R Hence the pile will act as long pile and fig. 2 of above referred code is valid for above pile.
Length of pile above G.L., L1= 0m
\ L1/T = 0
From fig. 2 (Determination of depth of fixity) of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010
Lf/T = 2.2 i.e Lf = 7.225 m Taking Lf = 7.3 m

Provide, 20 no. Of 25 mm bar upto termination level as longitudinal steel


and 20 no. Of 32 mm bar upto 8.9 m

Horizontal Load Carrying Capacity of Pile: Clause- C-4.2


Horizontal deflection is assumed to be (y) = 5 mm
e = cantilever length aobove ground/bed to the point of load application, in m = 0 mm
For Fixed hesd pile, y = H(e+zf)3/(12EI) =
H= (y*12EI)/(103 *(e+zf)3) = 47.901 T
Max Horizontal Force = 183.39 T (Taken by 9 nos of pile)
Max Horizontal Force in each pile = 20.38 T < 47.901 T
Shear Check of Pile:
Again, Permissible shear strength of members under axial compression
= δ.t c
where, δ = 1 + 3P/(Ag.fck) or if >1.5,=1.5 ;
For piles,As = longitudinal tensile reinforcement at pile top = 129.512 cm²
Effective dia. of pile shaft, d = (1200/10)-((100+(32/2))/10 = 108.4 cm
\ þt = (100 x As)/(π/4 x d²) = 100x129.512/3.14x0.25x108.4^2= 1.403 %
\ tc = 0.74 N/mm²
2
Now, Pu = 144.7215 T = 144721.5 N Ag = π/4 x (1200)² = 1130973 mm
\δ= 1+((3x144721.5)/(1130973.355x35))= 1.011
2
Take actual= 1.011 N/mm
2
\ Permissible shear stress of pile (concrete section only) = 0.74814 N/mm

\ Shear capacity of pile (considering concrete section only i.e. ignoring shear capacity of links)
=0.74814x3.14x0.25x108.4^2x100 = 690.45 kN

Unfactored shear capacity of pile = 460.3 kN > 203.8 kN


Moment Check of Pile:
The horizontal shear at top of pile will cause horizontal deflection resulting a moment on pile at fixity level.
Since, the piles are considered as fixed head (for max. lateral deflection).
Actual moment on pile, M = m. MF where m = reduction factor
[Ref. Fig. – 3B Appendix – C, of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010]
& MF = Fixed end moment of the equivalent cantilever length of pile Mf = H(e+zf)/2
For above pile, L1/R = 0, m= 1 (As top portion of pile designed as Structural Column)
\ Actual moment on pile = 1*20.38*(0+7.3)/2= 74.387 T-m = 743.87 KN-m
Load on pile, Pu = 1447.22 KN ;
\Pu/fckD²= ( (1447.215x1000)/(x(mm2^2))= 0.0287
Now, D=1200& d' =50+(32/2)= 16.006472 mm. \ d’/D = 0.013339 Take d'/D = 0.05
2
\ As = 25902.4 mm
þ =(25902.4x100)/(3.14x0.25xmm2^2)= 2.29 %
\ þ/fck = 0.0654
From chart 59 of SP-16, Muperm./fckD³ = 0.07
i.e. Muperm (0.07x35x(1200^3))/(10^7)= 423.36 T-m
\ Mworking permissible = 423.36/1.5= 282.24 T-m > Actual moment on pile Hence safe
Hence the pile section and reinforcements provided is safe & o.k.
Load Calculation for Substructure of 30 m Single Span of Viaduct and Intermediate Pier [ NH 37 End]
Live Load:
Impact Factor (Class A) = 1+{9/(13.5+30) }= 1.21 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.4]
Impact Factor (70 R) = 1.21 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-208.2]
Congestion Factor = 1.7 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-208.2]
70 R Wheeled vehicle
8 12 12 17 17 17 17

3.96 1.52 2.13 1.37 3.05 1.37

Load CG from rear end = ((17x1.37)+(17x(1.37+3.05))+(17(1.37x3.05+1.37))+(12x(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13))+(12(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13+1.52))+


(8x(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13+1.52+3.96)))/(8+12+12+17+17+17+17) = 5.124 m

70 R Wheeled vehicle

70

4.570
Load CG from rear end = 4.57/2 = 2.285 m
Class A
2.7 2.7 11.4 11.4 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8

1.1 3.2 1.2 4.3 3 3 3

Load CG from rear end = ((6.8x3)+(6.8x(3+3))+(6.8x(3+3+3))+(11.4x(3+3+3+4.3))+(11.4x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2))+(2.7x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2+3.2))+


(2.7x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2+3.2+1.1)))/(2.7+2.7+11.4+11.4+6.8+6.8+6.8+6.8) = 9.709 m

Live Load Cases For Substructure Loading For 30 m Span


Case 1: 70 R Wheeled Vehicle + 1 Lane of Class A
Minimum spacing between two successive vehicles is 30 m. [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.1]
70R
No Other Vehicle

5.124

30 30
Total load for 70R = 100 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = (24.8762/30)x1.21x1.7x100= 170.57 T (Including IF & CF)
Minimum spacing between two successive vehicles is 20 m. [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.1]
Part load of Successive Class A Vehicle
11.4 11.4 Class A
6.8 2.7 2.7
20
9.709

30 30
Total load for Class A = 55.4 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = [(20.291/30)x55.4x1.21x1.7]+[(10/30)x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(8.9/30)x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(5.7/30)x11.4x1.21x1.7]+
[(4.5/30)x11.4x1.21x1.7]+[(0.2/30)x6.8x1.21x1.7]= 88.64 T (Including IF & CF)
Total reaction at Intermediate Support = 170.57+88.64= 259.21 T (Including IF & CF)

Case 2: 70 R Tracked Vehicle + 1 Lane of Class A

70R

2.285

30 30
Total load for 70R = 70 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = (27.715/30)x70x1.7x1.21= 133.02 T (Including IF & CF)
Part load of Successive Class A Vehicle
11.4 11.4 Class A
6.8 2.7 2.7
20
9.709

30 30
Total load for Class A = 55.4 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = [(20.291/30)x55.4x1.21x1.7]+[(10/30)x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(8.9/30)x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(5.7/30)x11.4x1.21x1.7]+
[(4.5/30)x11.4x1.21x1.7]+[(0.2/30)x6.8x1.21x1.7]= 88.64 T (Including IF & CF)
Total reaction at Intermediate Support = 221.66 T (Including IF & CF)

Case 3: 3 Lane of Class A


Part load of Successive Class A Vehicle
34.2 34.2 3 Lane Class A
20.4 8.1 8.1 20

9.709

30 30

Total load for 3 Lane Class A = [(20.291/30)x3x55.4x1.21x1.7]+[(10/30)x3x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(8.9/30)x3x2.7x1.21x1.7]+[(5.7/30)x3x


11.4x1.21x1.7]+ [(4.5/30)x3x11.4x1.21x1.7]+[(0.2/30)x3x6.8x1.21x1.7]= 265.93 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = 265.93 T (Including IF & CF)

So critical Live Load combination for substructure design is Case 3 i.e. 3 Lane of Class A vehicle

Dead Load:
Super imposed dead load:
Max Overall length of single span = 31.2 m [Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774]
Considering thickness of wearing course = 0.075 m
Clear Carriageway wdith of Road = 11 m [Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774]
Total width of wearing course = 11 m
Unit weight of wearing course = 2.4 T/m3
Weight of wearing course =0.075x11x2.4x31.2= 61.78 T
Considering Live Load for foothpath = 0.5 T/m2
Width of Footpath = 1.5 m
Live load for Foothpath=0.5x1.5x31.2x2= 46.8 T
Total SIDL =61.78+46.8= 108.58 T
Dead Load for Superstructure:
Total weight of steel for 30 span plate girder bridge = 139 T
[Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774/12]
Thickness of Deck Slab = 0.25 m
Total width of deck = 15.6 m
Unit wt. of concrete = 2.5 T/m3
Total weight of deck slab=0.25x15.6x31.2x2.5= 304.2 T
Thickness of slab for Footpath portion = 0.1 m
Width of Foothpath = 1.6 m
Total weight of Foothpath portion =0.1x2.5x1.6x2x31.2= 24.96 T
Considering weight of Hand railing etc. = 0.3 T/m
Total weight for hand railing =0.3x2x31.2= 18.72 T
Total height of Crush Barrier = 0.975 m
Average width of crush barrier = 0.375 m
Weight of Crush barrier =0.975x0.375x2.5= 0.914 T/m

Total Weight of Crush barrier =2x0.914x31.2= 57.03 T


Total Dead Load for superstructure = 543.9 T 15.6

Dead Load for Substructure:


Pier cap
Considering Column type pier:
Length of Pier cap = 15.6 m 2
Width of Pier cap = 2.5 m 2
Avg. Depth of pier cap = 2m 6 Pier
Depth of col. At base = 4m
Depth of col. At top = 8m
Width of col. = 2m
Max. height of col. = 6m
Weight of Pier =[(4x10.28)+{0.5x(10.28+18.28)x2}]x2.5= 174.2 T
Weight of Pier cap =15.6x2.5x2x2.5= 195 T Pile cap
Considering weight of pedestal, seismic guard etc = 50 T

Total weight for Pier cap, Pier =174.2+195+50= 419.2 T 1200 mm Dia Pile
Total length of pile cap = 9m
Total width of pile cap = 9m 1 2 1 1 6 1
Depth of cap = 2.5 m

Total weight of pile cap =9x9x2.5x2.5= 506.25 T

Plan of Pier at Base Plan of Pier at Top


2 2
Total Dead Load =506.25+419.2+543.91+108.58= 1577.94 T Area A1 = 10.28 m Area A2 = 18.28 m

Total vertical load for Dead Load & live Load =1577.94+265.93= 1843.87 T
Dia of pile = 1200 mm
Considering Safe Vertical Load capacity of each Pile = 250 T
[Ref: Geotechnical Investigation report for Peoposed Construction of ROB at Marigaon, BH3,5]

Provide 9 nos of pile for each pile cap


Max vertical reaction for each pile = 204.8744 T < 250 T

Seismic Load:

Importance factor ,I = 1.2 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.1.1 Table 19]
Zone factor (Zone V) , Z = 0.36 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.2]
Sa/g = 2.5 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.1]
Response reduction factor,R= 3 [ For column type structure, as per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.5 Table 20]

So, Horizontal seismic coefficient,Ah=(0.36/2)x1.2x2.5/3= 0.18


Seismic Load in the direction of Perpendicular to traffic
Live Load Component:
Effective Live Load =0.2x265.93/1.21= 43.955 T [20% of Max LL without IF]
[ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.2]
Considering max height of bearing = 0.35 m 0.35
Load CG for Live Load from top of pedestal =2.855+0.35= 3.205 m
Load CG for Dead Load from top of pedestal =0.961+0.35= 1.311 m Pier cap 2
[Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774/1]
Horizontal force during Seismic for LL =0.18x43.955 = 7.912 T
Acting 3.205+0.35+2+6= 11.555 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to LL =7.912x11.555= 91.420 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for LL =7.912x2/3 = 5.28 T 6 Pier

Dead Load Component:

Dead Load from superstructure =61.78+543.91= 605.7 T [Excluding LL in foothpath]


Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =605.69x0.18= 109.02 T
Pile cap
Acting 1.311+0.35+2+6= 9.661 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to DL(Superstructure) =9.661x109.02= 1053.240 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =109.02x2/3 = 72.68 T 1200 mm Dia Pile
Wt of Pier cap = 195 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier cap=195x0.18= 35.10 T
Acting (2/2)+6 = 7 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier cap =7x35.1= 245.70 T-m Pier cap
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =35.1x2/3 = 23.40 T
Wt of Pier = 174.2 T 2
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier =174.2x0.18= 31.356 T CG of Pier cap from pile cap
Acting 3.275 m from top pile cap Pier =[(2.5x4x10.28x2)+
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier = 102.69 T-m 4 (2.5x2x14.28x5.111)]/
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier =31.356x2/3 = 20.904 T 174.2= 3.275
Total moment during SL at top of cap=102.69+245.7+1053.24+91.42= 1493 T-m E.G.L 0 m
Total horizontal shear at cap during SL =31.356+35.1+109.02+7.912= 183.39 T Earth filling
Vertical force during SL =20.904+23.4+72.68+5.275= 122.26 T
Crirical load Combination: DL+Reduced LL+SL Pile cap
Vertical Load for DL = 1531.1 T
Vertical Load for LL = 43.955 T
Vertical Load for SL = 122.26 T
1200 mm Dia Pile
Depth filled soil over top of pile cap = 0.30 m
3
Avg unit wt of soil = 1.80 T/m
Total wt of soil =(81-10.28)x1.8x0.3= 38.189 T
Mx 8

2 CG = 2/3x(20/12)
1 2 3 4 = 1.111
Z 3.6

Direction of Traffic
4 5 6
X
3.6 3.6

7 8 9

3.6 3.6 CG of pile cap is at the location of P5 pile


Pile X Z
X = Direction of Traffic 1 -3.6 -3.6
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic 2 -3.6 0
3 -3.6 3.6
Now total, Mx = 1493 T-m Total shear, Fz = 183.39 T 4 0 -3.6
∑ Z 2= 77.76 ∑ X 2= 77.76 5 0 0
Min. Compression during Seismic: 6 0 3.6
Net Vertical force = 1531.14+43.955+38.189-122.259= 1491.025 T 7 3.6 -3.6
8 3.6 0
Reaction at P-1 and P-7 = 1491.025/9+(1493.05x-3.6)/77.76 9 3.6 3.6
= 96.547 T < 312.5 T
[ safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
Max. Compression during Seismic:
Net Vertical force = 122.259+43.955+1531.14+38.189= 1735.543 T

Reaction at P-3 and P-9 = 1735.543/9+(1493.05x3.6)/77.76


= 261.961 T < 312.5 T
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
SL in the direction of traffic
Live Load Component:
Effective Live Load = 0.000 T
[ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.2]
Horizontal force during Seismic for LL = 0.00 T
Dead Load Component:
Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure), DL for Pier, Pier cap etc will same as in SL in perpendiculat direction traffic.
Dead Load from superstructure =61.78+543.91= 605.69 T [Excluding LL in foothpath]
Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =605.69x0.18= 109.02 T
Acting 1.311+0.35+2+6= 9.661 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to DL(Superstructure) =9.661x605.69= 1053.240 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =605.69x2/3 = 72.68 T
Wt of Pier cap = 195 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier cap=195x0.18= 35.10 T
Acting (2/2)+6 = 7 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier cap =7x35.1= 245.70 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =35.1x2/3 = 23.40 T
Wt of Pier = 174.2 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier =174.2x0.18= 31.356 T
Acting 3.275 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier = 102.69 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier =31.356x2/3 = 20.904 T
Total moment during SL at top of cap=102.69+245.7+1053.24= 1401.63 T-m
Total horizontal shear at cap during SL =31.356+35.1+109.02= 175.48 T
Vertical force during SL =20.904+23.4+72.68= 116.98 T
Crirical load Combination: DL+Reduced LL+SL
Vertical Load for DL = 1531.1 T
Vertical Load for LL = 0.000 T
Vertical Load for SL = 116.98 T
Depth filled soil over top of pile cap = 0.30 m
3
Avg unit wt of soil = 1.80 T/m
Total wt of soil =(81-10.28)x1.8x0.3= 38.189 T

1 2 3
3.6 Direction of Traffic
Z
Mz
4 5 6

X 3.6

7 8 9

3.6 3.6 0 CG of pile cap is at the location of P5 pile


Pile X Z
X = Direction of Traffic 1 -3.6 -3.6
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic 2 -3.6 0
3 -3.6 3.6
Now total, Mz = 1402 T-m Total shear, Fz = 175.48 T 4 0 -3.6
∑ Z 2= 77.76 ∑ X 2= 77.76 5 0 0
Min. Compression during Seismic: 6 0 3.6
Net Vertical force = 1531.14+0+38.189-116.984= 1452.345 T 7 3.6 -3.6
Reaction at P-1 to P-3 = 1452.345/9+(1401.63x-3.6)/77.76 8 3.6 0
= 96.481 T < 312.5 T 9 3.6 3.6
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
Max. Compression during Seismic:
Total Vertical force = 1531.14+116.984+38.189= 1686.313 T
Reaction at P-7 to P-9 = 1686.313/9+(1401.63x3.6)/77.76
= 252.258 T < 312.5 T
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
Design of Pile at BH 03 & 05

fck = 35 Mpa ftk = 500 Mpa


Clear Cover = 50 mm
Dia of Pile = 1200 mm
Safe Load capacity of pile = 250 T

Critical Load Combination: DL+SL P.S.F. = 1.5 (For DL&SL)


Case 1: Max Compression:
Max Axial load, NED = 261.961 T
Level E.G.L. is considered as 0M
Cut-off level of this pile = (-)2.5.0M Lev. i.e. 2.5m. below E.G.L.

Calculation of depth of fixity of of Pile: As Per ANNEX-C IS:2911-2010 Part-I/Sec-2


For Normally Loaded Clay , (As per CL-C.2.3)
Stiffness Factor ,T=5 (EI/K)
Ec = 5000 x √fck = 5000 x √35 = 29580.39892 N/mm² ≈ 29580.4 MN/m²
Ip =Moment of inertia of 1200 Φ pile cross-section
4 4
Ip= π / 64 x (50) = 0.10179 m
B = Width of pile shaft = 1200 mm
where K= Horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction determined from Table-4 of IS 2911
2 2
From the soil report, at strata I of soil, C = 2.19 T/m = 21.9 kN/m
2
Now qu = 2xC= 43.80 kg/cm
So , k1 = 7.88 x 10^(1/3) kN/m3

T = 3.2842528 m
Now the embedded length of pile, Le = 32.7 m
[Ref: Soil Report prepared by North East Engineers dated August 2018]
Le> 4R Hence the pile will act as long pile and fig. 2 of above referred code is valid for above pile.
Length of pile above G.L., L1= 0m
\ L1/T = 0
From fig. 2 (Determination of depth of fixity) of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010
Lf/T = 2.2 i.e Lf = 7.225 m Taking Lf = 7.3 m

Provide, 20 no. Of 25 mm bar upto termination level as longitudinal steel


and 20 no. Of 32 mm bar upto 8.9 m

Horizontal Load Carrying Capacity of Pile: Clause- C-4.2


Horizontal deflection is assumed to be (y) = 5 mm
e = cantilever length aobove ground/bed to the point of load application, in m = 0 mm
For Fixed hesd pile, y = H(e+zf)3/(12EI) =
H= (y*12EI)/(103 *(e+zf)3) = 47.901 T
Max Horizontal Force = 183.39 T (Taken by 9 nos of pile)
Max Horizontal Force in each pile = 20.38 T < 47.901 T
Shear Check of Pile:
Again, Permissible shear strength of members under axial compression
= δ.t c
where, δ = 1 + 3P/(Ag.fck) or if >1.5,=1.5 ;
For piles,As = longitudinal tensile reinforcement at pile top = 129.512 cm²
Effective dia. of pile shaft, d = (1200/10)-((100+(32/2))/10 = 108.4 cm
\ þt = (100 x As)/(π/4 x d²) = 100x129.512/3.14x0.25x108.4^2= 1.403 %
\ tc = 0.74 N/mm²
2
Now, Pu = 392.9415 T = 392941.5 N Ag = π/4 x (1200)² = 1130973 mm
\δ= 1+((3x392941.5)/(1130973.355x35))= 1.03
2
Take actual= 1.03 N/mm
2
\ Permissible shear stress of pile (concrete section only) = 0.7622 N/mm
\ Shear capacity of pile (considering concrete section only i.e. ignoring shear capacity of links)
=0.7622x3.14x0.25x108.4^2x100 = 703.42 kN

Unfactored shear capacity of pile = 468.9466667 kN > 203.8 kN


Moment Check of Pile:
The horizontal shear at top of pile will cause horizontal deflection resulting a moment on pile at fixity level.
Since, the piles are considered as fixed head (for max. lateral deflection).
Actual moment on pile, M = m. MF where m = reduction factor
[Ref. Fig. – 3B Appendix – C, of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010]
& MF = Fixed end moment of the equivalent cantilever length of pile Mf = H(e+zf)/2
For above pile, L1/R = 0, m= 1 (As top portion of pile designed as Structural Column)
\ Actual moment on pile = 1*20.38*(0+7.3)/2= 74.387 T-m = 743.87 KN-m
Load on pile, Pu = 3929.42 KN ;
\Pu/fckD²= ( (3929.415x1000)/(35x(1200^2))= 0.078
Now, D=1200& d' =50+(32/2)= 66 mm. \ d’/D = 0.055 Take d'/D = 0.05
2
\ As = 25902.4 mm
þ =(25902.4x100)/(3.14x0.25x1200^2)= 2.29 %
\ þ/fck = 0.0654
From chart 59 of SP-16, Muperm./fckD³ = 0.08
i.e. Muperm (0.08x35x(1200^3))/(10^7)= 483.84 T-m
\ Mworking permissible = 483.84/1.5= 322.56 T-m > Actual moment on pile Hence safe
Hence the pile section and reinforcements provided is safe & o.k.

Calculation of Confinement Steel: [Ref: IRC 112]


2
Gross area of concrete, Ac = 1130400 mm
2
Confined core area, Acc = 949850 mm
ηk = 0.0662 < 0.08
Confinement is not required
Dia of bar = 16 mm
Dia of hoop , Dsp = 1100 mm
2
Area of hoop bar, Asp= 200.96 mm
Spacing of bar, SL = 100 mm
Volumetric ratio, ρw = 0.00730764
2 2
Now, f cd = 15.633 N/mm f yd = 434.78 N/mm
ωwd = 0.2032
Now, Long reinforcement ratio = 0.0229
ωw,req = 0.075794624
ωw,min = 0.18
ωwd,c = 0.18
For ωwd = 0.18 ρw = 0.0064722
2
Required Asp = 177.99 mm
Hence OK
Provide 16 dia tor as hoop bar @ 100 mm c/c upto 3.6 m depth as confinement steel

Case 1: Min Compression:


Min. Axial load, NED = 96.481 T
Level E.G.L. is considered as 0M
Cut-off level of this pile = (-)2.5.0M Lev. i.e. 2.5m. below E.G.L.

Calculation of depth of fixity of of Pile: As Per ANNEX-C IS:2911-2010 Part-I/Sec-2


For Normally Loaded Clay , (As per CL-C.2.3)
Stiffness Factor ,T=5 (EI/K)
Ec = 5000 x √fck = 5000 x √35 = 29580.39892 N/mm² ≈ 29580.4 MN/m²
Ip =Moment of inertia of 1200 Φ pile cross-section
4 4
Ip= π / 64 x (50) = 0.10179 m
B = Width of pile shaft = 1200 mm
where K= Horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction determined from Table-4 of IS 2911
2 2
From the soil report, at strata I of soil, C = 2.19 T/m = 21.9 kN/m
2
Now qu = 2xC= 43.80 kg/cm
3
So , k1 = 7.88 x 10^(1/3) kN/m

T = 3.2842528 m
Now the embedded length of pile, Le = 32.7 m
[Ref: Soil Report prepared by North East Engineers dated August 2018]
Le> 4R Hence the pile will act as long pile and fig. 2 of above referred code is valid for above pile.
Length of pile above G.L., L1= 0m
\ L1/T = 0
From fig. 2 (Determination of depth of fixity) of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010
Lf/T = 2.2 i.e Lf = 7.225 m Taking Lf = 7.3 m

Provide, 20 no. Of 25 mm bar upto termination level as longitudinal steel


and 20 no. Of 32 mm bar upto 8.9 m

Horizontal Load Carrying Capacity of Pile: Clause- C-4.2


Horizontal deflection is assumed to be (y) = 5 mm
e = cantilever length aobove ground/bed to the point of load application, in m = 0 mm
For Fixed hesd pile, y = H(e+zf)3/(12EI) =
H= (y*12EI)/(103 *(e+zf)3) = 47.901 T
Max Horizontal Force = 183.39 T (Taken by 9 nos of pile)
Max Horizontal Force in each pile = 20.38 T < 47.901 T
Shear Check of Pile:
Again, Permissible shear strength of members under axial compression
= δ.t c
where, δ = 1 + 3P/(Ag.fck) or if >1.5,=1.5 ;
For piles,As = longitudinal tensile reinforcement at pile top = 129.512 cm²
Effective dia. of pile shaft, d = (1200/10)-((100+(32/2))/10 = 108.4 cm
\ þt = (100 x As)/(π/4 x d²) = 100x129.512/3.14x0.25x108.4^2= 1.403 %
\ tc = 0.74 N/mm²
2
Now, Pu = 144.7215 T = 144721.5 N Ag = π/4 x (1200)² = 1130973 mm
\δ= 1+((3x144721.5)/(1130973.355x35))= 1.011
2
Take actual= 1.011 N/mm
2
\ Permissible shear stress of pile (concrete section only) = 0.74814 N/mm

\ Shear capacity of pile (considering concrete section only i.e. ignoring shear capacity of links)
=0.74814x3.14x0.25x108.4^2x100 = 690.45 kN

Unfactored shear capacity of pile = 460.3 kN > 203.8 kN


Moment Check of Pile:
The horizontal shear at top of pile will cause horizontal deflection resulting a moment on pile at fixity level.
Since, the piles are considered as fixed head (for max. lateral deflection).
Actual moment on pile, M = m. MF where m = reduction factor
[Ref. Fig. – 3B Appendix – C, of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010]
& MF = Fixed end moment of the equivalent cantilever length of pile Mf = H(e+zf)/2
For above pile, L1/R = 0, m= 1 (As top portion of pile designed as Structural Column)
\ Actual moment on pile = 1*20.38*(0+7.3)/2= 74.387 T-m = 743.87 KN-m
Load on pile, Pu = 1447.22 KN ;
\Pu/fckD²= ( (1447.215x1000)/(x(mm2^2))= 0.0287
Now, D=1200& d' =50+(32/2)= 16.006472 mm. \ d’/D = 0.013339 Take d'/D = 0.05
2
\ As = 25902.4 mm
þ =(25902.4x100)/(3.14x0.25xmm2^2)= 2.29 %
\ þ/fck = 0.0654
From chart 59 of SP-16, Muperm./fckD³ = 0.07
i.e. Muperm (0.07x35x(1200^3))/(10^7)= 423.36 T-m
\ Mworking permissible = 423.36/1.5= 282.24 T-m > Actual moment on pile Hence safe
Hence the pile section and reinforcements provided is safe & o.k.
Load Calculation for Substructure of 30 m Single Span of Viaduct and Intermediate Abutment [ Morigaon End]
Live Load:
Impact Factor (Class A) = 1+{9/(13.5+30) }= 1.21 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.4]
Impact Factor (70 R) = 1.21 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-208.2]
Congestion Factor = 1.7 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-208.2]
70 R Wheeled vehicle
8 12 12 17 17 17 17

3.96 1.52 2.13 1.37 3.05 1.37

Load CG from rear end = ((17x1.37)+(17x(1.37+3.05))+(17(1.37x3.05+1.37))+(12x(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13))+(12(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13+1.52))+


(8x(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13+1.52+3.96)))/(8+12+12+17+17+17+17) = 5.124 m

70 R Wheeled vehicle

70

4.570
Load CG from rear end = 4.57/2 = 2.285 m
Class A
2.7 2.7 11.4 11.4 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8

1.1 3.2 1.2 4.3 3 3 3

Load CG from rear end = ((6.8x3)+(6.8x(3+3))+(6.8x(3+3+3))+(11.4x(3+3+3+4.3))+(11.4x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2))+(2.7x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2+3.2))+


(2.7x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2+3.2+1.1)))/(2.7+2.7+11.4+11.4+6.8+6.8+6.8+6.8) = 9.709 m

Live Load Cases For Substructure Loading For 30 m Span


Case 1: 70 R Wheeled Vehicle + 1 Lane of Class A
Minimum spacing between two successive vehicles is 30 m. [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.1]
70R
No Other Vehicle

5.124

30
Total load for 70R = 100 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = (24.8762/30)x1.21x1.7x100= 170.57 T (Including IF & CF)
Minimum spacing between two successive vehicles for Class A is 20 m. [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.1]

Class A

9.709

30
Total load for Class A = 55.4 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = [(20.291/30)x55.4x1.21x1.7]= 77.08 T (Including IF & CF)

Total reaction at Intermediate Support = 170.57+77.077= 247.65 T (Including IF & CF)

Case 2: 70 R Tracked Vehicle + 1 Lane of Class A

70R

2.285

30
Total load for 70R = 70 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = (27.715/30)x70x1.7x1.21= 133.02 T (Including IF & CF)
Class A

9.709

30
Total load for Class A = 55.4 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = [(20.291/30)x55.4x1.21x1.7]= 77.08 T (Including IF & CF)

Total reaction at Intermediate Support = 210.10 T (Including IF & CF)

Case 3: 3 Lane of Class A

3 Lane Class A

9.709

30

Total load for 3 Lane Class A = [(20.291/30)x3x55.4x1.21x1.7]= 231.23 T

Reaction at Intermediate Support = 231.23 T (Including IF & CF)

So critical Live Load combination for substructure design is Case 1 i.e. 1 Lane of 70 R and 1 lane of Class A

Dead Load:
Super imposed dead load:
Max Overall length of single span = 31.2 m [Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774]
Considering thickness of wearing course = 0.075 m
Clear Carriageway wdith of Road = 11 m [Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774]
Total width of wearing course = 11 m
Unit weight of wearing course = 2.4 T/m3
Weight of wearing course =0.075x11x2.4x15.6= 30.89 T
Considering Live Load for foothpath = 0.5 T/m2
Width of Footpath = 1.5 m
Live load for Foothpath=0.5x1.5x15.6x2= 23.4 T
Total SIDL =30.89+23.4= 54.29 T
Dead Load for Superstructure:
Total weight of steel for 30 span plate girder bridge = 139 T
[Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774/12]
Wt os steel at end support = 69.5 T
Thickness of Deck Slab = 0.25 m
Total width of deck = 15.6 m
Unit wt. of concrete = 2.5 T/m3
Total weight of deck slab=0.25x15.6x15.6x2.5= 152.1 T
Thickness of slab for Footpath portion = 0.1 m
Width of Foothpath = 1.6 m
Total weight of Foothpath portion =0.1x2.5x1.6x2x15.6= 12.48 T
Considering weight of Hand railing etc. = 0.3 T/m
Total weight for hand railing =0.3x2x15.6= 9.36 T
Total height of Crush Barrier = 0.975 m
Average width of crush barrier = 0.375 m
Weight of Crush barrier =0.975x0.375x2.5= 0.914 T/m

Total Weight of Crush barrier =2x0.914x15.6= 28.52 T


Total Dead Load for superstructure = 272.0 T
Dead Load for Substructure:
Ht of Dirt wall = 2.3 m 15.6
Thickness of dirt wall = 0.4 m
Length of dirt wall = 15.6 m Dirt wall 2.2
Weight of dirt wall =2.3x0.4x15.6x2.5= 35.88 T
Length of abutment cap = 15.6 m Abutment cap 0.4
Width of abutment cap = 2.2 m
Depth of abutment cap = 0.4 m
Weight of abutment cap =15.6x2.2x0.4x2.5= 34.32 T Abutment Wall
Height of abutment wall= 3.2 m 3.2
Thick. of abutment wall = 1.2 m
Length of abutment wall= 15.6 m
Wt of abutment wall= 15.6x1.2x3.2x2.5= 149.76 T
Length of Grade Beam = 3.3 m Grade Pile cap Grade
Width of Grade beam = 4.8 m
depth of Grade beam = 2.5 m
Wt of Grade beam=3.3x4.8x2.5x2.5x2 = 198 T 1200 mm Dia Pile
Total weight for abutment, Dirt wall etc. =35.88+34.32+149.76+198= 417.96 T LL Surcharge
Total length of pile cap = 9m Dirt wall
Total width of pile cap = 12.6 m EP on Dirt Wall
Abutment cap
Depth of cap = 2.5 m

Total weight of pile cap =9x12.6x2.5x2.5= 708.75 T


Total Dead Load =708.75+417.96+271.96+54.29= 1452.96 T EP on Abutment
Abutment Wall wall
3
Considering Unit weight of soil = 1.8 T/m
Coeff. of active earth presure = 0.333
LL Surcharge = Equ. Wt. Of 1.2 m earthfill Grade
= 1.8x0.333x1.2= 0.72 T/m2 per m run Beam
2
EP on Dirt Wall=1.8x2.2x0.333= 1.32 T/m /m
EP on Abutment Wall =1.8x3.2x0.333= 1.92 T/m2 /m
Soil Pressure on dirt wall:
Eff. Ht of dirt wall = 2.6 m
Moment due to LL surcharge =0.72x2.6x2.6/2 = 2.434 T-m/m
Moment due to EP =1.32x2.6x2.6/6= 1.487 T-m/m
Total moment at base of dirt wall =2.434+1.487= 3.921 T-m/m
Horizontal force at base =0.72x2.6+1.32x2.6/2 = 3.588 T/m acting at 3.2 m from top pile cap
Soil Pressure on Abutment wall:
For Triangular Loading:
Horizontal force at base of wall =1.92x3.2/2 = 3.072 T/m
Moment at base of wall=1.92x3.2x3.2/6 = 9.83 T-m/m
For Rectangular Loading:
Horizontal force at base of wall =2.04x3.2 = 6.528 T/m
Moment at base of wall=6.528x3.2/2 = 10.4448 T-m/m
Total horizontal force at base of wall =3.072x15.6= 149.76 T
Total moment at base of wall=9.83x15.6+3.921x15.6+3.588x15.6x3.2+10.4448x15.6= 556.567 T-m
Depth of filling over pile cap = 5.8 m
Total wt of soil =5.8x1.8x9x5.7= 535.572 T
Total vertical load for Dead Load , live Load &EP =1452.96+231.232+535.572= 2236.18 T
Dia of pile = 1200 mm
Considering Safe Vertical Load capacity of each Pile = 250 T
[Ref: Geotechnical Investigation report for Peoposed Construction of ROB at Marigaon, BH6,7 ]

Provide 12 nos of pile for end pile cap Direction of Traffic

1 2 3 Pile X Z
Z 1 -5.4 -3.6
3.6 2 -5.4 0
3 -5.4 3.6
4 5 6 4 -1.8 -3.6
1.8 5 -1.8 0
X CG of Cap 1.8 Mz 6 -1.8 3.6
7 1.8 -3.6
7 8 9
8 1.8 0
9 1.8 3.6
3.6 10 5.4 -3.6
11 5.4 0
10 11 12 12 5.4 3.6

3.6 3.6

X = Direction of Traffic
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic

Now total, Mz = 557 T-m Total shear, Fx = 149.76 T


∑ Z 2= 103.68 ∑ X 2= 194.4
Reaction at P-1 to P-3 = 2236.179/12+(556.567x-5.4)/194.4
= 176.041 T < 250 T [ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under DL+LL]
Reaction at P-10 to P-12 = 2236.179/12+(194.4x5.4)/556.567
= 201.808 T < 250 T [ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under DL+LL]

Seismic Load:

Importance factor ,I = 1.2 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.1.1 Table 19]
Zone factor (Zone V) , Z = 0.36 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.2]
Sa/g = 2.5 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.1]
Response reduction factor,R= 1 [ For wall type structure, as per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.5 Table 20]

So, Horizontal seismic coefficient,Ah=(0.36/2)x1.2x2.5/1= 0.54


Seismic Load in the direction of Perpendicular to traffic
Live Load Component:
Effective Live Load =0.2x231.232/1.21= 40.933 T [20% of Max LL without IF]
[ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.2]
Considering max height of bearing = 0.35 m 0.35
Load CG for Live Load from top of pedestal =2.855+0.35= 3.205 m
Dirt wall
Load CG for Dead Load from top of pedestal =0.961+0.35= 1.311 m 2.2
[Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774/1]
Horizontal force during Seismic for LL =0.54x40.933 = 22.104 T Abutment cap 0.4
Acting 3.205+0.35+2.2+3.6= 9.355 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to LL =22.104x9.355= 206.780 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for LL =22.104x2/3 = 14.74 T Abutment Wall 3.2

Dead Load Component:

Dead Load from superstructure =30.89+271.96= 302.9 T [Excluding LL in foothpath]


Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =302.85x0.54= 163.54 T Grade Pile cap Grade
Acting 1.311+0.35+2.2+3.6= 7.461 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to DL(Superstructure) =7.461x163.54= 1220.170 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =163.54x2/3 = 109.03 T 1200 mm Dia Pile
Wt of dirt wall = 35.88 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of dirt wall=35.88x0.54= 19.38 T
Acting (2.2/2)+3.6 = 4.7 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of dirt wall =4.7x19.3752= 91.06 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =19.3752x2/3 = 12.92 T
Wt of abutment cap = 34.32 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of abutment cap=34.32x0.54= 18.53 T
Acting (0.4/2)+3.2 = 3.4 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier cap =3.4x18.5328= 63.01 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =18.5328x2/3 = 12.36 T
Wt of abutment wall = 149.76 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier =149.76x0.54= 80.8704 T
Acting 1.600 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier = 129.39 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier =80.8704x2/3 = 53.914 T
Total moment during SL at top of cap=129.39+63.01+1220.17+206.78+91.06= 1710 T-m (Mx)
Total horizontal shear at cap during SL =80.8704+18.5328+163.54+22.104+19.3752= 304.42 T
Vertical force during SL =53.914+12.355+109.03+14.736= 190.04 T
Crirical load Combination: DL+Reduced LL+SL
Vertical Load for DL = 1429.6 T
Vertical Load for LL = 40.933 T
Vertical Load for SL = 190.04 T
Total wt of filled soil = 535.572 T
Moment at top cap for EP= 556.57 T-m (Mz)
Mx

1 2 3
3.6
Mx

4 5 6 1.8

Z CG of Cap 1.8 Mz
7 8 9
Direction of Traffic
3.6
X
10 11 12 1.8

3.6 3.6
Pile X Z
X = Direction of Traffic 1 -5.4 -3.6
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic 2 -5.4 0
Now total, Mz = 556.57 T-m Total shear, Fx = 149.76 T 3 -5.4 3.6
Now total, Mx = 1710 T-m Total shear, Fz = 304.42 T 4 -1.8 -3.6
∑ Z 2= 103.68 ∑ X 2= 194.4 5 -1.8 0
Min. Compression during Seismic: 6 -1.8 3.6
Net Vertical force = 1429.56+40.933+535.572-190.035= 1816.030 T 7 1.8 -3.6
8 1.8 0
Reaction at P-1 and P-7 = 1816.03/12+(1710.41x-3.6)/103.68+(556.567x-5.4)/194.4 9 1.8 3.6
= 76.486 T < 312.5 T 10 5.4 -3.6
[ safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL] 11 5.4 0
Max. Compression during Seismic: 12 5.4 3.6
Net Vertical force = 190.035+40.933+1429.56+535.572= 2196.100 T

Reaction at P-3 and P-69 = 2196.1/12+(1710.41x3.6)/103.68+(556.567x5.4)/194.4


= 257.858 T < 312.5 T
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
SL in the direction of traffic
Live Load Component:
Effective Live Load = 0.000 T
[ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.2]
Horizontal force during Seismic for LL = 0.00 T
Dead Load Component:
Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure), DL for Pier, Pier cap etc will same as in SL in perpendiculat direction traffic.
Dead Load from superstructure =30.89+271.96= 302.85 T [Excluding LL in foothpath]
Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =302.85x0.54= 163.54 T
Acting 1.311+0.35+2.2+3.6= 7.461 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to DL(Superstructure) =7.461x302.85= 1220.170 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =302.85x2/3 = 109.03 T
Wt of dirt wall = 35.88 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of dirt wall=35.88x0.54= 19.38 T
Acting (2.2/2)+3.6 = 4.7 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of dirt wall =4.7x19.3752= 91.06 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =19.3752x2/3 = 12.92 T
Wt of abutment cap = 34.32 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of abutment cap=34.32x0.54= 18.53 T
Acting (0.4/2)+3.2 = 3.4 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier cap =3.4x18.5328= 63.01 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =18.5328x2/3 = 12.36 T
Wt of abutment wall = 149.76 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier =149.76x0.54= 80.8704 T
Acting 1.600 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier = 129.39 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier =80.8704x2/3 = 53.914 T
Total moment during SL at top of cap=129.39+63.01+1220.17+91.06= 1503.63 T-m (Mz)
Total horizontal shear at cap during SL =80.8704+18.5328+163.54+19.3752= 282.32 T
Vertical force during SL =53.914+12.355+109.03+12.917= 188.22 T
Crirical load Combination: DL+Reduced LL+SL
Vertical Load for DL = 1429.6 T
Vertical Load for LL = 0.000 T
Vertical Load for SL = 188.22 T
Total wt of filled soil = 535.572 T
Moment at top cap for EP= 556.57 T-m (Mz)

1 2 3
3.6

4 5 6
1.8
CG of Cap 1.8 Direction of Traffic
Z
7 8 9 Mz
3.6

X
10 11 12
Pile X Z
1 -5.4 -3.6
3.6 3.6 2 -5.4 0
3 -5.4 3.6
X = Direction of Traffic 4 -1.8 -3.6
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic 5 -1.8 0
6 -1.8 3.6
Total, Mz =556.567+1503.63= 2060 T-m Total shear, Fz = 432.08 T 7 1.8 -3.6
∑ Z 2= 103.68 ∑ X 2= 194.4 8 1.8 0
Min. Compression during Seismic: 9 1.8 3.6
Net Vertical force = 1429.56+0+535.572-188.216= 1776.916 T 10 5.4 -3.6
Reaction at P-1 to P-3 = 1776.916/12+(2060.197x-5.4)/194.4 11 5.4 0
= 90.849 T < 312.5 T 12 5.4 3.6
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
Max. Compression during Seismic:
Total Vertical force = 1429.56+188.216+535.572= 2153.348 T
Reaction at P-10 to P-12 = 2153.348/12+(2060.197x5.4)/194.4
= 236.673 T < 312.5 T
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]

Design of Pile at BH 06, 07

fck = 35 Mpa ftk = 500 Mpa


Clear Cover = 50 mm
Dia of Pile = 1200 mm
Safe Load capacity of pile = 250 T

Critical Load Combination: DL+SL P.S.F. = 1.5 (For DL&SL)


Case 1: Max Compression:
Max Axial load, NED = 257.858 T
Level E.G.L. is considered as 0M
Cut-off level of this pile = (-)2.5.0M Lev. i.e. 2.5m. below E.G.L.

Calculation of depth of fixity of of Pile: As Per ANNEX-C IS:2911-2010 Part-I/Sec-2


For Normally Loaded Clay , (As per CL-C.2.3)
Stiffness Factor ,T=5 (EI/K)
Ec = 5000 x √fck = 5000 x √35 = 29580.39892 N/mm² ≈ 29580.4 MN/m²
Ip =Moment of inertia of 1200 Φ pile cross-section
4 4
Ip= π / 64 x (50) = 0.10179 m
B = Width of pile shaft = 1200 mm
where K= Horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction determined from Table-4 of IS 2911
2 2
From the soil report, at strata I of soil, C = 2.19 T/m = 21.9 kN/m
2
Now qu = 2xC= 43.80 kg/cm
3
So , k1 = 7.88 x 10^(1/3) kN/m

T = 3.2842528 m
Now the embedded length of pile, Le = 37.7 m
[Ref: Soil Report prepared by North East Engineers dated August 2018]
Le> 4R Hence the pile will act as long pile and fig. 2 of above referred code is valid for above pile.
Length of pile above G.L., L1= 0m
\ L1/T = 0
From fig. 2 (Determination of depth of fixity) of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010
Lf/T = 2.2 i.e Lf = 7.225 m Taking Lf = 7.3 m

Provide, 20 no. Of 25 mm bar upto termination level as longitudinal steel


and 20 no. Of 32 mm bar upto 8.9 m

Horizontal Load Carrying Capacity of Pile: Clause- C-4.2


Horizontal deflection is assumed to be (y) = 5 mm
e = cantilever length aobove ground/bed to the point of load application, in m = 0 mm
For Fixed hesd pile, y = H(e+zf)3/(12EI) =
H= (y*12EI)/(103 *(e+zf)3) = 47.901 T
Max Horizontal Force = 432.08 T (Taken by 12 nos of pile)
Max Horizontal Force in each pile = 36.01 T < 47.901 T
Shear Check of Pile:
Again, Permissible shear strength of members under axial compression
= δ.t c
where, δ = 1 + 3P/(Ag.fck) or if >1.5,=1.5 ;
For piles,As = longitudinal tensile reinforcement at pile top = 129.512 cm²
Effective dia. of pile shaft, d = (1200/10)-((100+(32/2))/10 = 108.4 cm
\ þt = (100 x As)/(π/4 x d²) = 100x129.512/3.14x0.25x108.4^2= 1.403 %
\ tc = 0.74 N/mm²
2
Now, Pu = 386.787 T = 386787 N Ag = π/4 x (1200)² = 1130973 mm
\δ= 1+((3x386787)/(1130973.355x35))= 1.029
2
Take actual= 1.029 N/mm
2
\ Permissible shear stress of pile (concrete section only) = 0.76146 N/mm
\ Shear capacity of pile (considering concrete section only i.e. ignoring shear capacity of links)
=0.76146x3.14x0.25x108.4^2x100 = 702.74 kN

Unfactored shear capacity of pile = 468.4933333 kN > 360.1 kN


Moment Check of Pile:
The horizontal shear at top of pile will cause horizontal deflection resulting a moment on pile at fixity level.
Since, the piles are considered as fixed head (for max. lateral deflection).
Actual moment on pile, M = m. MF where m = reduction factor
[Ref. Fig. – 3B Appendix – C, of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010]
& MF = Fixed end moment of the equivalent cantilever length of pile Mf = H(e+zf)/2
For above pile, L1/R = 0, m= 1 (As top portion of pile designed as Structural Column)
\ Actual moment on pile = 1*36.01*(0+7.3)/2= 131.437 T-m = 1314.37 KN-m
Load on pile, Pu = 3867.87 KN ;
\Pu/fckD²= ( (3867.87x1000)/(35x(1200^2))= 0.0767
Now, D=1200& d' =50+(32/2)= 66 mm. \ d’/D = 0.055 Take d'/D = 0.05
2
\ As = 25902.4 mm
þ =(25902.4x100)/(3.14x0.25x1200^2)= 2.29 %
\ þ/fck = 0.0654
From chart 59 of SP-16, Muperm./fckD³ = 0.08
i.e. Muperm (0.08x35x(1200^3))/(10^7)= 483.84 T-m
\ Mworking permissible = 483.84/1.5= 322.56 T-m > Actual moment on pile Hence safe
Hence the pile section and reinforcements provided is safe & o.k.

Calculation of Confinement Steel: [Ref: IRC 112]


2
Gross area of concrete, Ac = 1130400 mm
2
Confined core area, Acc = 949850 mm
ηk = 0.0652 < 0.08
Confinement is not required
Dia of bar = 16 mm
Dia of hoop , Dsp = 1100 mm
2
Area of hoop bar, Asp= 200.96 mm
Spacing of bar, SL = 100 mm
Volumetric ratio, ρw = 0.00730764
2 2
Now, f cd = 15.633 N/mm f yd = 434.78 N/mm
ωwd = 0.2032
Now, Long reinforcement ratio = 0.0229
ωw,req = 0.075337978
ωw,min = 0.18
ωwd,c = 0.18
For ωwd = 0.18 ρw = 0.0064722
2
Required Asp = 177.99 mm
Hence OK
Provide 16 dia tor as hoop bar @ 100 mm c/c upto 3.6 m depth as confinement steel

Case 1: Min Compression:


Min. Axial load, NED = 90.849 T
Level E.G.L. is considered as 0M
Cut-off level of this pile = (-)2.5.0M Lev. i.e. 2.5m. below E.G.L.

Calculation of depth of fixity of of Pile: As Per ANNEX-C IS:2911-2010 Part-I/Sec-2


For Normally Loaded Clay , (As per CL-C.2.3)
Stiffness Factor ,T=5 (EI/K)
Ec = 5000 x √fck = 5000 x √35 = 29580.39892 N/mm² ≈ 29580.4 MN/m²
Ip =Moment of inertia of 1200 Φ pile cross-section
4 4
Ip= π / 64 x (50) = 0.10179 m
B = Width of pile shaft = 1200 mm
where K= Horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction determined from Table-4 of IS 2911
2 2
From the soil report, at strata I of soil, C = 2.19 T/m = 21.9 kN/m
2
Now qu = 2xC= 43.80 kg/cm
3
So , k1 = 7.88 x 10^(1/3) kN/m

T = 3.2842528 m
Now the embedded length of pile, Le = 37.7 m
[Ref: Soil Report prepared by North East Engineers dated August 2018]
Le> 4R Hence the pile will act as long pile and fig. 2 of above referred code is valid for above pile.
Length of pile above G.L., L1= 0m
\ L1/T = 0
From fig. 2 (Determination of depth of fixity) of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010
Lf/T = 2.2 i.e Lf = 7.225 m Taking Lf = 7.3 m

Provide, 20 no. Of 25 mm bar upto termination level as longitudinal steel


and 20 no. Of 32 mm bar upto 8.9 m

Horizontal Load Carrying Capacity of Pile: Clause- C-4.2


Horizontal deflection is assumed to be (y) = 5 mm
e = cantilever length aobove ground/bed to the point of load application, in m = 0 mm
For Fixed hesd pile, y = H(e+zf)3/(12EI) =
H= (y*12EI)/(103 *(e+zf)3) = 47.901 T
Max Horizontal Force = 432.08 T (Taken by 12 nos of pile)
Max Horizontal Force in each pile = 36.01 T < 47.901 T
Shear Check of Pile:
Again, Permissible shear strength of members under axial compression
= δ.t c
where, δ = 1 + 3P/(Ag.fck) or if >1.5,=1.5 ;
For piles,As = longitudinal tensile reinforcement at pile top = 129.512 cm²
Effective dia. of pile shaft, d = (1200/10)-((100+(32/2))/10 = 108.4 cm
\ þt = (100 x As)/(π/4 x d²) = 100x129.512/3.14x0.25x108.4^2= 1.403 %
\ tc = 0.74 N/mm²
2
Now, Pu = 136.2735 T = 136273.5 N Ag = π/4 x (1200)² = 1130973 mm
\δ= 1+((3x136273.5)/(1130973.355x35))= 1.01
2
Take actual= 1.01 N/mm
2
\ Permissible shear stress of pile (concrete section only) = 0.7474 N/mm

\ Shear capacity of pile (considering concrete section only i.e. ignoring shear capacity of links)
=0.7474x3.14x0.25x108.4^2x100 = 689.77 kN

Unfactored shear capacity of pile = 459.8466667 kN > 360.1 kN


Moment Check of Pile:
The horizontal shear at top of pile will cause horizontal deflection resulting a moment on pile at fixity level.
Since, the piles are considered as fixed head (for max. lateral deflection).
Actual moment on pile, M = m. MF where m = reduction factor
[Ref. Fig. – 3B Appendix – C, of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010]
& MF = Fixed end moment of the equivalent cantilever length of pile Mf = H(e+zf)/2
For above pile, L1/R = 0, m= 1 (As top portion of pile designed as Structural Column)
\ Actual moment on pile = 1*36.01*(0+7.3)/2= 131.437 T-m = 1314.37 KN-m
Load on pile, Pu = 1362.74 KN ;
\Pu/fckD²= ( (1362.735x1000)/(x(mm2^2))= 0.027
Now, D=1200& d' =50+(32/2)= 16.006472 mm. \ d’/D = 0.013339 Take d'/D = 0.05
2
\ As = 25902.4 mm
þ =(25902.4x100)/(3.14x0.25xmm2^2)= 2.29 %
\ þ/fck = 0.0654
From chart 59 of SP-16, Muperm./fckD³ = 0.07
i.e. Muperm (0.07x35x(1200^3))/(10^7)= 423.36 T-m
\ Mworking permissible = 423.36/1.5= 282.24 T-m > Actual moment on pile Hence safe
Hence the pile section and reinforcements provided is safe & o.k.
Load Calculation for Substructure of 30 m Single Span of Viaduct and Intermediate Abutment [ NH 37 End]
Live Load:
Impact Factor (Class A) = 1+{9/(13.5+30) }= 1.21 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.4]
Impact Factor (70 R) = 1.21 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-208.2]
Congestion Factor = 1.7 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-208.2]
70 R Wheeled vehicle
8 12 12 17 17 17 17

3.96 1.52 2.13 1.37 3.05 1.37

Load CG from rear end = ((17x1.37)+(17x(1.37+3.05))+(17(1.37x3.05+1.37))+(12x(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13))+(12(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13+1.52))+


(8x(1.37+3.05+1.37+2.13+1.52+3.96)))/(8+12+12+17+17+17+17) = 5.124 m

70 R Wheeled vehicle

70

4.570
Load CG from rear end = 4.57/2 = 2.285 m
Class A
2.7 2.7 11.4 11.4 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8

1.1 3.2 1.2 4.3 3 3 3

Load CG from rear end = ((6.8x3)+(6.8x(3+3))+(6.8x(3+3+3))+(11.4x(3+3+3+4.3))+(11.4x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2))+(2.7x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2+3.2))+


(2.7x(3+3+3+4.3+1.2+3.2+1.1)))/(2.7+2.7+11.4+11.4+6.8+6.8+6.8+6.8) = 9.709 m

Live Load Cases For Substructure Loading For 30 m Span


Case 1: 70 R Wheeled Vehicle + 1 Lane of Class A
Minimum spacing between two successive vehicles is 30 m. [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.1]
70R
No Other Vehicle

5.124

30
Total load for 70R = 100 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = (24.8762/30)x1.21x1.7x100= 170.57 T (Including IF & CF)
Minimum spacing between two successive vehicles for Class A is 20 m. [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No-204.1]

Class A

9.709

30
Total load for Class A = 55.4 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = [(20.291/30)x55.4x1.21x1.7]= 77.08 T (Including IF & CF)

Total reaction at Intermediate Support = 170.57+77.077= 247.65 T (Including IF & CF)

Case 2: 70 R Tracked Vehicle + 1 Lane of Class A

70R

2.285

30
Total load for 70R = 70 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = (27.715/30)x70x1.7x1.21= 133.02 T (Including IF & CF)
Class A

9.709

30
Total load for Class A = 55.4 T
Reaction at Intermediate Support = [(20.291/30)x55.4x1.21x1.7]= 77.08 T (Including IF & CF)

Total reaction at Intermediate Support = 210.10 T (Including IF & CF)

Case 3: 3 Lane of Class A

3 Lane Class A

9.709

30

Total load for 3 Lane Class A = [(20.291/30)x3x55.4x1.21x1.7]= 231.23 T

Reaction at Intermediate Support = 231.23 T (Including IF & CF)

So critical Live Load combination for substructure design is Case 1 i.e. 1 Lane of 70 R and 1 lane of Class A

Dead Load:
Super imposed dead load:
Max Overall length of single span = 31.2 m [Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774]
Considering thickness of wearing course = 0.075 m
Clear Carriageway wdith of Road = 11 m [Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774]
Total width of wearing course = 11 m
Unit weight of wearing course = 2.4 T/m3
Weight of wearing course =0.075x11x2.4x15.6= 30.89 T
Considering Live Load for foothpath = 0.5 T/m2
Width of Footpath = 1.5 m
Live load for Foothpath=0.5x1.5x15.6x2= 23.4 T
Total SIDL =30.89+23.4= 54.29 T
Dead Load for Superstructure:
Total weight of steel for 30 span plate girder bridge = 139 T
[Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774/12]
Wt os steel at end support = 69.5 T
Thickness of Deck Slab = 0.25 m
Total width of deck = 15.6 m
Unit wt. of concrete = 2.5 T/m3
Total weight of deck slab=0.25x15.6x15.6x2.5= 152.1 T
Thickness of slab for Footpath portion = 0.1 m
Width of Foothpath = 1.6 m
Total weight of Foothpath portion =0.1x2.5x1.6x2x15.6= 12.48 T
Considering weight of Hand railing etc. = 0.3 T/m
Total weight for hand railing =0.3x2x15.6= 9.36 T
Total height of Crush Barrier = 0.975 m
Average width of crush barrier = 0.375 m
Weight of Crush barrier =0.975x0.375x2.5= 0.914 T/m

Total Weight of Crush barrier =2x0.914x15.6= 28.52 T


Total Dead Load for superstructure = 272.0 T
Dead Load for Substructure:
Ht of Dirt wall = 2.3 m 15.6
Thickness of dirt wall = 0.4 m
Length of dirt wall = 15.6 m Dirt wall 2.2
Weight of dirt wall =2.3x0.4x15.6x2.5= 35.88 T
Length of abutment cap = 15.6 m Abutment cap 0.4
Width of abutment cap = 2.2 m
Depth of abutment cap = 0.4 m
Weight of abutment cap =15.6x2.2x0.4x2.5= 34.32 T Abutment Wall
Height of abutment wall= 3.2 m 3.2
Thick. of abutment wall = 1.2 m
Length of abutment wall= 15.6 m
Wt of abutment wall= 15.6x1.2x3.2x2.5= 149.76 T
Length of Grade Beam = 3.3 m Grade Pile cap Grade
Width of Grade beam = 4.8 m
depth of Grade beam = 2.5 m
Wt of Grade beam=3.3x4.8x2.5x2.5x2 = 198 T 1200 mm Dia Pile
Total weight for abutment, Dirt wall etc. =35.88+34.32+149.76+198= 417.96 T LL Surcharge
Total length of pile cap = 9m Dirt wall
Total width of pile cap = 12.6 m EP on Dirt Wall
Abutment cap
Depth of cap = 2.5 m

Total weight of pile cap =9x12.6x2.5x2.5= 708.75 T


Total Dead Load =708.75+417.96+271.96+54.29= 1452.96 T EP on Abutment
Abutment Wall wall
3
Considering Unit weight of soil = 1.8 T/m
Coeff. of active earth presure = 0.333
LL Surcharge = Equ. Wt. Of 1.2 m earthfill Grade
= 1.8x0.333x1.2= 0.72 T/m2 per m run Beam
2
EP on Dirt Wall=1.8x2.2x0.333= 1.32 T/m /m
EP on Abutment Wall =1.8x3.2x0.333= 1.92 T/m2 /m
Soil Pressure on dirt wall:
Eff. Ht of dirt wall = 2.6 m
Moment due to LL surcharge =0.72x2.6x2.6/2 = 2.434 T-m/m
Moment due to EP =1.32x2.6x2.6/6= 1.487 T-m/m
Total moment at base of dirt wall =2.434+1.487= 3.921 T-m/m
Horizontal force at base =0.72x2.6+1.32x2.6/2 = 3.588 T/m acting at 3.2 m from top pile cap
Soil Pressure on Abutment wall:
For Triangular Loading:
Horizontal force at base of wall =1.92x3.2/2 = 3.072 T/m
Moment at base of wall=1.92x3.2x3.2/6 = 9.83 T-m/m
For Rectangular Loading:
Horizontal force at base of wall =2.04x3.2 = 6.528 T/m
Moment at base of wall=6.528x3.2/2 = 10.4448 T-m/m
Total horizontal force at base of wall =3.072x15.6= 149.76 T
Total moment at base of wall=9.83x15.6+3.921x15.6+3.588x15.6x3.2+10.4448x15.6= 556.567 T-m
Depth of filling over pile cap = 5.8 m
Total wt of soil =5.8x1.8x9x5.7= 535.572 T
Total vertical load for Dead Load , live Load &EP =1452.96+231.232+535.572= 2236.18 T
Dia of pile = 1200 mm
Considering Safe Vertical Load capacity of each Pile = 250 T
[Ref: Geotechnical Investigation report for Peoposed Construction of ROB at Marigaon, BH3,5]

Provide 12 nos of pile for end pile cap Direction of Traffic

1 2 3 Pile X Z
Z 1 -5.4 -3.6
3.6 2 -5.4 0
3 -5.4 3.6
4 5 6 4 -1.8 -3.6
1.8 5 -1.8 0
X CG of Cap 1.8 Mz 6 -1.8 3.6
7 1.8 -3.6
7 8 9
8 1.8 0
9 1.8 3.6
3.6 10 5.4 -3.6
11 5.4 0
10 11 12 12 5.4 3.6

3.6 3.6

X = Direction of Traffic
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic

Now total, Mz = 557 T-m Total shear, Fx = 149.76 T


∑ Z 2= 103.68 ∑ X 2= 194.4
Reaction at P-1 to P-3 = 2236.179/12+(556.567x-5.4)/194.4
= 176.041 T < 250 T [ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under DL+LL]
Reaction at P-10 to P-12 = 2236.179/12+(194.4x5.4)/556.567
= 201.808 T < 250 T [ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under DL+LL]

Seismic Load:

Importance factor ,I = 1.2 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.1.1 Table 19]
Zone factor (Zone V) , Z = 0.36 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.2]
Sa/g = 2.5 [ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.1]
Response reduction factor,R= 1 [ For wall type structure, as per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.5 Table 20]

So, Horizontal seismic coefficient,Ah=(0.36/2)x1.2x2.5/1= 0.54


Seismic Load in the direction of Perpendicular to traffic
Live Load Component:
Effective Live Load =0.2x231.232/1.21= 40.933 T [20% of Max LL without IF]
[ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.2]
Considering max height of bearing = 0.35 m 0.35
Load CG for Live Load from top of pedestal =2.855+0.35= 3.205 m
Dirt wall
Load CG for Dead Load from top of pedestal =0.961+0.35= 1.311 m 2.2
[Ref: Drawing No RDSO/B-11774/1]
Horizontal force during Seismic for LL =0.54x40.933 = 22.104 T Abutment cap 0.4
Acting 3.205+0.35+2.2+3.6= 9.355 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to LL =22.104x9.355= 206.780 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for LL =22.104x2/3 = 14.74 T Abutment Wall 3.2

Dead Load Component:

Dead Load from superstructure =30.89+271.96= 302.9 T [Excluding LL in foothpath]


Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =302.85x0.54= 163.54 T Grade Pile cap Grade
Acting 1.311+0.35+2.2+3.6= 7.461 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to DL(Superstructure) =7.461x163.54= 1220.170 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =163.54x2/3 = 109.03 T 1200 mm Dia Pile
Wt of dirt wall = 35.88 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of dirt wall=35.88x0.54= 19.38 T
Acting (2.2/2)+3.6 = 4.7 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of dirt wall =4.7x19.3752= 91.06 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =19.3752x2/3 = 12.92 T
Wt of abutment cap = 34.32 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of abutment cap=34.32x0.54= 18.53 T
Acting (0.4/2)+3.2 = 3.4 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier cap =3.4x18.5328= 63.01 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =18.5328x2/3 = 12.36 T
Wt of abutment wall = 149.76 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier =149.76x0.54= 80.8704 T
Acting 1.600 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier = 129.39 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier =80.8704x2/3 = 53.914 T
Total moment during SL at top of cap=129.39+63.01+1220.17+206.78+91.06= 1710 T-m (Mx)
Total horizontal shear at cap during SL =80.8704+18.5328+163.54+22.104+19.3752= 304.42 T
Vertical force during SL =53.914+12.355+109.03+14.736= 190.04 T
Crirical load Combination: DL+Reduced LL+SL
Vertical Load for DL = 1429.6 T
Vertical Load for LL = 40.933 T
Vertical Load for SL = 190.04 T
Total wt of filled soil = 535.572 T
Moment at top cap for EP= 556.57 T-m (Mz)
Mx

1 2 3
3.6
Mx

4 5 6 1.8

Z CG of Cap 1.8 Mz
7 8 9
Direction of Traffic
3.6
X
10 11 12 1.8

3.6 3.6
Pile X Z
X = Direction of Traffic 1 -5.4 -3.6
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic 2 -5.4 0
Now total, Mz = 556.57 T-m Total shear, Fx = 149.76 T 3 -5.4 3.6
Now total, Mx = 1710 T-m Total shear, Fz = 304.42 T 4 -1.8 -3.6
∑ Z 2= 103.68 ∑ X 2= 194.4 5 -1.8 0
Min. Compression during Seismic: 6 -1.8 3.6
Net Vertical force = 1429.56+40.933+535.572-190.035= 1816.030 T 7 1.8 -3.6
8 1.8 0
Reaction at P-1 and P-7 = 1816.03/12+(1710.41x-3.6)/103.68+(556.567x-5.4)/194.4 9 1.8 3.6
= 76.486 T < 312.5 T 10 5.4 -3.6
[ safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL] 11 5.4 0
Max. Compression during Seismic: 12 5.4 3.6
Net Vertical force = 190.035+40.933+1429.56+535.572= 2196.100 T

Reaction at P-3 and P-69 = 2196.1/12+(1710.41x3.6)/103.68+(556.567x5.4)/194.4


= 257.858 T < 312.5 T
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
SL in the direction of traffic
Live Load Component:
Effective Live Load = 0.000 T
[ As per IRC 6:2017 Cl No. 219.5.2]
Horizontal force during Seismic for LL = 0.00 T
Dead Load Component:
Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure), DL for Pier, Pier cap etc will same as in SL in perpendiculat direction traffic.
Dead Load from superstructure =30.89+271.96= 302.85 T [Excluding LL in foothpath]
Horizontal force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =302.85x0.54= 163.54 T
Acting 1.311+0.35+2.2+3.6= 7.461 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to DL(Superstructure) =7.461x302.85= 1220.170 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for DL(Superstructure) =302.85x2/3 = 109.03 T
Wt of dirt wall = 35.88 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of dirt wall=35.88x0.54= 19.38 T
Acting (2.2/2)+3.6 = 4.7 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of dirt wall =4.7x19.3752= 91.06 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =19.3752x2/3 = 12.92 T
Wt of abutment cap = 34.32 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of abutment cap=34.32x0.54= 18.53 T
Acting (0.4/2)+3.2 = 3.4 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier cap =3.4x18.5328= 63.01 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier cap =18.5328x2/3 = 12.36 T
Wt of abutment wall = 149.76 T
Horizontal force during Seismic for wt of pier =149.76x0.54= 80.8704 T
Acting 1.600 m from top pile cap
Moment at top of cap due to wt of pier = 129.39 T-m
Vertical force during Seismic for wt of pier =80.8704x2/3 = 53.914 T
Total moment during SL at top of cap=129.39+63.01+1220.17+91.06= 1503.63 T-m (Mz)
Total horizontal shear at cap during SL =80.8704+18.5328+163.54+19.3752= 282.32 T
Vertical force during SL =53.914+12.355+109.03+12.917= 188.22 T
Crirical load Combination: DL+Reduced LL+SL
Vertical Load for DL = 1429.6 T
Vertical Load for LL = 0.000 T
Vertical Load for SL = 188.22 T
Total wt of filled soil = 535.572 T
Moment at top cap for EP= 556.57 T-m (Mz)

1 2 3
3.6

4 5 6
1.8
CG of Cap 1.8 Direction of Traffic
Z
7 8 9 Mz
3.6

X
10 11 12
Pile X Z
1 -5.4 -3.6
3.6 3.6 2 -5.4 0
3 -5.4 3.6
X = Direction of Traffic 4 -1.8 -3.6
Z = Perpendicular to Direction of Traffic 5 -1.8 0
6 -1.8 3.6
Total, Mz =556.567+1503.63= 2060 T-m Total shear, Fz = 432.08 T 7 1.8 -3.6
∑ Z 2= 103.68 ∑ X 2= 194.4 8 1.8 0
Min. Compression during Seismic: 9 1.8 3.6
Net Vertical force = 1429.56+0+535.572-188.216= 1776.916 T 10 5.4 -3.6
Reaction at P-1 to P-3 = 1776.916/12+(2060.197x-5.4)/194.4 11 5.4 0
= 90.849 T < 312.5 T 12 5.4 3.6
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]
Max. Compression during Seismic:
Total Vertical force = 1429.56+188.216+535.572= 2153.348 T
Reaction at P-10 to P-12 = 2153.348/12+(2060.197x5.4)/194.4
= 236.673 T < 312.5 T
[ Safe vertical load capacity of Pile under SL]

Design of Pile at BH 03 & 05

fck = 35 Mpa ftk = 500 Mpa


Clear Cover = 50 mm
Dia of Pile = 1200 mm
Safe Load capacity of pile = 250 T

Critical Load Combination: DL+SL P.S.F. = 1.5 (For DL&SL)


Case 1: Max Compression:
Max Axial load, NED = 257.858 T
Level E.G.L. is considered as 0M
Cut-off level of this pile = (-)2.5.0M Lev. i.e. 2.5m. below E.G.L.

Calculation of depth of fixity of of Pile: As Per ANNEX-C IS:2911-2010 Part-I/Sec-2


For Normally Loaded Clay , (As per CL-C.2.3)
Stiffness Factor ,T=5 (EI/K)
Ec = 5000 x √fck = 5000 x √35 = 29580.39892 N/mm² ≈ 29580.4 MN/m²
Ip =Moment of inertia of 1200 Φ pile cross-section
4 4
Ip= π / 64 x (50) = 0.10179 m
B = Width of pile shaft = 1200 mm
where K= Horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction determined from Table-4 of IS 2911
2 2
From the soil report, at strata I of soil, C = 2.19 T/m = 21.9 kN/m
2
Now qu = 2xC= 43.80 kg/cm
3
So , k1 = 7.88 x 10^(1/3) kN/m

T = 3.2842528 m
Now the embedded length of pile, Le = 32.7 m
[Ref: Soil Report prepared by North East Engineers dated August 2018]
Le> 4R Hence the pile will act as long pile and fig. 2 of above referred code is valid for above pile.
Length of pile above G.L., L1= 0m
\ L1/T = 0
From fig. 2 (Determination of depth of fixity) of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010
Lf/T = 2.2 i.e Lf = 7.225 m Taking Lf = 7.3 m

Provide, 20 no. Of 25 mm bar upto termination level as longitudinal steel


and 20 no. Of 32 mm bar upto 8.9 m

Horizontal Load Carrying Capacity of Pile: Clause- C-4.2


Horizontal deflection is assumed to be (y) = 5 mm
e = cantilever length aobove ground/bed to the point of load application, in m = 0 mm
For Fixed hesd pile, y = H(e+zf)3/(12EI) =
H= (y*12EI)/(103 *(e+zf)3) = 47.901 T
Max Horizontal Force = 432.08 T (Taken by 12 nos of pile)
Max Horizontal Force in each pile = 36.01 T < 47.901 T
Shear Check of Pile:
Again, Permissible shear strength of members under axial compression
= δ.t c
where, δ = 1 + 3P/(Ag.fck) or if >1.5,=1.5 ;
For piles,As = longitudinal tensile reinforcement at pile top = 129.512 cm²
Effective dia. of pile shaft, d = (1200/10)-((100+(32/2))/10 = 108.4 cm
\ þt = (100 x As)/(π/4 x d²) = 100x129.512/3.14x0.25x108.4^2= 1.403 %
\ tc = 0.74 N/mm²
2
Now, Pu = 386.787 T = 386787 N Ag = π/4 x (1200)² = 1130973 mm
\δ= 1+((3x386787)/(1130973.355x35))= 1.029
2
Take actual= 1.029 N/mm
2
\ Permissible shear stress of pile (concrete section only) = 0.76146 N/mm
\ Shear capacity of pile (considering concrete section only i.e. ignoring shear capacity of links)
=0.76146x3.14x0.25x108.4^2x100 = 702.74 kN

Unfactored shear capacity of pile = 468.4933333 kN > 360.1 kN


Moment Check of Pile:
The horizontal shear at top of pile will cause horizontal deflection resulting a moment on pile at fixity level.
Since, the piles are considered as fixed head (for max. lateral deflection).
Actual moment on pile, M = m. MF where m = reduction factor
[Ref. Fig. – 3B Appendix – C, of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010]
& MF = Fixed end moment of the equivalent cantilever length of pile Mf = H(e+zf)/2
For above pile, L1/R = 0, m= 1 (As top portion of pile designed as Structural Column)
\ Actual moment on pile = 1*36.01*(0+7.3)/2= 131.437 T-m = 1314.37 KN-m
Load on pile, Pu = 3867.87 KN ;
\Pu/fckD²= ( (3867.87x1000)/(35x(1200^2))= 0.0767
Now, D=1200& d' =50+(32/2)= 66 mm. \ d’/D = 0.055 Take d'/D = 0.05
2
\ As = 25902.4 mm
þ =(25902.4x100)/(3.14x0.25x1200^2)= 2.29 %
\ þ/fck = 0.0654
From chart 59 of SP-16, Muperm./fckD³ = 0.08
i.e. Muperm (0.08x35x(1200^3))/(10^7)= 483.84 T-m
\ Mworking permissible = 483.84/1.5= 322.56 T-m > Actual moment on pile Hence safe
Hence the pile section and reinforcements provided is safe & o.k.

Calculation of Confinement Steel: [Ref: IRC 112]


2
Gross area of concrete, Ac = 1130400 mm
2
Confined core area, Acc = 949850 mm
ηk = 0.0652 < 0.08
Confinement is not required
Dia of bar = 16 mm
Dia of hoop , Dsp = 1100 mm
2
Area of hoop bar, Asp= 200.96 mm
Spacing of bar, SL = 100 mm
Volumetric ratio, ρw = 0.00730764
2 2
Now, f cd = 15.633 N/mm f yd = 434.78 N/mm
ωwd = 0.2032
Now, Long reinforcement ratio = 0.0229
ωw,req = 0.075337978
ωw,min = 0.18
ωwd,c = 0.18
For ωwd = 0.18 ρw = 0.0064722
2
Required Asp = 177.99 mm
Hence OK
Provide 16 dia tor as hoop bar @ 100 mm c/c upto 3.6 m depth as confinement steel

Case 1: Min Compression:


Min. Axial load, NED = 90.849 T
Level E.G.L. is considered as 0M
Cut-off level of this pile = (-)2.5.0M Lev. i.e. 2.5m. below E.G.L.

Calculation of depth of fixity of of Pile: As Per ANNEX-C IS:2911-2010 Part-I/Sec-2


For Normally Loaded Clay , (As per CL-C.2.3)
Stiffness Factor ,T=5 (EI/K)
Ec = 5000 x √fck = 5000 x √35 = 29580.39892 N/mm² ≈ 29580.4 MN/m²
Ip =Moment of inertia of 1200 Φ pile cross-section
4 4
Ip= π / 64 x (50) = 0.10179 m
B = Width of pile shaft = 1200 mm
where K= Horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction determined from Table-4 of IS 2911
2 2
From the soil report, at strata I of soil, C = 2.19 T/m = 21.9 kN/m
2
Now qu = 2xC= 43.80 kg/cm
3
So , k1 = 7.88 x 10^(1/3) kN/m

T = 3.2842528 m
Now the embedded length of pile, Le = 32.7 m
[Ref: Soil Report prepared by North East Engineers dated August 2018]
Le> 4R Hence the pile will act as long pile and fig. 2 of above referred code is valid for above pile.
Length of pile above G.L., L1= 0m
\ L1/T = 0
From fig. 2 (Determination of depth of fixity) of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010
Lf/T = 2.2 i.e Lf = 7.225 m Taking Lf = 7.3 m

Provide, 20 no. Of 25 mm bar upto termination level as longitudinal steel


and 20 no. Of 32 mm bar upto 8.9 m

Horizontal Load Carrying Capacity of Pile: Clause- C-4.2


Horizontal deflection is assumed to be (y) = 5 mm
e = cantilever length aobove ground/bed to the point of load application, in m = 0 mm
For Fixed hesd pile, y = H(e+zf)3/(12EI) =
H= (y*12EI)/(103 *(e+zf)3) = 47.901 T
Max Horizontal Force = 432.08 T (Taken by 12 nos of pile)
Max Horizontal Force in each pile = 36.01 T < 47.901 T
Shear Check of Pile:
Again, Permissible shear strength of members under axial compression
= δ.t c
where, δ = 1 + 3P/(Ag.fck) or if >1.5,=1.5 ;
For piles,As = longitudinal tensile reinforcement at pile top = 129.512 cm²
Effective dia. of pile shaft, d = (1200/10)-((100+(32/2))/10 = 108.4 cm
\ þt = (100 x As)/(π/4 x d²) = 100x129.512/3.14x0.25x108.4^2= 1.403 %
\ tc = 0.74 N/mm²
2
Now, Pu = 136.2735 T = 136273.5 N Ag = π/4 x (1200)² = 1130973 mm
\δ= 1+((3x136273.5)/(1130973.355x35))= 1.01
2
Take actual= 1.01 N/mm
2
\ Permissible shear stress of pile (concrete section only) = 0.7474 N/mm

\ Shear capacity of pile (considering concrete section only i.e. ignoring shear capacity of links)
=0.7474x3.14x0.25x108.4^2x100 = 689.77 kN

Unfactored shear capacity of pile = 459.8466667 kN > 360.1 kN


Moment Check of Pile:
The horizontal shear at top of pile will cause horizontal deflection resulting a moment on pile at fixity level.
Since, the piles are considered as fixed head (for max. lateral deflection).
Actual moment on pile, M = m. MF where m = reduction factor
[Ref. Fig. – 3B Appendix – C, of IS:2911 (Part I/Sec. 2) – 2010]
& MF = Fixed end moment of the equivalent cantilever length of pile Mf = H(e+zf)/2
For above pile, L1/R = 0, m= 1 (As top portion of pile designed as Structural Column)
\ Actual moment on pile = 1*36.01*(0+7.3)/2= 131.437 T-m = 1314.37 KN-m
Load on pile, Pu = 1362.74 KN ;
\Pu/fckD²= ( (1362.735x1000)/(x(mm2^2))= 0.027
Now, D=1200& d' =50+(32/2)= 16.006472 mm. \ d’/D = 0.013339 Take d'/D = 0.05
2
\ As = 25902.4 mm
þ =(25902.4x100)/(3.14x0.25xmm2^2)= 2.29 %
\ þ/fck = 0.0654
From chart 59 of SP-16, Muperm./fckD³ = 0.07
i.e. Muperm (0.07x35x(1200^3))/(10^7)= 423.36 T-m
\ Mworking permissible = 423.36/1.5= 282.24 T-m > Actual moment on pile Hence safe
Hence the pile section and reinforcements provided is safe & o.k.