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Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness methods

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In H.F. Range

Mihai Badic Mihai-Jo Marinescu

HV/EMC Laboratory, Research Institute for Electrical HV/EMC Laboratory, Research Institute for Electrical

Engineering - ICPE Engineering - ICPE

Bucharest, ROMANIA Bucharest, ROMANIA

mbadic@icpe.ro mjm@icpe.ro

Abstract The two measurements are similar in the case of the two

The paper deals with one of the most used and reliable standards mentioned above (being identical for surface

ways to characterize the shielding capability of materi- conducting materials), as follows:

als, based on the Schelkunoff isomorphism. This method - for ASTM ES7-83: U1 is the voltage measured at the out-

uses the physical-mathematical equivalence of equa- put of the cell without material sample and U2 is the volt-

tions describing SEdB in the case of infinite plane shield, age measured at the output of the cell with material sam-

respectively in the case of material sample introduced in ple.

the measuring coaxial TEM cell (IAdB), and it resulted

into the ASTM standards ES7-83 and D4935-89. The - for ASTM D4935-89: Tref is the transmission coeffi-

paper shows that these standards (and Schelkunoff iso- cient when the reference sample is mounted inside the

morphism) are not valid for electrically thick samples; TEM cell Tload is the transmission coefficient measured

there is no identity between shielding effectiveness and with the load sample.

insertion attenuation/insertion loss in H.F. range. These measurements allow determining IAdB≅SEdB and the

comparison of the data with the theoretical curves plotted

Keywords according to:

Shielding effectiveness, TEM cells, measuring standards.

(Z 0 +Z m )2

INTRODUCTION SE dB= 20 log10 + 20 log10 eád +

4Z0 Z m

The goal of SEdB measurements - using coaxial TEM cells

2

or other methods - is the evaluation of shielding capability Z -

of materials (homogeneous, composite, multilayer) in the + 20 log10 1- m Z 0 e- 2 ãd = R dB + AdB + B dB (2)

ideal case of infinite plane shield placed in free space il- Z m+ Z 0

luminated by a plane electromagnetic wave. The theory of where RdB=reflection loss, AdB=absorption loss, BdB=re-

Schelkunoff and the isomorphism between this case and reflection correction, Z0=free space wave impedance,

the one of the coaxial line was accurately demonstrated Zm=wave impedance of material, γ=α+jβ=propagation

[1], [2] for the configuration mentioned in ASTM ES7-83. constant and d=shield thickness [5].

In certain situations, as shown in [3], [4], ASTM D4935-89

may be reduced to the one mentioned before. Results that In order to obtain accurate results (errors less

if isomorphism withstands to a theoretical analysis taking then 2%) some technical conditions must be fulfilled:

into account all phenomena, the experimental method is • 50 Ω impedance matching for all devices (source,

validated, at least theoretically, for both standards. TEM cell, receiver, cables, a/o.);

The paper demonstrates theoretical and experimental that • measurement preformed below the limit frequency of

this is not possible: Schelkunoff isomorphism is affected TEM cell (usually 1-1.5GHz);

by a basic error that limits its applicability just in the area

of maximum interest: electrically thick samples, meaning • good contact between the sample and the cell.

the H.F. range. The last condition, the most difficult to fulfil, was avoided

by applying ASTM D4935-89 standard (flanged version

ANALYTIC BACKGROUND developed by NBS). This holder uses flanges, rather then

As it is known, by performing two successive measure- continuous conductors, thus avoiding the influence of

ments, one is able to determine: contact resistance. Moreover, this standard allows the

U 1 T ref measurement of surface insulated materials and multi-

IAdB = ≡ ≅ SE dB (1) layer shields.

U 2 T load If the plot of equation (2) in Fig.1 is considered, it may be

easily observed that there are two distinct areas: area A -

the flat part of the curve corresponding to electrically thin where E1, E2 represent electric field in the absence of the

samples (d<<δ), respectively area B - the fast rising part infinite plane shield in free space respectively in its pres-

of the curve corresponding to electrically thick samples ence, and H1 and H2 the same for magnetic field. Subscript

(d>>δ). c refers to application of Z and γ equations to the trans-

mission line with dielectric, respectively with washer

SEdB ≡ IAdB [dB] shaped sample on a length equal to the shield thickness d.

AREA B Zm

γm

E1 E2

AREA A H1 H2

a)

Z0 , γ

d << δ d >> δ U1 U2

b

IN OUT

a

Frequency

Figure 1. Area A-verification of test equipment; Z 0c , γ d Zmc

Area B-verification of Schelkunoff isomorphism. γc b)

Measurements in Area A check the technical conditions Figure 2. Measuring method of ASTM ES7-83 based on

already mentioned. For most of the materials the curves Schelkunoff isomorphism: a) infinite plane shield in free

are flat in this area, being described by the approximate space; b) TEM cell with and without sample.

equation (characteristic to electrically thin samples,

d<<δ):

Z 0σd

SE dB ≅ 20 log 10 ; SE dB = F (σ , d ) (3) It is easy to demonstrate that γ ≡ γc, and the shape factor

2 (1/2π)ln(b/a) is reduced in expression (2) so that SEdB ≡

Conductivity σ may be easily measured using classical IAdB.

methods, (3) becoming calibration method for any TEM In [5], [6] is shown that for electrically thin samples (d<<δ

measuring coaxial cell [10]. On another hand, measure- ⇔ low frequency) with µr≅1 equation (2) becomes:

ments in Area B give information on behavior of mate-

A) THIN SAMPLE - P ROPAGATION INSIDE CELL (l ≅ λ0)

rials exposed to high frequency. This is the most im-

IAdB = 20 log e d δ ⋅ 0 ⋅ (1 − e −2γ d ) ≅

portant area for experiments (usually the curve has a rap- Z

idly increasing shape). The main problem is that there

are no published results showing a good match be- 4Zm

tween theory and measurements, in this area, using the d Z

≅ 20 log 1 + ⋅ 0 ⋅ 2γ d ≅

δ 4 Z m

methods promoted by the already mentioned standards.

This indicates a basic error regarding the validity of

Z γd Zσd Z

Schelkunoff isomorphism, the subject of this paper. ≅ 20 log 0 = 20 log 0 = 20 log 0 (5)

For ASTM ES7-83 equations (1) and (2) are valid, as well 2Zm 2 2 Rsq

as configuration in Fig.2. B) THIN SAMPLE - NO PROPAGATION INSIDE CELL (l << λ0)

For this configuration, the following relations express

Z σd Z0

= 20 log1 +

isomorphism:

IAdB ≅ 20 log1 + 0 (6)

U1 ⇔ E1 ⇔ H1 2 2 R

sq

U2 ⇔ E2 ⇔ H2 where l represents the total length of the measuring line

Z0 ⇔ Z0c (including cell), σ is material conductivity and Rsq is

Zm ⇔ Zmc (4) square resistance [7], meaning the resistance on a material

square having thickness d.

γ ⇔ γc

It may be observed that if we write the above equations as

SEdB ≡ IAdB function of characteristic impedance of line/cell, results

Z0 ≅ 377Ω; Z0c = 50Ω for the two cases:

Z 0c According to this equivalent network (Fig.4), results:

IAdB ≅ 20 log (7)

2Z L A

IAdB = 20 log 1 + (9)

respectively 2 B

Z Z C (Z C + Z K ) + Z C (R + ZC )

IAdB ≅ 20 log 1 + 0c (8) A = Z 0c + 2 R (10)

2Z L (ZC + Z K + R)2 − Z K2

where ZL is purely resistive impedance of the washer/disk R2 ZK

B = ZL + 2 (11)

shaped sample introduced in the measuring cell. R 2 + 2RZ K

For ASTM D 4935-89 is valid expression (1), but work-

ing equations are calculated with expressions characteris- Z 0c = 50Ω

tic to lumped constants circuits. The structure of measur- The above equations result from [3] for the case when

ing cell is shown in Fig.3, and the equivalent circuit is pre- contact resistance and capacitance in the equivalent net-

sented in Fig.4. work are equal towards transversal and longitudinal sym-

metry axis. If ZC are considered negligible, then A=Z0c. If

Annular shaped piece

also contact resistance are null (R=0), then equation (9)

becomes (6) because the shape factor in both expressions

(Z0c and ZL) is reduced in (8). So, it may be said, based on

the demonstrations accompanying the two ASTM, that in

the ideal (technically) case they offer the same solution. It

Disk

must be highlighted that this is valid for the case of elec-

a) trically thin samples (d<<δ) and cells without propagation

(l<<λ0). This observation is obvious because the working

equations are deduced based on a lumped constants circuit

Load

(Fig.4). ASTM D 4935-89 is not modeling the behavior

of electrically thick samples and there is no theoreti-

IN OUT

cal basis for region B of SEdB =F(ω ω ) in Fig.1.

On another hand, ASTM ES7-83 is modeling apparently

accurate the behavior of infinite plane shield in free space,

both in areas A and B, even if it involves difficulties in

d b) eliminating the influence of contact resistance. It may be

Figure 3.Measuring method in case of ASTM D4935-89: assumed that for certain materials with good surface con-

a) reference sample measurement;

ductivity (which may be checked by means of comple-

mentary methods) an identical characteristic or close to

b) load sample measurement.

the theoretical one (Fig.1) can be obtained. It will be

demonstrated further on that this is impossible both

ZC ZC in theory and practice.

ZK

R R INCONGRUITY OF METHODS

The maximum frequency condition of the TEM

Z0c ZL Z 0c cell, mentioned before, is deduced from the condition of

the lack of overmoding [8], [9]:

- for H11 (TE11) mode:

∼

π

R R λH 11 = (b + a ) ; λ ≥ λH 11 (12)

2

ZC ZK ZC - for E01 (TM01) mode:

λE 01 = (b − a ) ; λ ≥ λE 01 (13)

where b is the inner diameter of outer conductor and a is

Figure 4. Equivalent network for calculation of working the diameter of inner conductor. Conditions (12) and (13)

equations of a flanged coaxial transmission line holder

correspond, for usual dimensions of TEM cells, to the

(ASTM D4935-89).

values λH11≅20cm respectively λE01≅5cm. The most re-

strictive condition (12) leads to the maximum working Actually, the maximum frequency of using the

frequency (1.5GHz) mentioned before. TEM cell for the sample's material is considerably higher

The basic error, giving the incongruity of the two meth- because there is another condition for the appearance of

ods, consists of neglecting the modification of wavelength higher modes (longitudinal fields), this being the propa-

inside the conductor/semiconductor sample because of gation condition inside the material sample having thick-

conductivity σ, as it is shown in Fig.5. As consequence, ness d:

overmoding appears at much lower frequency then 1GHz. 1

f < (15)

π d 2σ µ 0

For this particular case considered, the two conditions are

λ<<λ0 fulfilled simultaneously at frequencies below 5.6MHz (for

d=3mm).

This phenomenon of waves with longitudinal fields that can

exist as higher modes in coaxial lines is presented in Fig.6.

The limit frequency depends on all macroscopic parame-

ters ε , µ , σ , but the most important is conductivity σ.

λ0/2 λ0/2

ε,µ,σ

d

when a far field electromagnetic radiation illuminates a

semiconductor shield with absorption.

(5000Ω -1m-1, close to certain synthetic Graphite types),

results:

Table 1.Wavelength shift inside semiconductor sample

Frequency 1kHz 1MHz 100MHz 1GHz

Free space

λ0

vf sample 1413m/s 54.7km/s 447km/s 1413

Material sample

km/s

critical

frequency ≅ 50kHz

for TEM

mode

a) b)

Data in Table 1 were calculated with the following equa- Figure 6. Higher modes in coaxial line:

tions (valid for conductors):

electric field magnetic field

ω f ; v0 c λ0 a)TE11 mode;b) TM01 mode.

v f = ≅ 3160 ≅ = (14)

β σ v sample v sample λsample

PRECISION AND ACCURACY After Schottky barrier breakdown (using a relatively high

Precision is linked to measuring errors leading to more or voltage), the flat part of characteristic has significantly

less reproducible measurements, while accuracy refers to increased (apparent σ increases). At higher frequency (107

systematic deviations due to basic or technical reasons. ÷ 108 Hz) IAdB is practically identical to the one obtained

In the case of the two standards brought into discussion, by calculation - equation (3) - using for σ the value deter-

both need to be analyzed. mined by the method of 4 points probe.

• ASTM ES7-83 150

IAdB [dB] :

PRECISION: very good for conductors and semicon- teoretical

130

ductors when contact resistance is less important. °°° experimental

PRECISION: very good for any kind of sample (ho-

70

mogeneous, composite, multilayer), no matter of

contact resistance (such a reference measurement al- 50 d=5mm

lows one to cancel the effect of contact resistance f=2,2 MHz

30

between sample and metallic waveguide). f[KHz]

100 1000 10000 100000 1000000

ACCURACY: very good only for area A (d<<δ).

Figure 7. Insertion attenuation for Synthetic Graphite.

Experiments were performed for measuring IAdB=F(ω), on

different samples, having conductivity within the range 50

IAdB [dB] :

10Ω -1m-1 ÷ 106Ω -1m-1 and thickness of µm ÷ 5mm, with teoretical

or without magnetic properties. None of these tests was 40

ο , × experimental

able to provide a shape similar to the one in Fig.1 - the

theoretical behavior of the infinite plane shield placed in

free space. Many other authors obtained this negative re- 30 34,3dB; σ=54

sult [10], [11], [12]. On another hand, it is always obtained

a correct value of IAdB≡SEdB in the region A (flat), demon- 20

strating that errors are not due to contact resistance. f=180 MHz

The accuracy of these results is checked by measuring

conductivity σ by means of complementary methods and 10

of checking 50Ω impedance match for all devices (source, 0 f[kHz]

TEM cell, receiver, cables, a/o.) [12] is deduced that er- 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000

rors don't proceed either from an impedance mis-

Figure 8. IAdB for Si monocrystal p(B); same sample be-

match. Because tests were performed at frequency up to fore (x) and after (o) Schottky metal-semiconductor inter-

1GHz results that all technical conditions were fulfilled. face breakdown (d=5.1mm).

The only remaining cause of errors - analytically demon-

strated - is the appearance of higher modes inside the ma- 15

IAdB [dB] :

terial sample, because of severely reduced wavelength in teoretical

conductive materials. ο , × experimental

The most significant tests are those performed on Syn-

thetic Graphite (Fig.7) and Si p(B) Monocrystal (Fig.8) 10 11,9dB; σ=4,2

respectively Polycrystal (Fig.9). Thus, Synthetic Graphite

has a moderate conductivity (103 ÷ 104 Ω -1m-1), leading to

appearance of region B starting from approximately

10MHz. Even so, experimental results do not match theo-

5

retical predictions, although in region A errors are of only

1% (Fig.7).

Experiments performed on Si p(B) and Si Polycrystal in-

tended to highlight how useful is the method in region A of

f[kHz]

shielding characteristic (relatively low frequency). It may 0

10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000

be observed a Schottky type phenomenon on the IAdB char-

acteristic, due to metal (Ag deposit) - semiconductor (Si). Figure 9. Same test for Si polycrystal (d=4.95mm).

CONCLUSIONS present. Measurements in this area should be avoided and

In order to analyze the practical cases that occur in testing labs should propose new methods for determining

shielding technique we must take into account a reference SEdB in d>>δ region.

model. This is the infinite plane shield in free space (ho-

mogeneous, composite or multilayer materials). For a REFERENCES

homogeneous material, the theoretical problem was solved [1] Schelkunoff, S.A., Electromagnetic Waves, D. Van

by Schelkunoff (1943) based on the wave impedance con- Nostrand Company, Inc., (1943).

cept and reflection and absorption phenomena. It is also [2] Lauri Halme, "Screening Theory of Metallic Enclo-

considered that inside conductors the plane wave con- sures", 1992 IEEE International Symposium on EMC,

serves the TEM mode. Anaheim, California, USA, (1992).

This theory undisputed up to present by anyone, shows that [3] Wilson, P.F., Ma, M.T., A Study of Techniques for

the variation of SEdB versus frequency looks like Fig.1. Measuring The Electromagnetic Shielding Effec-

The fact that the shield is considered, initially, infinite, has tiveness of Materials, NBS Technical Note 1095,

no special importance, because phenomena is conserved (1986).

also for a finite shield if it is illuminated by strait directive [4] ASTM D4935-89, Standard Test Method for Meas-

patterns antennas, for example, with respect to the plane uring the Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of

waves (far field) condition. Planar Materials (1989).

The problem is that no experimental validation was ob- [5] White, D.R.J., Electromagnetic Shielding Materials

tained up to present, except area A, where the most im- and Properties, Don White Consultants, Inc., (1980).

portant phenomenon is reflection. The fact that in area B -

[6] Badic,M., Marinescu, M.-J., "On the Complete Theory

where absorption is decisive - there is no match between

of Coaxial Tem Cells", Proceedings of 2000 IEEE

theory end experiment leads to suspicion over the meas-

International Symposium On Electromagnetic Com-

uring methods promoted by ASTM ES7-83 and ASTM

patibility, Washington, DC, USA, (August 21-25,

D4935-89, both based on the Schelkunoff isomorphism.

2000).

As consequence, this isomorphism must be re-analyzed

from theoretical point of view. It is the goal of this paper, [7] Nagao, H. a/o., "Approximation and Accuracy of

demonstrating both theoretical and experimental that these Shielding Effectiveness Calculated by Sheet Resistiv-

methods are not valid in the H.F. range because of ne- ity", Tokyo Institute of Technology.

glecting a physical phenomenon: appearance of higher [8] Harley, A.F., Microwave Engineering, Academic

modes in the coaxial line, phenomenon that does not Press, (1963).

occur in the case of plane shield placed in free space [9] Neubauer, H., Huber, F.R., "Higher Modes in Coaxial

or in other cases met in practice. No theory may be RF Lines", The Microwave Journal, (June 1969).

considered valid if is not experimentally checked. In order

[10] Haitao,Y., Yming, L., "Calibration and Analysis of Co-

to apply with good results the standards mentioned above

axial Holder for Measuring Shielding Effectiveness of

also in the H.F. range (area B of shielding characteristic),

Materials", 1992 IEEE International Symposium on

should exist at least one sample made up by homogeneous

EMC, Anaheim, California, USA, (1992).

conductive material (for example Cu, Bismuth, etc.)

showing a IAdB=F(ω) characteristic identical/similar to the [11] Sarto, Maria Sabrina, Di Michele, S., Leekerkamp, P.,

theoretical one. Thuis, H., "An Innovative Shielding Concept for EMI

Reduction", IEEE EMC Society Newsletter, Issue No.

In conclusion, the paper demonstrates both theoretical and

190, (Summer 2001).

experimental that the methods proposed by the two ASTM

standards discussed here are useful only in the electrically [12] Schwab, A., Benz, Th., Herold, J., "Messung der

thin samples area (having accuracy up to 1%), and result in Schirmdämpfung leitfähiger Kunststoffe - Eine neue

considerable errors in the thick samples area, for theo- TEM-Meßzelle", Kongreß EMV in Karlsruhe, (13-15

retical and not technical reasons, as considered up to März 1990).

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