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Electrical Design of

Overhead Power
Transmission Lines
Masoud Farzaneh
Shahab Farokhi
William A. Chisholm

Mc
Graw
Hill

New York Chicago San Francisco

Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City


Milan New Delhi San Juan

Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto


Contents

Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xv

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 History of Electric Power Systems 1
1.2 Organization of Modern Electric
Power Systems 2
1.3 Modern Transmission System Alternatives ...
3
1.4 Components of Overhead Transmission Lines 6
1.5 Organization of the Book 8
1.5.1 The Learning Objective Initiative 8
1.5.2 Links to Industrial Resources and
Standards 9
1.5.3 Level of Treatment 9
1.5.4 Chapter 1: Introduction 10
1.5.5 Chapter 2: AC Circuits and Sequence
Circuits of Power Networks 10
1.5.6 Chapter 3: Matrix Methods in
AC Power System Analysis 11
1.5.7 Chapter 4: Overhead Transmission
Line Parameters 11
1.5.8 Chapter 5: Modeling of
Transmission Lines 11

1.5.9 Chapter 6: AC Power-Flow


Analysis
Using Iterative Methods 11
1.5.10 Chapter 7: Symmetrical Faults 12

1.5.11 Chapter 8: Unsymmetrical Faults 12


1.5.12 Chapter 9: Control of Voltage and
Power Flow 12

1.5.13 Chapter 10: Stability in AC Networks .. 12


1.5.14 Chapter 11: HVDC Transmission 12
1.5.15 Chapter 12: AC-Corona Effects 13
1.5.16 Chapter 13 Lightning Performance

of Transmission Lines 13
1.5.17 Chapter 14: Transmission Line
Insulation and Coordination 13
1.5.18 Chapter 15: of
Ampacity
Overhead Line Conductors 14

V
yj Electrical Design of Overhead Power Transmission Lines

Chapter 2 AC Circuits and Sequence Circuits of

Power Networks 15
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Single-Phase Circuits 15
2.2.1 Power in Single-Phase Circuits 15
2.2.2 Complex Power 19
2.3 Three-Phase Circuits 22
2.3.1 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 22
2.3.2 Unbalanced Three-Phase Circuits 27
2.4 Single-Line Diagram and Per-Phase

Equivalent Circuit Presentation 33


2.5 Per-Unit Representation 35
2.5.1 Definition 35
2.5.2 of Per-Unit Presentation 36
Advantages ...

2.6 Symmetrical Sequence Impedance of


Power System Components 39
2.6.1 Symmetrical Load Impedances 39
2.6.2 Generators
Synchronous 44
2.6.3 Power Transformers 46
2.6.4 Transmission Lines 49
2.7 Sequence Networks 50
Problems 52
References 53

Chapter 3 Matrix Methods in AC Power System


Analysis 55
3.1 Introduction 55
3.2 Representation of Generators
and Impedances 55
3.3 Bus Analysis and Bus-Admittance
Matrix, Ybus 56
3.4 Loop Analysis and Bus-Impedance
Matrix, '
Z. 60
bus
3.5 Node Elimination by Kron Reduction 63
3.6 Thevenin's Equivalent Impedance and
Elements of Z. Matrix 64
^>us
3.7 Modifications of Z. 70
^>U5
3.8 Algorithm for Direct Construction of Zbus 73
Problems 79
References 80

Chapter 4 Overhead Transmission Line Parameters 81


4.1 Introduction 81
4.2 Resistance 81
4.2.1 DC Resistance 82
4.2.2 Alternating-Current (AC) Resistance ...
83
4.3 Inductance 84
4.3.1 Two-Wire Solid-Conductor Line 88
Contents vii

4.3.2 Composite Conductor Using


Geometric Mean Radius 90

4.3.3 Three-Phase Lines with Equal


Conductor Spacing 93
4.3.4 Three-Phase Lines with Unequal
Conductor 94
Spacing
4.3.5 Lines with Groups of Conductors 96
4.3.6 Double-Circuit Lines 98
4.3.7 Earth Return 101

4.4 Capacitance 101


4.4.1 Two-Wire Solid-Conductor Line 103
4.4.2 Three-Phase Lines with Equal
Conductor Spacing 104
4.4.3 Three-Phase Lines with Unequal
Conductor Spacing 105

4.4.4 Bundled Conductor Using GMR 106

4.4.5 Transmission Lines with Neutral

Conductor and Earth Return 107

4.4.6 Double-Circuit Lines 115

Problems 116
References 117

119
Chapter 5 Modeling of Transmission Lines
5.1 Introduction 119
5.2 Transmission Line Representation as a

Two-Port Network 119

5.3 Short Transmission Lines 121


5.4 Medium Transmission Lines 126
5.5 Transmission Lines 130
Long
5.5.1 Exponential Form 130
5.5.2 Hyperbolic Form 133
n-Circuit 140
5.5.3 Equivalent
Line 141
5.6 Power Flow through a Transmission ....

5.6.1 Maximum Power Flow 141

5.6.2 Surge-Impedance Loading 143


5.6.3 Ferranti Effect 146

Transmission Line 148


5.6.4 Loadability
Problems 151
References 152

Chapter 6 AC Power-Flow Analysis Using Iterative


Methods 153
6.1 Introduction 153
6.2 Power-Flow Problem 153

6.3 The Gauss-Seidel Method 156

6.4 The Newton-Raphson Method 168


Power Flow 179
6.5 Decoupled Newton-Raphson ....
vijj Electrical Design of Overhead Power Transmission Lines

6.6 Fast Decoupled Newton-Raphson


Power Flow 181
Problems 184
References 185

Chapter 7 Symmetrical Faults 187

7.1 Introduction 187


7.2 Fault in a Series R-L Circuit 188
7.3 Fault in an Unloaded Transmission
Line with a Single Synchronous Machine 193
7.4 Fault in a Loaded Transmission Line
with a Single Synchronous Machine 200

7.5 Fault in a Network 203


7.5.1 Fault Calculation Using Synchronous
Machine Internal Voltage 203

7.5.2 Fault Calculation Using the Thevenin


Equivalent Circuit 206
7.5.3 Fault Calculation
Using the Bus

Impedance Matrix Zbus 208


Problems 217
References 218

Chapter 8 Unsymmetrical Faults 219


8.1 Introduction 219
8.2 Types of Unsymmetrical Faults 219

8.3 Fault Calculation Using Interconnection of


Sequence Networks 221
8.3.1 Single Line-to-Ground (L-G) Fault 224

8.3.2 Line-to-Line (L-L) Fault 230


8.3.3 Double Line-to-Ground (L-L-G)
Fault 233
8.3.4 Open-Conductor Fault 236

Problems 240
References 241

Chapter 9 Control of Voltage and Power Flow 243


9.1 Introduction 243
9.2 Generation and Absorption of Reactive

Power 243
9.2.1 Loads 244
9.2.2 Overhead Transmission Lines 244
9.2.3 Underground Cables 244

9.2.4 Power Transformers 244


9.2.5 Capacitor Banks 244
9.2.6 Shunt Reactors 244

9.2.7 Synchronous Machines 244


9.3 Series Compensation 246
9.4 Shunt Compensation 251
9.4.1 Shunt Capacitors 251
Contents ix

9.4.2 Shunt Reactors 254


9.5
Voltage Control Methods 256
9.5.1 Generator's Excitation
Control System 256
9.5.2 Injection of Reactive Power 257
9.5.3 Tap-Changing and Regulating
Transformers 259
Problems 266
References 267

Chapter 10 Stability in AC Networks 269


10.1 Introduction 269
10.2 Dynamics of
a Synchronous Machine
and Swing Equation 270
10.3 Steady-State Stability 276
10.4 Transient Stability 280
10.4.1 Equal-Area Criterion 282
10.4.2 Numerical Solution of Swing Equation 301
10.5 Stability Improvement Techniques 307
10.5.1 High-Speed Reclosing 307
10.5.2 Single Pole Operation of Circuit
Breakers 307
10.5.3 Increasing Steady-State
Stability Limit 307
10.5.4 Fast Fault Clearing 307
10.5.5 Fast Excitation
Systems 307
10.5.6 FastValving 307
10.5.7 HVDC Links 308
Problems 308
References 309

Chapter 11 HVD C Transmission Systems and


FACTS Devices 311
11.1 Introduction 311
11.2 History of HVDC Applications 311
11.3 Features and Drawbacks 313
11.4 Converters 314
11.4.1 Rectifiers 316
11.4.2 Inverters 327
11.5 HVDC Links 329
11.5.1 Configurations 329
11.5.2 Operation and Control 331
11.5.3 Filters and Capacitor Banks 334
11.5.4 Back-to-Back Converter Stations 334
11.6 FACTS 335
11.6.1 Thyristor-Controlled Controllers 336
11.6.2 Converter-Based Controllers 338
X Electrical Design of Overhead Power Transmission Lines

Problems 340

References 341

Chapter 12 Corona and Electric Field Effects of


Transmission Lines 343
12.1 Introduction 343
12.2 Corona Characteristics 344
12.3 Calculation of Corona Inception on

Single Conductors 345


12.4 Calculation of Surface Gradient on

Bundle Conductors 351


12.5 Power Loss 355
12.6 Electromagnetic Interference 357
12.6.1 Radio Interference 359
12.6.2 Television Interference 360
12.6.3 Interference with Digital
Radio Systems 362
12.7 Audible Noise 362
12.8 Corona Wind and Vibration Effects 364
12.9 Corona Testing 364
12.10 Evolution of EHV and UHV
Transmission Systems 366
Problems 367
References 367

Chapter 13 Lightning Performance of Transmission


Lines 369
13.1 Introduction 369
13.2 Lightning Characteristics 369
13.3 Statistics of Lightning Stroke
Peak Currents 372

13.4 Interception of Flashes by Transmission


Lines 376
13.5 Lightning Protection Concepts 379
13.6 Overhead Ground wire of
Shielding
Transmission Lines 382
13.6.1 Overhead Groundwire Conductors ... 384
13.6.2 Computation of Shielding
Failure Rate 385
13.6.3 Computation of Shielding Failure
Flashover Rate 390
13.6.4 Arrester Mitigation of Shielding
Failure Flashover Rate 391
13.7 Grounding of Supporting Structures 395
13.7.1 Step and Touch Potentials 395
13.7.2 Three-Terminal Earth Resistance

Testing: Fall of Potential Method 397


Contents xi

13.7.3 Three-Terminal Earth Resistance

Testing: Oblique Method 399


13.7.4 Relation between Soil Resistivity
and Resistance 400

13.8 Computation of Back-Flashover Rate 403


13.8.1 Calculation of Coupled Voltage
on Insulated Phases 404

13.8.2 Calculation of Voltage Rise from


Tower Inductance 405
13.8.3 Calculation of Voltage Rise from
406
Tower Footing Impedance
13.8.4 Calculation of Back-Flashover Rate ...
409
Problems 411

References 412

Chapter 14 Coordination of Transmission-Line


Insulation 415

14.1 Introduction 415

14.2 Statistical Distributions for Insulation


Coordination 416
14.2.1 Classification of a Distribution of Data 416

14.2.2 The Normal Distribution for

Flashover of a Single Insulator 419


14.2.3 The Normal Distribution for
Flashover of Any of Several
Insulators in Parallel 422

14.2.4 The Log-Normal Distribution 423


14.2.5 The Weibull Distribution 426

14.2.6 The Gumbel Distribution 428

14.3 Statistical of
Properties
Electrical 429
Strength
14.3.1 The Flashover Process in Air 429

14.3.2 Switching Impulse Flashover

Strength across Air Gaps 431


14.3.3 Power System Voltage Flashover
Strength across Air Gaps 435
14.3.4 Lightning Impulse Flashover
436
Strength across Insulators
14.3.5 The AC Flashover Process across a

Wet, Polluted Insulator Surface 438


14.3.6 The AC Flashover Process across an

Iced, Polluted Insulator Surface 443

14.4 Statistical of Electrical and


Properties
Environmental Stresses 445

14.4.1 445
Switching Surge
14.4.2 Lightning Surge 447
Electrical Design of Overhead Power Transmission Lines

14.4.3 Insulator Surface Contamination 451


14.4.4 Precipitation Conductivity 452
14.4.5 Climate Factors 452
14.5 Insulation Coordination 453
14.5.1 Deterministic Method: Insulator
Leakage Distance in Polluted Areas ...
453

14.5.2 Statistical Method with One Stress


Variable: Switching Surge 456
14.5.3 Deterministic/Statistical Method
for Two Variables: Wind Swing,
Switching Surge 459
14.5.4 Statistical Method for Two

Uncorrelated Variables:
Ground Resistance and Lightning
Peak Current 464
14.5.5 Statistical Method for Three

Uncorrelated Variables: Insulator


Pollution, Ice Conductivity, and Ice
Accretion Thickness 468
Problems 470
References 471

:er 15 Ampacity of Overhead Line Conductors 473

15.1 Introduction 473


15.2 Conductor Materials for Overhead
Transmission Lines 474

15.3 Stranded Conductors for


Transmission Lines 475
15.4 Cross-Sections of ACSR Conductors 477

15.5 DC Resistance of ACSR Conductors 481


15.6 AC Resistance of ACSR Conductors 482
15.7 Mechanical Properties of

ACSR Conductors 485


15.8 Sag-Tension Behavior in a Single Span 492
15.9 Effect of Temperature Sag on and Tension ...
495
15.10 Sag-Tension Behavior in Multiple Spans 498
15.11 The Line Condition Survey
and Line Rating 504
15.12 Calculation of Ampacity 506
15.13 Conductors for Improved Ampacity 512
Problems 513
References 515

List of Symbols and Abbreviations 517


Index 527

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